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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081495/emotional-intensity-in-episodic-autobiographical-memory-and-counterfactual-thinking
#1
Matthew L Stanley, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Episodic counterfactual thoughts-imagined alternative ways in which personal past events might have occurred-are frequently accompanied by intense emotions. Here, participants recollected positive and negative autobiographical memories and then generated better and worse episodic counterfactual events from those memories. Our results suggest that the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event is significantly higher than but typically positively related to the emotional intensity while remembering/imagining the event...
January 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079298/from-phosphoproteins-to-phosphoproteomes-a-historical-account
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Venerando, Luca Cesaro, Lorenzo A Pinna
The first phosphoprotein (casein) was discovered in 1883, yet the enzyme responsible for its phosphorylation was identified only 130 years later, in 2012. During the very long time elapsed between these two events, with special reference to the last decades of the 1900s, it became evident that, far from being an oddity, phosphorylation affects the majority of eukaryotic proteins during their lifespan, and that this reaction is catalysed by the members of a large family of protein kinases, susceptible to a variety of stimuli controlling nearly every aspects of life and death...
January 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077212/decoding-the-content-of-recollection-within-the-core-recollection-network-and-beyond
#3
Preston P Thakral, Tracy H Wang, Michael D Rugg
Recollection - retrieval of qualitative information about a past event - is associated with enhanced neural activity in a consistent set of neural regions (the 'core recollection network') seemingly regardless of the nature of the recollected content. Here, we employed multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to assess whether retrieval-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity in core recollection regions - including the hippocampus, angular gyrus, medial prefrontal cortex, retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus - contain information about studied content and thus demonstrate retrieval-related 'reinstatement' effects...
December 22, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073651/i-know-i-ve-seen-you-before-distinguishing-recent-single-exposure-based-familiarity-from-pre-existing-familiarity
#4
Sarah I Gimbel, James B Brewer, Anat Maril
This study examines how individuals differentiate recent-single-exposure-based familiarity from pre-existing familiarity. If these are two distinct cognitive processes, are they supported by the same neural bases? This study examines how recent-single-exposure-based familiarity and multiple-previous-exposure-based familiarity are supported and represented in the brain using functional MRI. In a novel approach, we first behaviorally show that subjects can divide retrieval of items in pre-existing memory into judgments of recollection and familiarity...
January 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057726/reduced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-during-episodic-memory-retrieval-in-autism
#5
Rose A Cooper, Franziska R Richter, Paul M Bays, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
Increasing recent research has sought to understand the recollection impairments experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we tested whether these memory deficits reflect a reduction in the probability of retrieval success or in the precision of memory representations. We also used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural mechanisms underlying memory encoding and retrieval in ASD, focusing particularly on the functional connectivity of core episodic memory networks...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032042/dental-fluorosis-fluoride-in-urine-and-nutritional-status-in-adolescent-students-living-in-the-rural-areas-of-guanajuato-mexico
#6
Aguilar-Díaz Fatima Del Carmen, de la Fuente-Hernández Javier, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina Aline
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11-20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode...
November 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031603/blended-learning-for-reinforcing-dental-pharmacology-in-the-clinical-years-a-qualitative-analysis
#7
Prashanti Eachempati, K S Kiran Kumar, K N Sumanth
OBJECTIVES: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student's reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3(rd) and 4(th) year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031146/visual-perspective-during-remembering-erp-evidence-of-familiarity-based-source-monitoring
#8
P Andrew Leynes, Ben Askin, Joshua D Landau
Autobiographical recollections are accompanied by visual perspectives that can be either a view through the person's own eyes (first-person) or a view that integrates visual characteristics of the rememberer into the reconstructed scene (third-person). Some have argued that a third-person perspective serves as a coping mechanism allowing the person to distance themselves from details of painful memories. The study reported here created first- and third-person memories in a novel experimental paradigm. Later, participants discriminated between these perspectives on a source memory test while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded...
