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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727792/aging-working-memory-capacity-and-the-proactive-control-of-recollection-an-event-related-potential-study
#1
Jessica Keating, Caitlin Affleck-Brodie, Ronny Wiegand, Alexa M Morcom
The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the control of recollection in young and older adults. We used electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of age and of individual differences in WMC on the ability to prioritize recollection according to current goals. Targets in a recognition exclusion task were words encoded using two alternative decisions. The left parietal ERP old/new effect was used as an electrophysiological index of recollection, and the selectivity of recollection measured in terms of the difference in its magnitude according to whether recognized items were targets or non-targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725203/retrieval-and-monitoring-processes-during-visual-working-memory-an-erp-study-of-the-benefit-of-visual-semantics
#2
Elizabeth Orme, Louise A Brown, Leigh M Riby
In this study, we examined electrophysiological indices of episodic remembering whilst participants recalled novel shapes, with and without semantic content, within a visual working memory paradigm. The components of interest were the parietal episodic (PE; 400-800 ms) and late posterior negativity (LPN; 500-900 ms), as these have previously been identified as reliable markers of recollection and post-retrieval monitoring, respectively. Fifteen young adults completed a visual matrix patterns task, assessing memory for low and high semantic visual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723728/memory-related-functional-connectivity-in-visual-processing-regions-varies-by-prior-emotional-context
#3
Holly J Bowen, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Memory retrieval involves the reactivation of processes that were engaged at encoding. Using a Generalized Linear Model to test for effects of valence, our prior study suggests that memory for information previously encoded in a negative context reengages sensory processing regions at retrieval to a greater extent than positive. Here, we used partial least squares analyses of the same dataset to determine whether this valence-specific processing was one of the dominant patterns in the retrieval data. Trials previously paired with a face revealed a strong pattern of emotion that did not vary by valence, but for trials previously paired with a scene, an extensive network of regions was active during recollection of trials paired with negative content...
July 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722546/the-role-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-nondemented-parkinson-s-patients
#4
Alfonso Pitarque, Juan C Melendez, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Joaquin Escudero, Salvador Algarabel
The aim of the current study was to examine if recollection and familiarity decline in nondemented Parkinson's patients. To do so we compared a sample of older people with Parkinson's disease (n = 32) to a control sample of healthy older people (n = 32) on an associative recognition task in which we manipulated the repetition of the pairs during the study phase (half of the pairs were presented once and half twice) to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity, and false recognition based on the logic of the process-dissociation procedure...
July 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719040/discovering-long-term-potentiation-ltp-recollections-and-reflections-on-what-came-after
#5
REVIEW
Terje Lømo
Chance events led me to a lifelong career in scientific research. They paved the way for being the first to see long-term potentiation of synaptic efficiency (LTP) in Per Andersen's lab in Oslo in 1966. Here I describe my way to this discovery and the experiments with Tim Bliss in 1968-1969 that led to Bliss and Lømo, 1973. Surprisingly, we later failed to reproduce these results. I discuss possible reasons for this failure, which made us both leave LTP research, in my case for good, in Tim's case for several years...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718347/priming-involuntary-autobiographical-memories-in-the-lab
#6
Krystian Barzykowski, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace ( 2005 ) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili ( 2008 ), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions...
July 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711591/touching-the-void-first-and-third-person-perspectives-in-two-cases-of-autobiographical-amnesia-linked-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Adam Zeman, Marcus Byruck, Peter Tallis, Keith Vossel, Daniel Tranel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be associated with a marked impairment of autobiographical memory. This is occasionally its presenting feature. We describe two individuals with severe epilepsy-associated autobiographical memory loss. Both MB and PT were reassured initially that their memory was intact on the basis of standard neuropsychological tests. Both have written detailed accounts of their symptoms. The key neuropsychological features of their cases are the relative normality of performance on standard memory tests, with preservation of semantic memory for impersonal information, in contrast to a profound amnesia for salient autobiographical episodes and an impoverishment of imaginative scene construction...
July 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710908/mental-reinstatement-of-encoding-context-improves-episodic-remembering
#8
Inês Bramão, Anna Karlsson, Mikael Johansson
This study investigates context-dependent memory retrieval. Previous work has shown that physically re-experiencing the encoding context at retrieval improves memory accessibility. The current study examined if mental reconstruction of the original encoding context would yield parallel memory benefits. Participants performed a cued-recall memory task, preceded either by a mental or by a physical context reinstatement task, and we manipulated whether the context reinstated at retrieval overlapped with the context of the target episode...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706479/impact-of-semantic-relatedness-on-associative-memory-an-erp-study
#9
Pierre Desaunay, Patrice Clochon, Franck Doidy, Anna Lambrechts, Dermot M Bowler, Priscille Gérardin, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Francis Eustache, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Encoding and retrieval processes in memory for pairs of pictures are thought to be influenced by inter-item similarity and by features of individual items. Using Event-Related Potentials (ERP), we aimed to identify how these processes impact on both the early mid-frontal FN400 and the Late Positive Component (LPC) potentials during associative retrieval of pictures. Twenty young adults undertook a sham task, using an incidental encoding of semantically related and unrelated pairs of drawings. At test, we conducted a recognition task in which participants were asked to identify target identical pairs of pictures, which could be semantically related or unrelated, among new and rearranged pairs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699083/a-therapy-system-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-using-a-virtual-agent-and-virtual-storytelling-to-reconstruct-traumatic-memories
#10
Myrthe L Tielman, Mark A Neerincx, Rafael Bidarra, Ben Kybartas, Willem-Paul Brinkman
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well treatable, many people do not get the desired treatment due to barriers to care (such as stigma and cost). This paper presents a system that bridges this gap by enabling patients to follow therapy at home. A therapist is only involved remotely, to monitor progress and serve as a safety net. With this system, patients can recollect their memories in a digital diary and recreate them in a 3D WorldBuilder. Throughout the therapy, a virtual agent is present to inform and guide patients through the sessions, employing an ontology-based question module for recollecting traumatic memories to further elicit a detailed memory recollection...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697746/nursing-parental-perceptions-of-neonatal-care-in-central-vietnam-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study
#11
Katie Gallagher, Colin Partridge, Hoang T Tran, Suzanna Lubran, Duncan Macrae
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality accounts for nearly three quarters of all infant deaths in Vietnam. The nursing team are the largest professional group working with newborns, however do not routinely receive neonatal training and there is a lack of research into the impact of educational provision. This study explored changes in nursing perceptions towards their role following a neonatal educational intervention. Parents perceptions of nursing care were explored to determine any changes as nurses gained more experience...
