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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513456/aflatoxins-characteristics-and-impact-on-human-health
#1
Anna Kowalska, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Paweł Kozieł, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Some molds commonly occurring in the natural environment produce mycotoxins in the process of secondary metabolism. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are species of molds, which are responsible for the production of aflatoxins and are crucial in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Aspergillus species present in decaying plants, the soil and their spores are transferred via air currents and insects to crops and food storages. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 are the most common derivatives of aflatoxins...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477419/the-impact-of-endotoxin-on-jejunal-tissue-oxygenation
#2
Werner Pajk, Karl-Heinz Stadlbauer, Axel Kleinsasser, Oskar Kotzinger, Hanno Ulmer, Walter Hasibeder, Hans Knotzer
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of systemic endotoxin on jejunal mucoal microcirculatory parameters in anesthetized pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Jejunal mucosal tissue PO2 was measured employing Clark-type surface oxygen electrodes. Oxygen saturation of jejunal microvascular hemoglobin was determined by tissue reflectance spectrophotometry. Jejunal microcirculatory blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvascular conductance and rhythmical oscillation of the tissue PO2 were calculated...
May 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466019/plant-proteinase-inhibitor-bbci-modulates-lung-inflammatory-responses-and-mechanic-and-remodeling-alterations-induced-by-elastase-in-mice
#3
Rafael Almeida-Reis, Osmar A Theodoro-Junior, Bruno T M Oliveira, Leandro V Oliva, Alessandra C Toledo-Arruda, Camila R Bonturi, Marlon V Brito, Fernanda D T Q S Lopes, Carla M Prado, Ariana C Florencio, Mílton A Martins, Caroline A Owen, Edna A Leick, Maria L V Oliva, Iolanda F L C Tibério
Background. Proteinases play a key role in emphysema. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) is a serine-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. We evaluated BbCI treatment in elastase-induced pulmonary alterations. Methods.  C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group). One group of mice was treated with BbCI (days 1, 15, and 21 after elastase instillation, ELABC group). Controls received saline and BbCI (SALBC group). After 28 days, we evaluated respiratory mechanics, exhaled nitric oxide, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465049/consolidative-radiotherapy-in-metastatic-urothelial-cancer
#4
Sumit Shah, Chiyuan Amy Zhang, Steven Hancock, Alice Fan, Eila Skinner, Sandy Srinivas
BACKGROUND: We report outcomes of a retrospective, single-institution experience with consolidative radiation after chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer (MUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our single-institution database of 2597 patients with urothelial carcinoma treated since 1997, we identified 22 patients with MUC who underwent consolidative radiotherapy after a partial response to chemotherapy with the intent of rendering them disease-free. All patients had undergone primary surgical therapy with either cystectomy or nephroureterectomy...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443527/an-investigation-into-the-effects-of-maternal-supplementation-with-excess-iodine-on-the-mechanisms-and-impacts-of-reduced-igg-absorption-in-the-lamb-postpartum
#5
F M McGovern, T Sweeney, M T Ryan, S Lott, F P Campion, T M Boland
An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs' response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415744/emt-like-circulating-tumor-cells-in-ovarian-cancer-patients-are-enriched-by-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#6
Issam Chebouti, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Paul Buderath, Pauline Wimberger, Siegfried Hauch, Rainer Kimmig, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: Assuming that tumor cell dissemination requires a shift to a mesenchymal phenotype, we analyzed the incidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in ovarian cancer patients and inquired, how their molecular phenotypes respond to platinum-based chemotherapy and influence outcome. RESULTS: Before surgery, overall detection rate for epithelial CTCs was 18%. EMT-like CTCs were more frequently observed (30%) and were mutually exclusive to epithelial CTCs in the majority of patients (82%)...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406732/black-adzuki-bean-vigna-angularis-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-colon-inflammation-in-mice
#7
Jin-Seon Yook, Kyung-Ah Kim, Mina Kim, Youn-Soo Cha
Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis), one of the most important legume crops in East Asia, have been shown to possess potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of black adzuki bean (BAB) on colon inflammation triggered by high-fat diet (HD)-induced obesity in mice. We also isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and assessed inflammation-related parameters. We found that BAB decreased the concentrations of LPS and various circulating proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in mice with HD-induced obesity...
