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Arianna Buttafuoco, Tiziana Pedale, Tony W Buchanan, Valerio Santangelo
Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects...
November 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Cécile Flahault, Léonor Fasse, Stéphane Ruckly, Nora Amdjar-Badidi, Laurent Argaud, Julio Badie, Amélie Bazire, Naike Bige, Eric Boulet, Lila Bouadma, Cédric Bretonnière, Bernard Floccard, Alain Gaffinel, Xavier de Forceville, Hubert Grand, Rebecca Halidfar, Olfa Hamzaoui, Mercé Jourdain, Paul-Henri Jost, Eric Kipnis, Audrey Large, Alexandre Lautrette, Olivier Lesieur, Virginie Maxime, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jean Paul Mira, Yannick Monseau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Antoine Rouget, François Santoli, Georges Simon, Fabienne Tamion, Nathalie Thieulot-Rolin, Marina Thirion, Sandrine Valade, Isabelle Vinatier, Christel Vioulac, Sebastien Bailly, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Post-intensive care syndrome includes the multiple consequences of an intensive care unit (ICU) stay for patients and families. It has become a new challenge for intensivists. Prevention programs have been disappointing, except for ICU diaries, which report the patient's story in the ICU. However, the effectiveness of ICU diaries for patients and families is still controversial, as the interpretation of the results of previous studies was open to criticism hampering an expanded use of the diary...
November 15, 2017: Trials
Craig Thorley, Paul Christiansen
When one person alters his or her recollection of an event to be consistent with another person's erroneous account of the same event, social contagion has occurred. In two studies, we examined whether alcohol consumption influences the degree to which people engage in social contagion. In Study 1, participants consumed alcohol, an alcohol placebo, or a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate who consumed a soft drink. In Study 2, participants consumed a soft drink and then completed a collaborative recall test with a confederate they believed had consumed a soft drink or alcohol (but no alcohol was ever consumed)...
November 15, 2017: Memory
Julia Ma, Rachel Martin, Bokman Chan, Michael Gofeld, Michael P Geary, John G Laffey, Faraj W Abdallah
BACKGROUND: Early postoperative ambulation is associated with enhanced functional recovery, particularly in the postpartum population, but ambulation questionnaires are limited by recall bias. This observational study aims to objectively quantify ambulation after neuraxial anesthesia and analgesia for cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery, respectively, by using activity tracker technology. The hypothesis was that vaginal delivery is associated with greater ambulation during the first 24 h postdelivery, compared to cesarean delivery...
November 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
I Snast, O Reiter, L Atzmony, Y A Leshem, E Hodak, D Mimouni, L Pavlovsky
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress has long been linked with psoriasis exacerbation/onset. However, it is unclear if they are associated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if antecedent psychological stress and psoriasis exacerbation/onset are associated. METHODS: A comprehensive search of Pubmed, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, and clinicaltrials. gov databases was performed. Studies investigating the association between preceding psychological stress and psoriasis exacerbation/onset were classified as cross-sectional, case-control or cohort...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Yuan Lyu, Yujuan Wang, Xinrui Mao, Xian Li, Chunyan Guo
A number of recent studies have shown that familiarity can contribute to associative recognition, specifically when the to-be-paired items are perceived as a single unit; however, whether semantic relationship between two items can help them form a unitization is still heatedly debated, with largely inconsistent results. The present study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether semantic relation can serve as a unitization approach by manipulating levels of unitization (LOU). Results revealed that semantic-related conditions were supported by both familiarity and recollection, whereas unrelated pairs solely by recollection, indicating that semantic relation can encourage unitization...
November 6, 2017: Neuroreport
Karolina Rataj, Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Rob H J van der Lubbe
Novel metaphoric sentences have repeatedly evoked larger N400 amplitudes than literal sentences, while investigations of the late positive complex (LPC) have brought inconsistent results, with reports of both increased and reduced amplitudes. In two experiments, we examined novel metaphor comprehension in Polish, using the same set of literal, novel metaphoric, and anomalous sentences. The first aim of the study was to test whether novel metaphors would evoke larger or smaller late positivity complex (LPC) amplitudes compared to literal and anomalous sentences...