December 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029355/medial-temporal-lobe-reinstatement-of-content-specific-details-predicts-source-memory
#9
Jackson C Liang, Alison R Preston
Leading theories propose that when remembering past events, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures reinstate the neural patterns that were active when those events were initially encoded. Accurate reinstatement is hypothesized to support detailed recollection of memories, including their source. While several studies have linked cortical reinstatement to successful retrieval, indexing reinstatement within the MTL network and its relationship to memory performance has proved challenging. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by having participants perform an incidental encoding task, during which they visualized people, places, and objects in response to adjective cues...
October 12, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025116/perceived-timing-of-a-postural-perturbation
#10
Julian Lupo, Michael Barnett-Cowan
Falling down is a common event that threatens the survival of an organism. Simple, yet sophisticated neural mechanisms allow for rapid detection of a fall as well as the generation of compensatory reflexes designed to prevent a fall. Fall awareness and preventative alerting devices could potentially mitigate the likelihood of a fall, however, relatively little is known about the perceived timing of a fall. Common anecdotal reports suggest that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time with very little recollection of what occurred during the fall...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024158/emotional-brain-states-carry-over-and-enhance-future-memory-formation
#11
Arielle Tambini, Ulrike Rimmele, Elizabeth A Phelps, Lila Davachi
Emotional arousal can produce lasting, vivid memories for emotional experiences, but little is known about whether emotion can prospectively enhance memory formation for temporally distant information. One mechanism that may support prospective memory enhancements is the carry-over of emotional brain states that influence subsequent neutral experiences. Here we found that neutral stimuli encountered by human subjects 9-33 min after exposure to emotionally arousing stimuli had greater levels of recollection during delayed memory testing compared to those studied before emotional and after neutral stimulus exposure...
December 26, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011372/my-life-as-a-pupil-the-autobiographical-memories-of-adolescents-excluded-from-school
#12
Shaalan Farouk
Narrative psychology is founded on the premise that substantial insight can be gained into individuals' self-understanding and behaviour by studying the content of their autobiographical memories. This article contributes to this field of inquiry by suggesting that our understanding of adolescents' exclusion from mainstream education can be enhanced by examining their recollections of school using a narrative dialogical approach. In a research project the autobiographical memories of fifteen female and twenty male students, aged 15-16 years, who had been excluded from secondary schools in London, England were collected and analysed...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999366/preconditioning-of-spatial-and-auditory-cues-roles-of-the-hippocampus-frontal-cortex-and-cue-directed-attention
#13
Andrew C Talk, Katrina L Grasby, Tim Rawson, Jane L Ebejer
Loss of function of the hippocampus or frontal cortex is associated with reduced performance on memory tasks, in which subjects are incidentally exposed to cues at specific places in the environment and are subsequently asked to recollect the location at which the cue was experienced. Here, we examined the roles of the rodent hippocampus and frontal cortex in cue-directed attention during encoding of memory for the location of a single incidentally experienced cue. During a spatial sensory preconditioning task, rats explored an elevated platform while an auditory cue was incidentally presented at one corner...
December 19, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998488/stirring-controlled-solidified-floating-solid-liquid-drop-microextraction-as-a-new-solid-phase-enhanced-liquid-phase-microextraction-method-by-exploiting-magnetic-carbon-nanotube-nickel-hybrid
#14
Mehri Ghazaghi, Hassan Zavvar Mousavi, Hamid Shirkhanloo, Alimorad Rashidi
A specific technique is introduced to overcome limitations of classical solidification of floating organic drop microextraction, such as tedious and time-consuming centrifuge step and using disperser solvent, by facile and efficient participation of solid and liquid phases. In this proposed method of stirring-controlled solidified floating solid-liquid drop microextraction (SC-SF-SLDME), magnetic carbon nanotube-nickel hybrid (MNi-CNT) as a solid part of the extractors are dispersed ultrasonically in sample solution, and the procedure followed by dispersion of liquid phase (1-undecanol) through high-rate stirring and easily recollection of MNi-CNT in organic solvent droplets through hydrophobic force...
