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Katherine W Turk, Ala'a A Elshaar, Rebecca G Deason, Nadine C Heyworth, Corrine Nagle, Bruno Frustace, Sean Flannery, Ann Zumwalt, Andrew E Budson
It is difficult to predict whether newly learned information will be retrievable in the future. A biomarker of long-lasting learning, capable of predicting an individual's future ability to retrieve a particular memory, could positively influence teaching and educational methods. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated as a potential biomarker of long-lasting learning. Prior ERP studies have supported a dual-process model of recognition memory that categorizes recollection and familiarity as distinct memorial processes with distinct ERP correlates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Adrienne Nishina, Luis Armando Parra
Retrospective peer victimization reports may be inaccurate. With an ethnically and sexually diverse sample, this study compared adolescents' self-reported peer victimization in 6th grade to their own retrospective reports of 6th-grade victimization when they were in the 12th grade, controlling for past and current adjustment. Overall, 12th graders' retrospective victimization reports correlated with their own earlier 6th-grade self-reports and there was a general tendency to underreport retrospectively. Underreporters were distinguished by worse past 6th-grade adjustment, whereas overreporters were distinguished by worse current (12th-grade) adjustment...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Carlos N Oyanedel, Anuck Sawangjit, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
Episodic memory formation is considered a genuinely hippocampal function. Its study in rodents has relied on two different task paradigms, i.e. the so called "what-where-when" (WW-When) task and "what-where-which" (WW-Which) task. The WW-When task aims to assess the memory for an episode as an event bound into its context defined by spatial and distinct temporal information, the WW-Which task lacks the temporal component and introduces, instead, an "occasion setter" marking the broader contextual configuration in which the event occurred...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jiangyi Xia, Giulia Galli, Leun J Otten
Older individuals' difficulty in remembering events from a particular time and place may be explained by changes in retrieval-related control processes. We investigated how aging affects neural activity leading up to a retrieval probe and how such activity relates to later performance. Electrical brain activity was recorded while healthy younger and older humans memorized visual word pairs consisting of an object word (e.g., doll) preceded by a location word (e.g., garden). Only object words were presented during the memory test, the task being to decide whether an object had been presented earlier and, if so, what location had been paired with it...
April 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Zheng Ying-Yan, Xie Ting-Jun, Wang Man, Fang Yue-Yi, Luo Le
OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City, and evaluate the effect of albendazole treatment, so as to offer the evidence for formulating the strategy of clonorchiasis prevention and control. METHODS: The stool specimens were collected from the residents of two comprehensive demonstration areas, and the eggs of C. sinensis were detected by Kato-Katz technique. Those who were tested positive were treated with albendazole (0...
February 22, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Iva Lelios, Melanie Greter
Innate immune training is a recently described mechanism that allows innate cells to recollect a previous inflammatory episode. In a recent issue of Nature, Wendeln et al. (2018) show that peripheral inflammation can alter long-term microglia function, influencing neuropathology later in life.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
Ivan Mangiulli, Kim van Oorsouw, Antonietta Curci, Harald Merckelbach, Marko Jelicic
Previous studies showed that feigning amnesia for a crime impairs actual memory for the target event. Lack of rehearsal has been proposed as an explanation for this memory-undermining effect of feigning. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous research adopting a mock crime video instead of a narrative story. We showed participants a video of a violent crime. Next, they were requested to imagine that they had committed this offense and to either feign amnesia or confess the crime. A third condition was included: Participants in the delayed test-only control condition did not receive any instruction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Siri-Maria Kamp, Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
We investigated whether healthy older adults are able to use an episodic encoding strategy known as unitization, which allows for subsequent associative retrieval based on familiarity, to overcome their associative memory deficit. Young and healthy older participants were presented with word pairs either together with a definition that allowed to combine the word pairs to a new concept (high unitization condition), or together with a sentence frame (low unitization condition). In Experiment 1, an age-related reduction in performance on a standard associative recognition test was observed in both conditions...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Dale Mathers
This paper explores how we can make our own mythological version of 'Jung' say whatever we want. Excessive veneration gets in the way of his theories being allowed to stand on their own. Understanding 'Jung' as a mythologem provides a way out of this intoxication with identification by letting us recollect and re-connect to the Collective Unconscious.
