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Antibiotic catheter locks

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429519/the-incidence-and-costs-of-bacteremia-due-to-lack-of-gentamicin-lock-solutions-for-dialysis-catheters
#1
Tze Liang Goh, Jason Wei, David Semple, John Collins
The use of antibiotic lock solutions as prophylaxis for catheter-associated blood stream infection (CRBSI) has been shown to be effective in previous randomized controlled trials. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach had not been studied. In 2012, the routine gentamicin-heparin lock solution used in Auckland City Hospital was withdrawn from the market, leading to a change to heparin-only lock. This was then replaced with gentamicin-citrate lock in 2014. This situation allowed review of the CRBSI rate and financial impact of different catheter lock solutions...
June 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-non-antibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-the-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#2
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Numan Yazan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
Background: For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel non-antibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI.Patients and Methods: Between November 2015, and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407421/central-venous-catheters-and-biofilms-where-do-we-stand-in-2017
#3
REVIEW
Marie Gominet, Fabrice Compain, Christophe Beloin, David Lebeaux
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) is associated with a risk of microbial colonization and subsequent potentially severe infection. Microbial contamination of the catheter leads to the development of a microbial consortia associated with the CVC surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix, named biofilm. This biofilm provides bacterial cells the ability to survive antimicrobial agents and the host immune system and to disseminate to other sites of the body. The best preventive strategy is to avoid any unnecessary catheterization or to reduce indwelling duration when a CVC is required...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376269/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-childhood-malignancies-single-center-experience
#4
Marianna Miliaraki, Nikolaos Katzilakis, Ioanna Chranioti, Maria Stratigaki, Maria Koutsaki, Maria Psarrou, Emmanouil Athanasopoulos, Eftichia Stiakaki
BACKGROUND: A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a common complication in children with malignancies, often leading to prolonged hospitalization, delay in chemotherapy or catheter removals. This retrospective epidemiological study reviewed 91 children with malignancies over a 5-year period between 2011 and 2015 and analyzed potential risk factors for developing a CLABSI. METHODS: Children's symptoms, laboratory and microbiology characteristics, subsequent treatment and outcome were recorded and analyzed...
April 4, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367877/minocycline-inhibits-the-candida-albicans-budded-to-hyphal-form-transition-and-biofilm-formation
#5
Sanae Kurakado, Kazuhiko Takatori, Takashi Sugita
Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; the budded-to-hyphal-form transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. In a survey of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline downregulates expression of the hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and the adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreases cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323667/central-venous-access-in-children-indications-devices-and-risks
#6
Guillermo Ares, Catherine J Hunter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central venous catheters (CVCs) have a prominent role in the diagnostic and therapy of neonates and children. Herein, we describe the multiple indications for CVC use and the different devices available for central venous access. Given the prevalent use of CVCs, healthcare systems are focused on reducing complications from their use, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The most up-to-date information available sheds light on best practices and future areas of investigation...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297055/any-use-for-alternative-lock-solutions-in-the-prevention-of-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections
#7
Laura Labriola, Jean-Michel Pochet
The prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains a challenge because of high morbidity and mortality associated to CRBSI. Alternative locking solutions (ALS) containing an antithrombotic substance with additional antimicrobial or antibiofilm properties (citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA], 70% ethanol, thrombolytics) with or without the addition of molecules with specific antimicrobial activity (antibiotics, taurolidine, paraben-methylene-blue) has been proposed with the aim to prevent or eradicate intraluminal biofilm colonization and subsequent CRBSI...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292637/patterns-and-predictors-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-occlusion-the-3p-o-study
#8
Shawna N Smith, Nancy Moureau, Valerie M Vaughn, Tanya Boldenow, Scott Kaatz, Paul J Grant, Steven J Bernstein, Scott A Flanders, Vineet Chopra
PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns and predictors of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a multihospital study were used to examine factors associated with PICC occlusion. Occlusion was defined if documented in the medical record or when tissue plasminogen activator was administered for occlusion-related concerns. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to predict occlusion, controlling for patient-, provider-, device-, and hospital-level characteristics...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120698/short-course-daptomycin-lock-and-systemic-therapy-for-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-cancer-patients-with-surgically-implanted-devices
#9
Matteo Vassallo, Pierre-Luc Genillier, Brigitte Dunais, Regis Kaphan, Laurence Saudes, Yannick Duval, Fabien Rolland, Valerie Jullien, Nicolas Weiss, Elea Blanchouin, Annick Boscagli, Christophe Perrin, Nathalie Montagne
PURPOSE: Few in vivo studies have been reported describing efficacy and duration of antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) with daptomycin (DPT) for long-term catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). We retrospectively analysed the efficacy of short-course ALT with DPT in combination with systemic treatment (ST) for CoNS-associated CRBSI in our hospital. METHODS: Patients admitted for CoNS-associated CRBSI and treated with DPT as ALT and ST were retrospectively analysed...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872830/bacteremia-in-hemodialysis-patients
#10
REVIEW
Masashi Suzuki, Nobuhiko Satoh, Motonobu Nakamura, Shoko Horita, George Seki, Kyoji Moriya
Infection is a common complication and is the second leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. The risk of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients is 26-fold higher than in the general population, and 1/2-3/4 of the causative organisms of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients are Gram-positive bacteria. The ratio of resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population is unclear. Several reports have indicated that hemodialysis patients have a higher risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788992/catheter-related-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-novel-preventive-and-therapeutic-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Ramia Zakhour, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Issam I Raad
Central venous catheters are essential for the treatment of patients with haematological malignancies and the recipients of stem-cell transplant. This patient population is, however, at high risk for catheter-related bloodstream infections that can result in substantial morbidity, mortality, and health-care-associated costs. Efficient prevention, early diagnosis, and effective treatment are essential to providing the best care to these patients. Although confirming the catheter as a source of infection remains challenging, the Infectious Diseases Society of America definition of catheter-related bloodstream infection remains the most precise definition to use in these patients...