January 25, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991029/the-electrophysiological-signature-of-remember-know-is-confounded-with-memory-strength-and-cannot-be-interpreted-as-evidence-for-dual-process-theory-of-recognition
#15
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Galit Yovel, Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein
The quantity and nature of the processes underlying recognition memory remains an open question. A majority of behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies have suggested that recognition memory is supported by two dissociable processes: recollection and familiarity. It has been conversely argued, however, that recollection and familiarity map onto a single continuum of mnemonic strength and hence that recognition memory is mediated by a single process. Previous electrophysiological studies found marked dissociations between recollection and familiarity, which have been widely held as corroborating the dual-process account...
February 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981704/the-eye-of-the-retriever-developing-episodic-memory-mechanisms-in-preverbal-infants-assessed-through-pupil-dilation
#16
Kahl Hellmer, Hedvig Söderlund, Gustaf Gredebäck
Studying memory in infants can be challenging, as they cannot express their subjective recollection verbally. In this study we use a novel method with which we can assess episodic recognition memory through pupillometry, using identical procedures and stimuli for infants and adults. In three experiments of 4- and 7-month-old infants, and adults we show that the adult pupillary response is larger to previously seen than to never seen items (old/new effect). Pupil dilations index subjective memory experience in adults, producing distinct pupil dilations to items judged as remembered, familiar, and new, regardless of actual previous exposure (Experiment 1)...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979477/maximizing-efficiency-on-trauma-surgeon-rounds
#17
Aliaksandr Ramaniuk, Barbara J Dickson, Sean Mahoney, Michael S O'Mara
BACKGROUND: Rounding by trauma surgeons is a complex multidisciplinary team-based process in the inpatient setting. Implementation of lean methodology aims to increase understanding of the value stream and eliminate nonvalue-added (NVA) components. We hypothesized that analysis of trauma rounds with education and intervention would improve surgeon efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Level 1 trauma center with 4300 admissions per year. Average non-intensive care unit census was 55...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976666/fatal-silicosis-in-a-funeral-arts-craftsman
#18
Roberto Calisti, Gianfranco Ballatori
BACKGROUND: The current scientific debate on silica and cancer has often led to overlooking the persisting risk of lung fibrosis from crystalline silica. CASE REPORT: During 2000, when 54 years old, a funeral arts' craftsman began to suffer from persistent, hacking cough; radiography and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed thin sub-pleural nodulations of the lungs, mainly in the upper fields. Two years later, increasing dyspnoea appeared and HRCT revealed vast consolidative opacities in both upper fields...
December 13, 2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939838/eye-movements-reveal-a-dissociation-between-memory-encoding-and-retrieval-in-adults-with-autism
#19
Rose A Cooper, Kate C Plaisted-Grant, Simon Baron-Cohen, Jon S Simons
People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit subtle deficits in recollection, which have been proposed to arise from encoding impairments, though a direct link has yet to be demonstrated. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to obtain trial-specific measures of encoding (eye movement patterns) during incidental (natural viewing) and intentional (strategic) encoding conditions in adults with ASD and typical controls. Using this approach, we tested the degree to which differences in encoding might contribute to recollection impairments, or whether group differences in memory primarily emerge at retrieval...
February 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939361/d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vecu-for-news-events-but-not-personal-events-a-dissociation-between-autobiographical-and-non-autobiographical-episodic-memory-processing
#20
Martha S Turner, E Arthur Shores, Nora Breen, Max Coltheart
In déjà vu, the feeling that what we are currently experiencing we have experienced before is fleeting and is not accepted as true. In contrast, in déjà vecu or "recollective confabulation", the sense of déjà vu is persistent and convincing, and patients genuinely believe that they have lived through the current moment at some previous time. In previous reports of cases of déjà vecu, both personal events and non-personal, world events gave rise to this experience. In this paper we describe a patient whose déjà vecu experiences are entirely restricted to non-personal events, suggesting that autobiographical and non-autobiographical episodic memory processing can dissociate...
November 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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