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Lâle Battal Merlet, Alain Blanchet, Hazlin Lockman, Milena Kostova
The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
L V Duggan, S L Lockhart, T M Cook, E P O'Sullivan, T Dare, P A Baker
In this exploratory study we describe the utility of smartphone technology for anonymous retrospective observational data collection of emergency front-of-neck airway management. The medical community continues to debate the optimal technique for emergency front-of-neck airway management. Although individual clinicians infrequently perform this procedure, hundreds are performed annually worldwide. Ubiquitous smartphone technology and internet connectivity have created the opportunity to collect these data. We created the 'Airway App', a smartphone application to capture the experiences of healthcare providers involved in emergency front-of-neck airway procedures...
March 13, 2018: Anaesthesia
Storm B Martin, Thomas H Cribb, Scott C Cutmore, Daniel C Huston
Choerodonicola Cribb, 2005 is a minor genus of opecoelid trematodes defined for species with exceptionally small eggs but otherwise generalised morphology. Four species are currently recognised, all from fishes collected in Japanese waters but each from different perciform families: a labrid, a scarid, a sparid and pinguipeds. We report on a new species, Choerodonicola arothokoros n. sp., from the blue-barred parrotfish Scarus ghobban Forsskål (Scaridae) collected in subtropical waters of Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia...
March 12, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Jonathan Curot, Luc Valton, Marie Denuelle, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Louis Maillard, Jérémie Pariente, Agnès Trébuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei, Emmanuel J Barbeau
BACKGROUND: Epileptic patients sometimes report experiential phenomena related to a previous dream they had during seizures or electrical brain stimulation (EBS). This has been alluded to in the literature as "déjà-rêvé" ("already dreamed"). However, there is no neuroscientific evidence to support its existence and this concept is commonly mixed up with déjà-vu. We hypothesized that déjà-rêvé would be a specific entity, i.e., different from other experiential phenomena reported in epileptic patients, induced by EBS of specific brain areas...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Anton Gollwitzer, Magdalena Wilczynska, Edo S Jaya
Targeting the antecedents of paranoia may be one potential method to reduce or prevent paranoia. For instance, targeting a potential antecedent of paranoia - loneliness - may reduce paranoia. Our first research question was whether loneliness heightens subclinical paranoia and whether negative affect may mediate this effect. Second, we wondered whether this potential effect could be targeted via two interventionist pathways in line with an interventionist-causal model approach: (1) decreasing loneliness, and (2) intervening on the potential mediator - negative affect...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Daniel A Levy, Rotem Mika, Cecilia Radzyminski, Shir Ben-Zvi, Roni Tibon
In studies of behavioral reconsolidation interference, reactivation of a consolidated memory using some form of reminder is followed by the presentation of new information that can cause interference with that memory. Under these conditions, the interference not only impairs retrieval by indirect processes such as cue interference, but supposedly disrupts the original memory trace directly. Almost all studies of behavioral reconsolidation interference in episodic memory in humans have employed between-subjects paradigms, and deduced reminder effects from intrusion errors...
March 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ian Lubek, Michael Murray
Academic (sub)disciplines develop in time and place when particular ideas/practices are nurtured within social, gendered, cultural, community, economic and political contexts. Different histories employ different analyses, some with external views of scientific outputs describing research and practice, and others with internal, behind-the-scenes examinations of these developments, through oral histories and personal recollections. This collection, written by historians of (social) science, or practitioners or pioneering participants, uses different historiographical methods to contextualize health-related activities within the sub-discipline of health psychology and the evolving critical and/or community approaches...
