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Posterior parietal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#1
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663384/cortical-connections-of-area-2-and-posterior-parietal-area-5-in-macaque-monkeys
#2
Jeffrey Padberg, Dylan F Cooke, Christina M Cerkevich, Jon H Kaas, Leah Krubitzer
The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine the connections of anterior parietal area 2 and the medial portion of posterior parietal area 5 in macaque monkeys; two areas that are part of a network involved reaching and grasping in primates. We injected neuroanatomical tracers into specified locations in each field and directly related labeled cells to histologically identified cortical field boundaries. Labeled cells were counted so that the relative density of projections to areas 2 and 5 from other cortical fields could be determined...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660812/tremor-severity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cortical-changes-of-areas-controlling-movement-sequencing-a-preliminary-study
#3
Julián Benito-León, J Ignacio Serrano, Elan D Louis, Ales Holobar, Juan P Romero, P Povalej-Bržan, Félix Bermejo-Pareja, M Dolores Del Castillo, Ignacio J Posada, Eduardo Rocon
There remains much to learn about the changes in cortical anatomy that are associated with tremor severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). For this reason, we used a combination of structural neuroimaging to measure cortical thickness and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether PD tremor was associated with cortex integrity. Magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented PD patients (9 women, 69.2%) with a clearly tremor-dominant phenotype. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis software...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660636/regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-major-depressive-disorder-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression-and-healthy-subjects
#4
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659730/an-information-driven-2-pathway-characterization-of-occipitotemporal-and-posterior-parietal-visual-object-representations
#5
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Yaoda Xu
Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of rich visual representations in both occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Using fMRI decoding and a bottom-up data-driven approach, we showed that although robust object category representations exist in both OTC and PPC, there is an information-driven 2-pathway separation among these regions in the representational space, with occipitotemporal regions arranging hierarchically along 1 pathway and posterior parietal regions along another pathway...
April 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#6
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649562/carrying-the-past-to-the-future-distinct-brain-networks-underlie-individual-differences-in-human-spatial-working-memory-capacity
#7
Siwei Liu, Jia-Hou Poh, Huili Koh, Eric Kwun-Kei Ng, Yng Miin Loke, Joseph Kai Wei Lim, Joanna Su Xian Chong, Juan Zhou
Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644521/functional-connectivity-change-between-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-ventral-attention-network-relates-to-the-impairment-of-orientation-for-time-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#8
Ken-Ichiro Yamashita, Taira Uehara, Pukovisa Prawiroharjo, Koji Yamashita, Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Yoshihide Taniwaki, Hidetsuna Utsunomiya, Takuya Matsushita, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients exhibit various cognitive dysfunctions, including impairment of orientation for time (OT). The brain regions underlying OT impairment remain to be elucidated. A previous single-photon emission computed tomography study has indicated hypoperfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in relation to deterioration of OT. In this study, we investigated whole brain functional connectivity changes of PCC using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based functional connectivity with PCC was analyzed in OT-poor or OT-good AD patients, classified according to the mean OT scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination subscale...
April 12, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628067/orbital-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-functional-connectivity-of-major-depression-vulnerability-and-disease
#9
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Frenk Peeters, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiology models of major depression (MD) center on the dysfunction of various cortical areas within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex. While independent structural and functional abnormalities in these areas are consistent findings in MD, the complex interactions among them and the rest of the cortex remain largely unexplored. METHODS: We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity to systematically map alterations in the communication between orbital and medial prefrontal cortex fields and the rest of the brain in MD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623428/frontal-cortical-control-of-posterior-sensory-and-association-cortices-through-the-claustrum
#10
Michael G White, Brian N Mathur
The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter nucleus that is richly interconnected with the neocortex. This structure subserves top-down executive functions that require frontal cortical control of posterior cortical regions. However, functional anatomical support for the claustrum allowing for long-range intercortical communication is lacking. To test this, we performed a channelrhodopsin-assisted long-circuit mapping strategy in mouse brain slices. We find that anterior cingulate cortex input to the claustrum is transiently amplified by claustrum neurons that, in turn, project to parietal association cortex or to primary and secondary visual cortices...