June 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Roni Tibon, Andrea Greve, Richard Henson
Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase...
May 9, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Ricardo Rodrigues, Pedro Santos Silva, Marisa Cunha, Rui Vaz, Paulo Pereira
BACKGROUND: Patients' recall of their preoperative status is seldom used to assess surgical outcomes because of concerns of inaccuracy and bias. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to measure the significance of this recall bias and its repercussion on patients' recollection of their preoperative status. METHODS: Patients submitted to surgery due to degenerative spine diseases during the period of one year (n=198) were included in this study...
May 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ruth Riley, Johanna Spiers, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Anna K Taylor, Gail A Thornton, Marta Buszewicz
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides an in-depth account of general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of living and working with mental illness and distress, as part of a wider study reporting the barriers and facilitators to help-seeking for mental illness and burn-out, and sources of stress/distress for GP participants. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 47 GP participants. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymised and imported into NVivo V...
May 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Sara Robertson
Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult...
May 3, 2018: Memory
Natasha Cleaton, Peter Yeates, Gareth McCray
BACKGROUND: OSCE examiners' scores are variable and may discriminate domains of performance poorly. Examiners must hold their observations of OSCE performances in "episodic memory" until performances end. We investigated whether examiners vary in their recollection of performances; and whether this relates to their score variability or ability to separate disparate performance domains. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed on data where examiners had: 1/scored videos of OSCE performances showing disparate student ability in different domains; and 2/performed a measure of recollection for an OSCE performance...
April 27, 2018: Medical Teacher
Maria Elena Remoli, Cristiano Fiorentini, Antonella Marchi, Simona Di Renzi, Nicoletta Vonesch, Maria Vittoria Peri, Lucia Bastianini, Silvia Rossi, Giulia Bartoccini, Maya Lissa Kuttappasery, Maria Grazia Ciufolini, Paola Tomao
BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (Arbovirus) play an important role among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and in the spreading of infections in new geographic areas. Although some arboviral infections may be asymptomatic or mild flu-like illnesses, many occur as severe forms of meningitis and meningoencephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether arboviral infections may be associated with occupational risk, in a population of agricultural and forestry workers potentially at high risk for arthropods bite and sting...
January 30, 2018: La Medicina del Lavoro
Alex Pine, Noa Sadeh, Aya Ben-Yakov, Yadin Dudai, Avi Mendelsohn
Discrepancies between expectations and outcomes, or prediction errors, are central to trial-and-error learning based on reward and punishment, and their neurobiological basis is well characterized. It is not known, however, whether the same principles apply to declarative memory systems, such as those supporting semantic learning. Here, we demonstrate with fMRI that the brain parametrically encodes the degree to which new factual information violates expectations based on prior knowledge and beliefs-most prominently in the ventral striatum, and cortical regions supporting declarative memory encoding...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Limin Yang, Masami Narita, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Naoko Sakamoto, Hirohisa Saito, Yukihiro Ohya
BACKGROUND: Exploring patterns of childhood wheeze may help to clarify the etiology and prognosis of respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to classify phenotypes of wheezing in children up to 9 years of age in Japan and to evaluate the individual and environmental risk factors for these phenotypes. METHODS: Wheeze was evaluated at approximately 1-year intervals based on the mothers' recollection of their child's wheezing or whistling in the chest during the preceding 12 months...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, W-F A Lee
We implemented a new approach to measuring the relative speeds of different cognitive processes, one that extends multinomial models of memory and reasoning from discrete decisions to latencies. We applied it to the dual-process prediction that familiarity is faster than recollection. Relative to prior work on this prediction, the advantages of the new approach are that it jointly measures specific retrieval processes and their latencies, provides separate sets of latency-retrieval parameters for list items and related distractors, and supplies latency parameters for bias processes as well as retrieval processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Kim Merle Richter, Claudia Mödden, Paul Eling, Helmut Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. METHOD: In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure...
April 26, 2018: Neuropsychology
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