March 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Pavel Etingof, Travis Schedler
We survey the theory of Poisson traces (or zeroth Poisson homology) developed by the authors in a series of recent papers. The goal is to understand this subtle invariant of (singular) Poisson varieties, conditions for it to be finite-dimensional, its relationship to the geometry and topology of symplectic resolutions, and its applications to quantizations. The main technique is the study of a canonical D-module on the variety. In the case the variety has finitely many symplectic leaves (such as for symplectic singularities and Hamiltonian reductions of symplectic vector spaces by reductive groups), the D-module is holonomic, and hence, the space of Poisson traces is finite-dimensional...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
Renée K Biss, Gillian Rowe, Jennifer C Weeks, Lynn Hasher, Kelly J Murphy
Forgetting people's names is a common memory complaint among older adults and one that is consistent with experimental evidence of age-related decline in memory for face-name associations. Despite this difficulty intentionally forming face-name associations, a recent study demonstrated that older adults hyperbind distracting names and attended faces, which produces better learning of these face-name pairs when they reappear on a memory test (Weeks, Biss, Murphy, & Hasher, 2016). The current study explored whether this effect could be leveraged as an intervention to reduce older adults' forgetting of face-name associations, using a method previously shown to improve older adults' retention of a word list (Biss, Ngo, Hasher, Campbell, & Rowe, 2013)...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Nicole D Anderson, Patricia L Ebert, Cheryl L Grady, Janine M Jennings
The objectives of this study were to replicate age-related decrements in recollection and source memory, and to determine if repetition lag training improves recollection and whether these effects maintain and transfer to other tasks. Sixteen young adults and 46 healthy older adults participated, the latter of whom comprised hi-old (n = 16) and lo-old (n = 30) based on neuropsychological memory tests. All participants completed memory tests and questionnaires at baseline, and then half of the lo-old underwent nine days of repetition lag training while the other half engaged in a 9-day active control program...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Hope C Fine, Yee Lee Shing, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Older adults seem to have a special difficulty binding components of their episodic memories to each other and retrieving these bound units. This phenomenon, known as the age-related associative memory deficit, is partially driven by high false alarm rates in the associative test. The current research examines whether 2 factors: (a) manipulations of changes of schematic support between study and test (potentially affecting recollection) and (b) item repetition (potentially affecting item familiarity) might decrease older adults' false alarm rate, thereby resulting in a smaller associative memory deficit...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Joseph P Hennessee, Barbara J Knowlton, Alan D Castel
Valuable items are often remembered better than items that are less valuable by both older and younger adults, but older adults typically show deficits in binding. Here, we examine whether value affects the quality of recognition memory and the binding of incidental details to valuable items. In Experiment 1, participants learned English words each associated with a point-value they earned for correct recognition with the goal of maximizing their score. In Experiment 2, value was manipulated by presenting items that were either congruent or incongruent with an imagined state of physiological need (e...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Elizabeth A Maylor, Stephen P Badham
Time of day is known to influence cognition differently across age groups, with young adults performing better later than earlier in the day and older adults showing the opposite pattern. Thus age-related deficits can be smaller when testing occurs in the morning compared with the afternoon/evening, particularly for tasks requiring executive/controlled/inhibitory processes. Stronger influences of time of day were therefore predicted on associative than on item recognition memory based on their differential requirements for demanding recollective (rather than familiarity) processes...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Joshua D Koen, Erin D Horne, Nedra Hauck, Michael D Rugg
Prestimulus subsequent memory effects (preSMEs)-differences in neural activity elicited by a task cue at encoding that are predictive of later memory performance-are thought to reflect differential engagement of preparatory processes that benefit episodic memory encoding. We investigated age differences in preSMEs indexed by differences in ERP amplitude just before the onset of a study item. Young and older adults incidentally encoded words for a subsequent memory test. Each study word was preceded by a task cue that signaled the judgment to perform on the word...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
David St-Amand, Signy Sheldon, A Ross Otto
When choosing between options that vary in risk, we often rely on our experience with options-our episodic memories-to make that choice. Although episodic memory has been demonstrated to be critically involved in value-based decision-making, it is not clear how these memory processes contribute to decision-making that involves risk. To investigate this issue, we tested a group of participants on a repeated-choice risky decision-making task. Before completing this task, half of the participants were given a well-validated episodic induction task-a brief training procedure in recollecting the details of a past experience-known to engage episodic memory processes, and the other half were given a general impressions induction task that engages general mnemonic processes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Xichong Ye, Jie Zhang, Jiaxi Cui, Xinhua Wan
Novel polymeric inhibitors with lower critical solution temperatures in water were prepared and used to mediate the crystallization of racemic asparagine monohydrate, leading to chiral separation with 88.6 ee%. They could be recollected by simply elevating the temperature with a high yield of around 95% and reused without compromising the stereoselectivity and stability.
February 27, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Alan Scoboria, Henry Otgaar, Giuliana Mazzoni
When receiving disconfirmatory social feedback about recollected events, people sometimes defend and sometimes reduce their belief that the event genuinely occurred. To improve estimates of the rates of memory defense and reduction, and of the magnitude of the change in belief in occurrence that results, in the present studies we examined the effect of disconfirmatory social challenges made to correctly recalled memories for actions performed in the lab. Adult participants performed, imagined, or heard action statements and imagined some of the initial actions multiple times...
February 23, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Holger Wiese, Stefan R Schweinberger
Humans are more accurate at remembering faces from their own relative to a different ethnic group (own-race bias). Moreover, better memory for faces from an observer's own relative to the other-gender (own-gender bias) has also been reported, particularly for female participants. Theoretical explanations for these effects either emphasize differential perceptual expertise or socio-cognitive factors. Importantly, both types of explanations typically assume a single common mechanism for the various biases. The present study examined event-related potentials (ERP) in a combined own-race/own-gender bias experiment...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Bongseop Kwak, Yoohwan Lee, Jaehun Lee, Sungwon Lee, Jiseok Lim
In vivo tumors develop in a three-dimensional manner and have unique and complex characteristics. Physico-biochemical barriers on tumors cause drug resistance and limit drug delivery efficiency. Currently, 2D cancer cell monolayer platforms are frequently used to test the efficiency of new drug materials. However, the monolayer platform generally overestimates drug efficiency because of the absence of physico-biochemical barriers. Many literatures indicated that a 3D tumor spheroid model has very similar characteristics to in vivo tumor models, and studies demonstrated the accurate prediction of drug efficiency using this model...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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