October 28, 2017: Brain Research
Junghee Lee, Keith H Nuechterlein, Barbara J Knowlton, Carrie E Bearden, Tyrone D Cannon, Alan P Fiske, Livon Ghermezi, Jacqueline N Hayata, Gerhard S Hellemann, William P Horan, Kimmy Kee, Robert S Kern, Kenneth L Subotnik, Catherine A Sugar, Joseph Ventura, Cindy M Yee, Michael F Green
Although a number of studies examined recollection and familiarity memory in schizophrenia, most of studies have focused on nonsocial episodic memory. Little is known about how schizophrenia patients remember social information in everyday life and whether social episodic memory changes over the course of illness. This study aims to examine episodic memory for dynamic social interaction with multimodal social stimuli in schizophrenia across phase of illness. Within each phase of illness, probands and demographically matched controls participated: 51 probands at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 36 controls, 80 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 controls, and 50 chronic schizophrenia patients and 39 controls...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Danielle R King, Marianne de Chastelaine, Michael D Rugg
In young adults, recollection-sensitive brain regions exhibit enhanced connectivity with a widely distributed set of other regions during successful versus unsuccessful recollection, and the magnitude of connectivity change correlates with individual differences in recollection accuracy. Here, we examined whether recollection-related changes in connectivity and their relationship with performance varied across samples of young, middle-aged, and older adults. Psychophysiological interaction analyses identified recollection-related increases in connectivity both with recollection-sensitive seed regions and among regions distributed throughout the whole brain...
October 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Alex Bobak, Tobias Raupach
Introduction: Inadequate smoking cessation interventions by physicians have been attributed to lack of training, and it is generally thought that additional education will improve patient care. However, interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and practical skills only address one determinant of behaviour (capability). This prospective study assessed how much a teaching session for GP trainees enrolled in Vocational Training Schemes in England also affected two other determinants (motivation and opportunity) specified by the COM-B theory of behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Andrew B Lassar
In 1987, Robert Davis, Hal Weintraub and I reported the identification of MyoD, a transcription factor that could reprogram fibroblasts into skeletal muscle cells. In this recollection, I both summarize the prior work of Helen Blau, Woody Wright, Peter Jones and Charlie Emerson that inspired my entry into this field, and the subsequent events that led to finding MyoD. Lastly, I highlight some of the principles in developmental biology that have emerged during the past 30 years, which are particularly relevant to skeletal muscle biology...
November 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jeffrey D Wammes, Melissa E Meade, Myra A Fernandes
Drawing a picture of to-be-remembered information substantially boosts memory performance in free-recall tasks. In the current work, we sought to test the notion that drawing confers its benefit to memory performance by creating a detailed recollection of the encoding context. In Experiments 1 and 2, we demonstrated that for both pictures and words, items that were drawn by the participant at encoding were better recognized in a later test than were words that were written out. Moreover, participants' source memory (in this experiment, correct identification of whether the word was drawn or written) was superior for items drawn relative to written at encoding...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Francesco Scalici, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo
Dual-process theories of recognition memory sustain that recollection and familiarity reflect different mnemonic processes and rely on separate neural substrates that are located primarily in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Aggleton and Brown's model (1999) assumes that this distinction extends to other brain regions, including the thalamus, and that both recognition memory processes interact with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether recollection and familiarity are subtended by separate prefrontal regions...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Antonio Daniele, Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Giordano Lacidogna, Alfredo La Cara, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a frequent finding in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we report the case of a TLE patient who complained of marked difficulties in remembering personal events and information even though repeated neuropsychological assessments had failed to detect any deficit on common laboratory memory tests. The patient underwent an experimental investigation that involved estimating recollection and familiarity processes in the performance on verbal and visual recognition tests, over intervals ranging from 10 minutes to 7 days...
October 26, 2017: Neurocase
Amalia Alexiadou, Vasilis P Bozikas, Mary H Kosmidis, Eleni Parlapani, Grigoris Kiosseoglou, Konstantinos Fokas
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) involves recollection of personal events and facts about one's life. Αim of the present study was to investigate AM in schizophrenia patients, and, in particular, patients' ability to recall autobiographical memories after controlling for verbal memory and verbal fluency deficits. METHOD: Participants included 40 schizophrenia patients (23 male) and 40 healthy controls (23 male), matched for age, gender, educational level, and premorbid intellectual functioning...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Igor Schapiro, Oliver Weingart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xinrui Mao, Yujuan Wang, Yanhong Wu, Chunyan Guo
Directed forgetting (DF) assists in preventing outdated information from interfering with cognitive processing. Previous studies pointed that self-referential items alleviated DF effects due to the elaboration of encoding processes. However, the retrieval mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Based on the dual-process framework of recognition, the retrieval of self-referential information was involved in familiarity and recollection. Using source memory tasks combined with event-related potential (ERP) recording, our research investigated the retrieval processes of alleviative DF effects elicited by self-referential information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Peter Yeates, Katherine Woolf, Emyr Benbow, Ben Davies, Mairhead Boohan, Kevin Eva
BACKGROUND: Asian medical students and doctors receive lower scores on average than their white counterparts in examinations in the UK and internationally (a phenomenon known as "differential attainment"). This could be due to examiner bias or to social, psychological or cultural influences on learning or performance. We investigated whether students' scores or feedback show influence of ethnicity-related bias; whether examiners unconsciously bring to mind (activate) stereotypes when judging Asian students' performance; whether activation depends on the stereotypicality of students' performances; and whether stereotypes influence examiner memories of performances...
October 25, 2017: BMC Medicine
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