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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413688/presentation-and-care-of-a-family-with-huntington-disease-in-a-resource-limited-community
#1
Jarmal Charles, Lindyann Lessey, Jennifer Rooney, Ingmar Prokop, Katherine Yearwood, Hazel Da Breo, Patrick Rooney, Ruth H Walker, Andrew K Sobering
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries patients with Huntington disease (HD) typically present to healthcare providers after developing involuntary movements, or for pre-symptomatic genetic testing if at familial risk. A positive family history is a major guide when considering the decision to perform genetic testing for HD, both in affected and unaffected patients. Management of HD is focused upon control of symptoms, whether motor, cognitive, or psychiatric. There is no clear evidence to date of any disease-modifying agents...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405957/enhancing-memory-and-imagination-improves-problem-solving-among-individuals-with-depression
#2
Craig P McFarland, Mark Primosch, Chelsey M Maxson, Brandon T Stewart
Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks...
April 12, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404542/immediate-mood-scaler-tracking-symptoms-of-depression-and-anxiety-using-a-novel-mobile-mood-scale
#3
Mor Nahum, Thomas M Van Vleet, Vikaas S Sohal, Julie J Mirzabekov, Vikram R Rao, Deanna L Wallace, Morgan B Lee, Heather Dawes, Alit Stark-Inbar, Joshua Thomas Jordan, Bruno Biagianti, Michael Merzenich, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders are dynamic disorders characterized by multimodal symptoms. Clinical assessment of symptoms is currently limited to relatively sparse, routine clinic visits, requiring retrospective recollection of symptoms present in the weeks preceding the visit. Novel advances in mobile tools now support ecological momentary assessment of mood, conducted frequently using mobile devices, outside the clinical setting. Such mood assessment may help circumvent problems associated with infrequent reporting and better characterize the dynamic presentation of mood symptoms, informing the delivery of novel treatment options...
April 12, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404231/modulation-of-sensorimotor-circuits-during-retrieval-of-negative-autobiographical-memories-exploring-the-impact-of-personality-dimensions
#4
Ludovico Mineo, Carmen Concerto, Dhaval Patel, Tyrone Mayorga, Eileen Chusid, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eugenio Aguglia, Yasmin Sarraf, Fortunato Battaglia
Autobiographical Memory (AM) retrieval refers to recollection of experienced past events. Previous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that presentation of emotional negative stimuli affects human motor cortex excitability resulting in larger motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Up to date no TMS studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of personal memories with negative emotional value on corticospinal excitability. In this study we hypothesized that negative AM retrieval will modulate corticomotor excitability and sensorimotor integration as determined by TMS neurophysiological parameters...
April 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402199/from-menarche-to-menopause-understanding-multigenerational-reproductive-health-milestones
#5
Kimberly Field-Springer, Deleasa Randall-Griffiths, Carol Reece
Our study aims at understanding multigenerational communication among grandmothers, mothers, and daughters experiencing reproductive health transitions from menarche to menopause. Thirty women, 10 triads of grandmothers, mothers, and daughters, participated in narrative interviews to recount their menarche and menopause experiences. Analysis was read using a multilayered approach to interpret discourse positioned from self, reflexive others, and those stories informed by societal meanings. Four dialectical themes informed by generational discursive shifts in talk included (1) covert versus overt talk, (2) recollection of versus indifference to menarche, (3) bound to versus freedom from menstruation, and (4) controlling versus managing bodily changes...
April 12, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400723/electrophysiological-correlates-of-familiarity-and-recollection-in-associative-recognition-contributions-of-perceptual-and-conceptual-processing-to-unitization
#6
Bingcan Li, Xinrui Mao, Yujuan Wang, Chunyan Guo
It is generally accepted that associative recognition memory is supported by recollection. In addition, recent research indicates that familiarity can support associative memory, especially when two items are unitized into a single item. Both perceptual and conceptual manipulations can be used to unitize items, but few studies have compared these two methods of unitization directly. In the present study, we investigated the effects of familiarity and recollection on successful retrieval of items that were unitized perceptually or conceptually...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400245/psychophysiological-correlates-of-the-misinformation-effect
#7
Katja Volz, Rainer Leonhart, Rudolf Stark, Dieter Vaitl, Wolfgang Ambach
The misinformation effect refers to memory impairment that arises after exposure to misleading information (Loftus, 2005, p. 361). The present study focuses on the peripheral psychophysiology of false memories induced in a misleading information paradigm. On the basis of Sokolov's orienting reflex and studies concerning the Concealed Information Test (CIT, Lykken, 1959), the main hypothesis assumes differences between true and false memories in terms of the accompanying autonomic measures. It also is assumed that a cued recall of original information preceding the recollection phase reduces misinformation effects...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399428/a-decline-in-self-defining-memories-following-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#8
Tine Holm, David B Pillemer, Vibeke Bliksted, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
PURPOSE: Receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia can be a profound life transition that often has a negative influence on the patient's sense of self. The present study is the first to examine how self-defining memories are temporally distributed around age at diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHOD: 25 patients and 25 matched control participants identified 3 self-defining memories from their lives. In addition, participants were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms as well as tests of cognitive function...
April 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398120/usage-of-semantic-representations-in-recognition-memory
#9
Ryoji Nishiyama, Tetsuji Hirano, Jun Ukita
Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this...