November 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730778/antibiotic-lock-therapy-in-the-era-of-gram-negative-resistance
#12
Rajeev Soman, Neha Gupta, Mitesh Suthar, Jatin Kothari, Alan Almeida, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Central-line-associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI) is a highly consequential nosocomial infection. The most effective management includes the removal of the infected catheter. Retention of the catheter and antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) along with systemic antibiotics may be attempted only if there are unusual extenuating circumstances. CLABSIs due to Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is more common in our setting and the organisms are often highly resistant. Hence, there is a need to explore the use of novel antimicrobials for catheter lock solutions along with antibiofilm agents...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595511/serratia-marcescens-bacteraemia-outbreak-in-haemodialysis-patients-with-tunnelled-catheters-due-to-colonisation-of-antiseptic-solution-experience-at-4-hospitals
#13
José L Merino, Hanane Bouarich, Mª José Pita, Patricia Martínez, Blanca Bueno, Silvia Caldés, Elena Corchete, Mª Teresa Jaldo, Beatriz Espejo, Vicente Paraíso
INTRODUCTION: The application of antiseptic solution for handling tunnelled catheters is recommended in patients undergoing haemodialysis. These routine antiseptic procedures in handling catheters are crucial to avoid complications. We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) bacteraemia in numerous haemodialysis units of the Community of Madrid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first cases of bacteraemia due to S. marcescens were isolated in December 2014...
November 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524227/antibiotic-lock-therapy-for-leuconostoc-pseudomesenteroides-catheter-related-bacteremia
#14
Jackie Ho, Jeffrey C Jolliff, Arash Heidari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516141/evidence-based-criteria-for-the-choice-and-the-clinical-use-of-the-most-appropriate-lock-solutions-for-central-venous-catheters-excluding-dialysis-catheters-a-gavecelt-consensus
#15
REVIEW
Mauro Pittiruti, Sergio Bertoglio, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Roberto Biffi, Massimo Lamperti, Alberto Dal Molin, Nicola Panocchia, Nicola Petrosillo, Mario Venditti, Carla Rigo, Enrico DeLutio
BACKGROUND: The most appropriate lock solution for central venous access devices is still to be defined. GAVeCeLT - the Italian group for venous access devices - has developed a consensus on the evidence-based criteria for the choice and the clinical use of the most appropriate lock solution for central venous catheters (excluding dialysis catheters). METHOD: After the constitution of a panel of experts, a systematic collection and review of the literature has been performed, focusing on clinical studies dealing with lock solutions used for prevention of occlusion (heparin, citrate, urokinase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [r-TPA], normal saline) or for prevention of infection (citrate, ethanol, taurolidine, ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics), in both adults and in pediatric patients...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458213/eradication-of-staphylococcus-aureus-catheter-related-biofilm-infections-using-ml-8-and-citrox
#16
S Hogan, M Zapotoczna, N T Stevens, H Humphreys, J P O'Gara, E O'Neill
Staphylococci are a leading cause of catheter-related infections (CRIs) due to biofilm formation. CRIs are typically managed by either device removal or systemic antibiotics, often in combination with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). CLSs provide high concentrations of the antimicrobial agent at the site of infection. However, the most effective CLSs against staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and suitability of two newly described antimicrobial agents, ML:8 and Citrox, as CLSs against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390716/is-taurolidine-citrate-an-effective-and-cost-effective-hemodialysis-catheter-lock-solution-a-systematic-review-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#17
Zahra Kavosi, Maryam Sarikhani Khorrami, Khosro Keshavarz, Abdosaleh Jafari, Amir Hashemi Meshkini, Hamid Reza Safaei, Shekoufeh Nikfar
BACKGROUND: Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. METHODS: To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297475/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-optimized-nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol-as-a-nonantibiotic-antimicrobial-catheter-lock-solution-for-prevention-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#18
Ruth A Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Cheryl Hirsh-Ginsberg, Kimberly Murray, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0...
September 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234677/misuse-of-antibiotics-reserved-for-hospital-settings-in-outpatients-a-prospective-clinical-audit-in-a-university-hospital-in-southern-france
#19
Manon Roche, Charléric Bornet, Philippe Monges, Andreas Stein, Sophie Gensollen, Piseth Seng
Some antibiotics are reserved essentially for hospital settings owing to cost effectiveness and in order to fight the emerging antibiotic resistance crisis. In some cases, antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals may be prescribed in outpatients for serious infections or in the absence of a therapeutic alternative. A 30-day prospective audit of outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions by measuring appropriateness according to guidelines...
July 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152201/catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-a-canadian-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Chris Lata, Louis Girard, Michael Parkins, Matthew T James
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a high risk of bacterial infection. We reviewed publications on risk factors, prevention, and treatment paradigms, as well as outcomes associated with bacterial infection in end-stage kidney disease. We focused in particular on studies conducted in Canada where rates of haemodialysis catheter use are high. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We included original research articles in English text identified from MEDLINE using search terms 'chronic kidney failure', 'renal dialysis', or 'chronic renal insufficiency', and 'bacterial infection'...
2016: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
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