April 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#8
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394803/hpv-negative-gastric-type-adenocarcinoma-in-situ-of-the-cervix-a-spectrum-of-rare-lesions-exhibiting-gastric-and-intestinal-differentiation
#9
Karen L Talia, Colin J R Stewart, Brooke E Howitt, Marisa R Nucci, W Glenn McCluggage
In recent years, a number of benign and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation have been described but premalignant gastric-type lesions have not been well characterized. We report a series of 9 cases of a rare form of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) distinguished by gastric and sometimes intestinal differentiation and lack of association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The lesions occurred in women aged 25 to 73 years (mean age 51 y). All cases were located at (or just proximal to) the cervical transformation zone and there was extension to the lower uterine segment in 3 cases, 2 of which also involved the endometrium...
April 7, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388557/ercc1-expressing-circulating-tumor-cells-as-a-potential-diagnostic-tool-for-monitoring-response-to-platinum-based-chemotherapy-and-for-predicting-post-therapeutic-outcome-of-ovarian-cancer
#10
Issam Chebouti, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann, Paul Buderath, Stephan Weber, Pauline Wimberger, Yvonne Bokeloh, Siegfried Hauch, Rainer Kimmig, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer
BACKGROUND: We recently showed that the presence of ERCC1+CTCs is an independent predictive biomarker for platinum-resistance and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. The goal of our current research was to determine how the auxiliary assessment of ERCC1-transcripts influences overall CTC-detection rate. We extended this investigation from an initially predictive setting to paired pre- and post-therapeutic blood analysis in order to see, whether ERCC1+CTCs dynamics mirror response to chemotherapy...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376177/progesterone-receptor-isoform-ratio-a-breast-cancer-prognostic-and-predictive-factor-for-antiprogestin-responsiveness
#11
Paola A Rojas, María May, Gonzalo R Sequeira, Andrés Elia, Michelle Alvarez, Paula Martínez, Pedro Gonzalez, Stephen Hewitt, Xiaping He, Charles M Perou, Alfredo Molinolo, Luz Gibbons, Martin C Abba, Hugo Gass, Claudia Lanari
Background: Compelling evidence shows that progestins regulate breast cancer growth. Using preclinical models, we demonstrated that antiprogestins are inhibitory when the level of progesterone receptor isoform A (PR-A) is higher than that of isoform B (PR-B) and that they might stimulate growth when PR-B is predominant. The aims of this study were to investigate ex vivo responses to mifepristone (MFP) in breast carcinomas with different PR isoform ratios and to examine their clinical and molecular characteristics...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357579/epithelial-cell-types-and-their-proposed-roles-in-maintaining-the-mucosal-barrier-in-human-chagasic-megacolonic-mucosa
#12
Christian Koch, Alexandre B M da Silveira, Enio C de Oliveira, Karl Quint, Winfried Neuhuber, Axel Brehmer, Samir Jabari
Patients suffering from chagasic megacolon must have an intact mucosal barrier as they survive this chronic disease for decades. A key structure of the mucosal barrier are epithelial cells. Vasoactive-intestinal-peptide (VIP)-positive nerve fibres are involved in influencing, e.g., epithelial cell proliferation, mucus secretion (e.g., mucin 2 and trefoil factor 3 of goblet cells) and inflammation or autoimmunity, all putative and/or known factors altered in chagasic megacolon. We analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively goblet cells, their specific markers, such as mucin 2 (MUC2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and enterocytes, the relation of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres to the epithelia, the distribution of gelsolin, a protein involved in chronic inflammation processes in the epithelia, and the proliferation rate of epithelial cells by combined 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3) staining...
March 29, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343267/tumor-associated-macrophages-and-regulatory-t-cells-infiltration-and-the-clinical-outcome-in-colorectal-cancer
#13
Dariusz Waniczek, Zbigniew Lorenc, Mirosław Śnietura, Mariusz Wesecki, Agnieszka Kopec, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
The aim of the study is the assessment of the intensity of the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) CD68(+)/iNOS(-) and Tregs CD8(+)/FoxP3(+) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients as prognostic factors with respect to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this retrospective study, tissue samples were obtained from 89 patients undergoing resection for CRC (stage IIA, pT3N0M0 and stages IIIB and IIIC, pT3N1-2M0). Recurrence was observed in 45 patients at the time of the follow-up (10 local recurrences, 35 distant metastases)...