April 11, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394160/free-recall-test-experience-potentiates-strategy-driven-effects-of-value-on-memory
#10
Michael S Cohen, Jesse Rissman, Mariam Hovhannisyan, Alan D Castel, Barbara J Knowlton
People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388277/gender-stereotype-consistent-memories-how-system-justification-motivation-distorts-the-recollection-of-information-related-to-the-self
#11
Virginie Bonnot, Silvia Krauth-Gruber
Research based on system justification theory has shown that women's self-perceptions may be altered by the motivation to justify the system and its inequalities. Self-perceptions being built on past experiences, the present study aimed to explore how system justification motivation induced through a system dependency manipulation may alter both women's recall of autobiographical memories, and their behavior. Women who were led to feel highly dependent on the social system perceived themselves as more competent and recalled memories of higher competence in the verbal domain compared with the negatively stereotyped scientific domain...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387586/separating-erp-effects-for-conceptual-fluency-and-episodic-familiarity
#12
Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
ERP old/new effects have been associated with different subprocesses of episodic recognition memory. The notion that recollection is reflected in the left parietal old/new effect seems to be uncontested. However, an association between episodic familiarity and the mid-frontal old/new effect is not uncontroversial. It has been argued that the mid-frontal old/new effect is functionally equivalent to the N400 and hence merely reflects differences in conceptual fluency between old and new items. Therefore, it is related to episodic familiarity only in situations in which conceptual fluency covaries with familiarity...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377157/age-effects-on-associative-memory-for-novel-picture-pairings
#13
Emma K Bridger, Anna-Lena Kursawe, Regine Bader, Roni Tibon, Nurit Gronau, Daniel A Levy, Axel Mecklinger
Normal aging is usually accompanied by greater memory decline for associations than for single items. Though associative memory is generally supported by recollection, it has been suggested that familiarity can also contribute to associative memory when stimuli can be unitized and encoded as a single entity. Given that familiarity remains intact during healthy aging, this may be one route to reducing age-related associative deficits. The current study investigated age-related differences in associative memory under conditions that were expected to differentially promote unitization, in this case by manipulating the spatial arrangement of two semantically unrelated objects positioned relative to each other in either spatially implausible or plausible orientations...
April 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376732/changes-in-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-habits-from-pre-pregnancy-to-early-pregnancy-among-norwegian-women
#14
Marianne Skreden, Elling Bere, Linda R Sagedal, Ingvild Vistad, Nina C Øverby
BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age. METHODS: Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway...
April 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367700/-if-only-had-i-known-a-qualitative-study-investigating-a-treatment-of-patients-with-a-hip-fracture-with-short-time-stay-in-hospital
#15
Charlotte M Jensen, Anthony C Smith, Soren Overgaard, Uffe Kock Wiil, Jane Clemensen
Hip fractures are amongst the leading causes of admission to an orthopaedic ward. Systematized pathways with reduced admission time have become increasingly common as an essential tool for quality development and to improve efficiency in the hospital setting.  The aim of this study was to clarify if the patients feel empowered and able to perform self-care after short time stay in hospital (STSH) due to a hip fracture. The study used descriptive phenomenology to describe experiences of the pathway. Field studies were conducted in hospitals and in the patients' homes...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365362/the-precuneus-and-hippocampus-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-the-unfolding-of-spatial-representations-during-episodic-autobiographical-memory
#16
Melissa Hebscher, Brian Levine, Asaf Gilboa
Spatial information is a central aspect of episodic autobiographical memory (EAM). Space-based theories of memory, including cognitive map and scene construction models, posit that spatial reinstatement is a required process during early event recall. Spatial information can be represented from both allocentric (third-person) and egocentric (first-person) perspectives during EAM, with egocentric perspectives being important for mental imagery and supported by the precuneus. Individuals differ in their tendency to rely on allocentric or egocentric information, and in general, the subjective experience of remembering in EAM differs greatly across individuals...
March 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358537/eliminating-age-differences-in-children-s-and-adults-suggestibility-and-memory-conformity-effects
#17
Henry Otgaar, Mark L Howe, Nathalie Brackmann, Daniël H J van Helvoort
We examined whether typical developmental trends in suggestion-induced false memories (i.e., age-related decrease) could be changed. Using theoretical principles from the spontaneous false memory field, we adapted 2 often-used false memory procedures: misinformation (Experiment 1) and memory conformity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 7- to 9-year-old children (n = 33) and adults (n = 39) received stories containing associatively related details. They then listened to misinformation in the form of short narratives preserving the meaning of the story...
March 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349858/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-in-dementia-family-caregiver-experiences
#18
Tatiana Sadak, Susan Foster Zdon, Emily Ishado, Oleg Zaslavsky, Soo Borson
BACKGROUND: Health crises in persons living with dementia challenge their caregivers to make pivotal decisions, often under pressure, and to act in new ways on behalf of their care recipient. Disruption of everyday routines and heightened stress are familiar consequences of these events. Hospitalization for acute illness or injury is a familiar health crisis in dementia. The focus of this study is to describe the lived experience of dementia family caregivers whose care recipients had a recent unplanned admission, and to identify potential opportunities for developing preventive interventions...
March 28, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340383/infant-helping-in-the-first-year-of-life-parents-recollection-of-infants-earliest-prosocial-behaviors
#19
Stuart I Hammond, Elizabeth Al-Jbouri, Victoria Edwards, Laura E Feltham
Prosocial behavior is widely thought to emerge early in the second year of life. This paper presents evidence that helping emerges early in the first year of life. Parents of 80 children asked to recollect the earliest instance of their child helping recalled help in two contexts: chores (e.g., cleaning up) and care and self-care (e.g., feeding and dressing). A subset of parents recalled helping even before eight months of age, most often in the context of self-care tasks. The presence of helping this early in the lifespan is situated in recent research, and its implications for current theories of early prosocial behavior are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324695/imagining-the-future-the-core-episodic-simulation-network-dissociates-as-a-function-of-timecourse-and-the-amount-of-simulated-information
#20
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Neuroimaging data indicate that episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) and episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, often referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, lateral and medial parietal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence for a core network has been taken as support for the idea that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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