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Posterior parietal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217224/the-neural-correlates-of-self-referential-memory-encoding-and-retrieval-in-schizophrenia
#1
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
BACKGROUND: Enhanced memory for self-oriented information is known as the self-referential memory (SRM) effect. fMRI studies of the SRM effect have focused almost exclusively on encoding, revealing selective engagement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during "self" relative to other processing conditions. Other critical areas for self-processing include ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PC). Previous behavioral studies show that individuals with schizophrenia fail to benefit from this memory boost...
December 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213067/not-all-observed-actions-are-perceived-equally
#2
Artem Platonov, Guy A Orban
Action observation is the visual process analyzing the actions of others to determine their goals and how the actor's body (part) movements permit attaining those goals. Our recent psychophysical study demonstrated that 1) observed action (OA) perception differs from shape perception in viewpoint and duration dependence, and 2) accuracy and reaction times of OA discrimination are fitted by the proportional-rate diffusion model whereby a sensory stage provides noisy evidence that is accumulated up to a criterion or bound by a decision stage...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212618/altered-cerebral-perfusion-in-infants-born-preterm-compared-with-infants-born-full-term
#3
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Jonathan Murnick, Marie Brossard-Racine, Taeun Chang, Eman Mahdi, Marni Jacobs, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To compare regional cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) in infants born very preterm at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy newborns born full term and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on CBF in the cohort born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, cross-sectional study included infants born very preterm (gestational age at birth <32 weeks; birth weight <1500 g) and healthy infants born full term. Using noninvasive 3T arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified regional CBF in the cerebral cortex: sensorimotor/auditory/visual cortex, superior medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and lateral posterior parietal cortex, as well as in the brainstem, and deep gray matter...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#4
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209181/the-agent-brain-a-review-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-studies-on-sensing-agency
#5
REVIEW
Davide Crivelli, Michela Balconi
According to philosophy of mind and neuroscientific models, the sense of agency can be defined as the sense that I am the one that is generating an action and causing its effects. Such ability to sense ourselves as causal agents is critical for the definition of intentional behavior and is a primary root for human interaction skills. The present mini-review aims at discussing evidences from non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) studies targeting functional correlates of different aspects of agency and evidences on the way stimulation techniques affect such core feature of human subjective experience...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208991/high-definition-tdcs-of-the-temporo-parietal-cortex-enhances-access-to-newly-learned-words
#6
Garon Perceval, Andrew K Martin, David A Copland, Matti Laine, Marcus Meinzer
Learning associations between words and their referents is crucial for language learning in the developing and adult brain and for language re-learning after neurological injury. Non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the posterior temporo-parietal cortex has been suggested to enhance this process. However, previous studies employed standard tDCS set-ups that induce diffuse current flow in the brain, preventing the attribution of stimulation effects to the target region. This study employed high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) that allowed the current flow to be constrained to the temporo-parietal cortex, to clarify its role in novel word learning...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202824/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-enhances-human-temporal-discrimination-ability
#7
Fuyuki Oyama, Keita Ishibashi, Koichi Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: Time perception associated with durations from 1 s to several minutes involves activity in the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC). It is unclear whether altering the activity of the rPPC affects an individual's timing performance. Here, we investigated the human timing performance under the application of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the rPPC. METHODS: We measured the participants' duration-discrimination threshold by administering a behavioral task during the tDCS application...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197726/the-neural-signature-of-self-concept-development-in-adolescence-the-role-of-domain-and-valence-distinctions
#8
R van der Cruijsen, S Peters, L P E van der Aar, E A Crone
Neuroimaging studies in adults showed that cortical midline regions including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are important in self-evaluations. The goals of this study were to investigate the contribution of these regions to self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and to examine whether these differed per domain (academic, physical and prosocial) and valence (positive versus negative). Also, we tested whether this activation changes across adolescence...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197501/intuitive-physics-ability-in-systemizers-relies-on-differential-use-of-the-internalizing-system-and-long-term-spatial-representations
#9
Tapani Riekki, Juha Salmi, Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
According to the Empathizing-Systemizing theory (E-S Theory), individual differences in how people understand the physical world (systemizing) and the social world (empathizing), are two continuums in the general population with several implications, from vocational interests to skills in the social and physical domains. The underlying mechanisms of intuitive physics performance among individuals with a strong systemizing and weak empathizing (systemizers) are, however, unknown. Our results affirm higher intuitive physics skills in healthy adult systemizers (N=36), and further reveal the brain mechanisms that are characteristic for those individuals in carrying out such tasks...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192256/posterior-parietal-cortex-evaluates-visuoproprioceptive-congruence-based-on-brief-visual-information
#10
Jakub Limanowski, Felix Blankenburg
To represent one's upper limbs for action, the brain relies on a combined position estimate based on visual and proprioceptive information. Monkey neurophysiology and human brain imaging suggest that the underlying operations are implemented in a network of fronto-parietal and occipitotemporal cortical areas. Recently, a potential hierarchical arrangement of these areas has been proposed, emphasizing the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in early multisensory comparison and integration. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality-based setup to briefly (0...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190989/aberrant-pattern-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-voxel-wise-meta-analysis-of-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-studies