March 25, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338193/oncogenic-mir-155-down-regulated-upon-activation-of-antitumor-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-by-the-fusion-of-dendritic-cells-with-breast-carcinoma-cells
#14
J Zhang, Y Li
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs has been proved to play vital roles in many biological processes. In the present study, the expression profile of oncogenic miR-155 in the activated antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated by the fusion of dendritic cells with breast carcinoma cells has been demonstrated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression profile of oncogenic miR-155 was noted in antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which was generated by the fusion of dendritic cells (DC) with breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7)...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336546/barrett-s-metaplasia-develops-from-cellular-reprograming-of-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-due-to-gastroesophageal-reflux
#15
Carlos D Minacapelli, Manisha Bajpai, Xin Geng, Christina L Cheng, Abhishek A Chouthai, Rhonda F Souza, Stuart Jon Spechler, Kiron M Das
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting cellular origin of BM from reprograming or trans-commitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. DESIGN: The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line, NES-B10T, was exposed 5 min/day to Acid and Bile (A+B) mixture for 30 weeks...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306559/immunotherapy-a-new-treatment-paradigm-in-bladder-cancer
#16
Nicole N Davarpanah, Akira Yuno, Jane B Trepel, Andrea B Apolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T-cell checkpoint blockade has become a dynamic immunotherapy for bladder cancer. In 2016, atezolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, became the first new drug approved in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) in over 30 years. In 2017, nivolumab was also approved for the same indication. This overview of checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials focuses on novel immunotherapy combinations, predictive biomarkers including mutational load and neoantigen identification, and an evaluation of the future of bladder cancer immunotherapy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281722/intracranial-region-of-the-vertebral-artery-morphometric-study-in-the-context-of-clinical-usefulness
#17
Jarosław Dzierżanowski, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Bartosz Baścik, Piotr Czapiewski, Adam Muc, Maciej Piskunowicz, Mateusz Krakowiak, Tomasz Szmuda, Paweł Słoniewski, Edyta Szurowska, Paweł J Winklewski
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the morphometry of the intracranial segment of the vertebral artery in the context of clinical usefulness. The results were compared with published data available in full-text archived medical journals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: More than 100 DSA (digital subtraction angiography) and 3D angio-CT (computed tomography) examinations were used to measure the following parameters: the whole and partial length of V4 in characteristic anatomical points, the diameter in three places (on the level of foramen magnum, in point of exit to the PICA, and in the vertebro-basilar junction), the angle of connection to the VAs, and all anatomical variations including fenestration, duplication, dolichoectasia or absent artery...
March 10, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216876/wheatgrass-extract-ameliorates-hypoxia-induced-mucin-gene-expression-in-a549-cells
#18
Ju Hwan Sim, Moon-Hee Choi, Hyun-Jae Shin, Ji-Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: Wheatgrass is known to have antioxidant, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its protective effect against hypoxia is not yet evaluated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the protective and anti-inflammatory effect of wheatgrass against the hypoxia in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in a hypoxic condition (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 hr in the presence of different concentration of wheatgrass 50, 75, 100, and 150 μg/mL, and the magnitude of each immunologic response produced by the A549 cells was compared...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198987/the-content-of-mucin-muc-2-3-and-4-antigens-in-the-bronchial-mucosa-membrane-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-during-acute-exacerbation-initial-report
#19
Svetlana Kovalenko, Andrey Dorofieiev
INTRODUCTION: Changes in mucin production and dyscrinia are common features of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Immunohistochemical assessment of MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 expression in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of mucous glands and stroma fusiform cells of the bronchial mucosa of COPD patients during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 patients with stage III COPD were enrolled to the study...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188751/immunohistochemical-study-of-mucins-in-human-intestinal-spirochetosis
#20
Sho Ogata, Ken Shimizu, Susumu Tominaga, Kuniaki Nakanishi
Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?" Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)...
April 2017: Human Pathology
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