July 11, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696993/special-communication-of-a-case-of-hypovolemic-associated-eah-lessons-learned-during-recovery
#12
Tamara Hew-Butler, Rus Hamilton, Bridget Hamilton, Zachary Colesa
Severe exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is largely dilutional, whereas contributions of sodium loss remain equivocal. We present a case of EAH with encephalopathy involving an experienced male cyclist with no recollection of the event. We thereby conducted a retrospective analysis of biochemical trajectories during hospital recovery. The normalization of serum [Na], in context with changes in other variables, offered a 'reverse' perspective of the underlying pathophysiology. The following biochemical changes were temporally observed, with the return of normonatremia: 1) a decrease in serum potassium and calcium concentrations (absence of extracellular fluid dilution); 2) a decrease in total protein, blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit and hemoglobin (plasma volume expansion); and 3) an increase in mean platelet and red cell corpuscular volumes (cellular expansion after total body water and sodium deficits)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694774/memory-performance-for-everyday-motivational-and-neutral-objects-is-dissociable-from-attention
#13
Judith Schomaker, Bianca C Wittmann
Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693403/gifts-from-mary-ainsworth-and-john-bowlby
#14
Patricia M Crittenden
Attachment theory has developed over many decades - and continues to develop. Its roots lie in several seminal publications of John Bowlby (the basis of attachment theory) and Mary D. S. Ainsworth (the notion of individual differences in attachment). This paper identifies the prescient contributions of these early publications and two processes (a long-term dialogue and reflection on discrepancy) that underlay emergent theory. Because I was a student of Ainsworth when both attachment theory and individual differences in attachment organization were becoming better known, I offer some of my recollections of that period, suggesting how that period may have affected current work in attachment...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683890/how-can-surgeons-facilitate-resident-intraoperative-decision-making
#15
Katherine A Hill, Mohini Dasari, Eliza B Littleton, Giselle G Hamad
BACKGROUND: Cognitive skills such as decision-making are critical to developing operative autonomy. We explored resident decision-making using a recollection of specific examples, from the attending surgeon and resident, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: In a separate semi-structured interview, the attending and resident both answered five questions, regarding the resident's operative roles and decisions, ways the attending helped, times when the attending operated, and the effect of the relationship between attending and resident...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683338/encoding-focus-alters-diagnostic-recollection-and-event-related-potentials-erps
#16
P Andrew Leynes, Brittany A Mok
The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test...
July 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682092/social-norm-perception-in-groups-with-outliers
#17
Jennifer E Dannals, Dale T Miller
Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681149/young-children-s-physiological-reactivity-during-memory-recall-associations-with-posttraumatic-stress-and-parent-physiological-synchrony
#18
Sarah A O Gray, Rebecca S Lipschutz, Mike S Scheeringa
Autonomic reactivity is implicated in stress response and social engagement - both key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - but few studies have examined autonomic reactivity in pediatric samples, and no known studies have examined physiological synchrony among children with PTSD and caregivers. In a sample of 247 young children (94 girls, 153 boys), most (85%) of whom had exposure to trauma and 40% who met criteria for PTSD, we examined children's patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at baseline and in response to a memory recall task, as well as correspondence between parents' and children's RSA...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679804/a-national-profile-of-end-of-life-caregiving-in-the-united-states
#19
Katherine A Ornstein, Amy S Kelley, Evan Bollens-Lund, Jennifer L Wolff
To date, knowledge of the experiences of older adults' caregivers at the end of life has come from studies that were limited to specific diseases and so-called primary caregivers and that relied on the recollections of people in convenience samples. Using nationally representative, prospective data for 2011, we found that 900,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older who died within the following twelve months received support from 2.3 million caregivers. Nearly nine in ten of these caregivers were unpaid...
July 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677331/age-related-differences-in-subjective-recollection-erp-studies-of-encoding-and-retrieval
#20
Leslie Rollins, Tracy Riggins
The ability to mentally re-experience past events improves significantly from childhood to young adulthood; however, the mechanisms underlying this ability remain poorly understood, partially because different tasks are used across the lifespan. This study was designed to address this gap by assessing the development of event-related potential (ERP) correlates associated with subjective indices of recollection. Children, adolescents, and adults performed Tulving's () remember/know paradigm while ERPs were recorded during memory encoding (Experiment 1) and retrieval (Experiment 2)...
July 4, 2017: Developmental Science
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