#11
Hai Rong Ma, Ping Lei Pan, Li Qin Sheng, Zhen Yu Dai, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Jia Hui Chen, Pei Rong Xiao, Jian Guo Zhong, Hai Cun Shi
Many studies have applied arterial spin labeling (ASL) to characterize cerebral perfusion patterns of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, findings across studies are not conclusive. A quantitatively voxel-wise meta-analysis to pool the resting-state ASL studies that measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations in AD was conducted to identify the most consistent and replicable perfusion pattern using seed-based d mapping. The meta-analysis, including 17 ASL studies encompassing 327 AD patients and 357 healthy controls, demonstrated that decreased rCBF in AD patients relative to healthy controls were consistently identified in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)/precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190704/electrocortical-correlates-of-human-level-ground-slope-and-stair-walking
#12
Trieu Phat Luu, Justin A Brantley, Sho Nakagome, Fangshi Zhu, Jose L Contreras-Vidal
This study investigated electrocortical dynamics of human walking across different unconstrained walking conditions (i.e., level ground (LW), ramp ascent (RA), and stair ascent (SA)). Non-invasive active-electrode scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded and a systematic EEG processing method was implemented to reduce artifacts. Source localization combined with independent component analysis and k-means clustering revealed the involvement of four clusters in the brain during the walking tasks: Left and Right Occipital Lobe (LOL, ROL), Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC), and Central Sensorimotor Cortex (SMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183684/age-related-changes-in-the-neural-networks-supporting-semantic-cognition-a-meta-analysis-of-47-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#13
REVIEW
Paul Hoffman, Alexa M Morcom
Semantic cognition is central to understanding of language and the world and, unlike many cognitive domains, is thought to show little age-related decline. We investigated age-related differences in the neural basis of this critical cognitive domain by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies comparing young and older people. On average, young people outperformed their older counterparts during semantic tasks. Overall, both age groups activated similar left-lateralised regions...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172186/-neural-basis-for-producing-temporal-order
#14
Shigeru Kitazawa
It has been proposed that a position in time can be discriminated in two ways. First, each position is either past, present, or future (A series). Second, each position is either before or after another (B series). In this review, we aim to infer how the two series are represented in the brain on the basis of findings from clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We suggest that the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex are critically involved in the A series. In the B series, we suggest that a group of events are represented in space around the intraparietal cortex and are combined with the temporal directional cue provided by the motion signals in the left temporo-parietal junction...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167833/disorder-specific-and-shared-brain-abnormalities-during-vigilance-in-autism-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#15
Christina O Carlisi, Luke Norman, Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, Declan G Murphy, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and share similarities across some cognitive phenotypes, including certain aspects of attention. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have compared the underlying neural mechanisms contributing to these shared phenotypes. Methods: Age- and IQ-matched boys (11-17 years old) with ASD (n = 20), boys with OCD (n = 20), and healthy control boys (n = 20) performed a parametrically modulated psychomotor vigilance functional magnetic resonance imaging task...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167639/disrupted-thalamus-white-matter-anatomy-and-posterior-default-mode-network-effective-connectivity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Thomas Alderson, Elizabeth Kehoe, Liam Maguire, Dervla Farrell, Brian Lawlor, Rose A Kenny, Declan Lyons, Arun L W Bokde, Damien Coyle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN) resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164726/functional-connectivity-changes-following-interpersonal-reactivity
#17
A L Krause, L Colic, V Borchardt, M Li, B Strauss, A Buchheim, D Wildgruber, P Fonagy, T Nolte, M Walter
Attachment experiences substantially influence emotional and cognitive development. Narratives comprising attachment-dependent content were proposed to modulate activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We studied the effects after listening to prototypical attachment narratives on wellbeing and countertransference-reactions in 149 healthy participants. Neural correlates of these cognitive-emotional schema activations were investigated in a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-study (23 healthy males) using functional connectivity (FC) analysis of the social approach network (seed regions: left and right Caudate Nucleus, CN)...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164115/cross-sectional-associations-of-fatigue-with-cerebral-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#18
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Nicola Coley, Matteo Cesari, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Fatigue is a common symptom in the elderly and has also been associated with impaired cognition in older adults. Hence, we sought to explore the cross-sectional relationship between fatigue and cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) in 269 elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial. Standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were generated by [(18)F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) using the cerebellum as a reference. Cortical-to-cerebellar SUVRs (cortical-SUVRs) were obtained using the mean signal from the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#19
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156413/anterior-posterior-gradient-differences-in-lobar-and-cingulate-cortex-cerebral-blood-flow-in-late-life-depression
#20
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression, contributing to changes in cerebral function. We examined whether late-life depression was associated with differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and whether such differences were related to vascular risk and cerebrovascular pathology, specifically white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes. Twenty-three depressed elders and 20 age- and sex-matched elders with no psychiatric history completed cranial 3T MRI. MRI procedures included a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition obtained while on room air and during a hypercapnia challenge allowing for calculation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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