April 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615790/multivariate-granger-causality-unveils-directed-parietal-to-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-during-task-free-mri
#11
Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti, Gaetano Valenza, Riccardo Barbieri, Maria Guerrisi, Nicola Toschi
While a large body of research has focused on the study of functional brain "connectivity", few investigators have focused on directionality of brain-brain interactions which, in spite of the mostly bidirectional anatomical substrates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical. We employ a multivariate Granger Causality-based approach to estimating directed in-network interactions and quantify its advantages using extensive realistic synthetic BOLD data simulations to match Human Connectome Project (HCP) data specification...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615111/metabolic-correlates-of-reserve-and-resilience-in-mci-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#12
Matteo Bauckneht, Andrea Chincarini, Roberta Piva, Dario Arnaldi, Nicola Girtler, Federico Massa, Matteo Pardini, Matteo Grazzini, Hulya Efeturk, Marco Pagani, Gianmario Sambuceti, Flavio Nobili, Silvia Morbelli
BACKGROUND: We explored the presence of both reserve and resilience in late-converter mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) and in patients with slowly progressing amyloid-positive MCI by assessing the topography and extent of neurodegeneration with respect to both "aggressive" and typically progressing phenotypes and in the whole group of patients with MCI, grounding the stratification on education level. METHODS: We analyzed 94 patients with MCI-AD followed until conversion to dementia and 39 patients with MCI who had brain amyloidosis (AMY+ MCI), all with available baseline18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) results...
April 3, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614925/selective-map-following-navigation-deficit-a-new-case-of-developmental-topographical-disorientation
#13
Massimiliano Conson, Filippo Bianchini, Mario Quarantelli, Maddalena Boccia, Sara Salzano, Antonella Di Vita, Cecilia Guariglia
INTRODUCTION: Developmental topographical disorientation (DTD) is a lifelong condition in which affected individuals are selectively impaired in navigating space. Although it seems that DTD is widespread in the population, only a few cases have been studied from both a behavioral and a neuroimaging point of view. Here, we report a new case of DTD, never described previously, of a young woman (C.F.) showing a specific deficit in translating allocentrically coded information into egocentrically guided navigation, in presence of spared ability of constructing such representations...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610356/spatial-eye-hand-coordination-during-bimanual-reaching-is-not-systematically-coded-in-either-lip-or-prr
#14
Eric Mooshagian, Lawrence H Snyder
We often orient to where we are about to reach. Spatial and temporal correlations in eye and arm movements may depend on the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Spatial representations of saccade and reach goals preferentially activate cells in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and the parietal reach region (PRR), respectively. With unimanual reaches, eye and arm movement patterns are highly stereotyped. This makes it difficult to study the neural circuits involved in coordination. Here, we employ bimanual reaching to two different targets...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609118/tms-over-the-supramarginal-gyrus-delays-selection-of-appropriate-grasp-orientation-during-reaching-and-grasping-tools-for-use
#15
Tomás McDowell, Nicholas P Holmes, Alan Sunderland, Martin Schürmann
Tool use, a ubiquitous part of human behaviour, requires manipulation control and knowledge of tool purpose. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological research posit that these two processes are supported by separate brain regions, ventral premotor and inferior parietal for manipulation control, and posterior middle temporal cortex for tool knowledge, lateralised to the left hemisphere. Action plans for tool use need to integrate these two separate processes, which is likely supported by the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601896/differentiating-between-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression-in-functional-and-structural-mri-studies
#16
REVIEW
Kyu-Man Han, Domenico De Berardis, Michele Fornaro, Yong-Ku Kim
Distinguishing depression in bipolar disorder (BD) from unipolar depression (UD) solely based on clinical clues is difficult, which has led to the exploration of promising neural markers in neuroimaging measures for discriminating between BD depression and UD. In this article, we review structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that directly compare UD and BD depression based on neuroimaging modalities including functional MRI studies on regional brain activation or functional connectivity, structural MRI on gray or white matter morphology, and pattern classification analyses using a machine learning approach...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#17
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593522/frontoparietal-tdcs-benefits-visual-working-memory-in-older-adults-with-low-working-memory-capacity
#18
Hector Arciniega, Filiz Gözenman, Kevin T Jones, Jaclyn A Stephens, Marian E Berryhill
Working memory (WM) permits maintenance of information over brief delays and is an essential executive function. Unfortunately, WM is subject to age-related decline. Some evidence supports the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to improve visual WM. A gap in knowledge is an understanding of the mechanism characterizing these tDCS linked effects. To address this gap, we compared the effects of two tDCS montages designed on visual working memory (VWM) performance. The bifrontal montage was designed to stimulate the heightened bilateral frontal activity observed in aging adults...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590314/altruistic-decisions-following-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Rodrigo Basilio, Ivanei Edson Bramati, Barry Gordon, Geraldine Rodríguez-Nieto, Roland Zahn, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
The cerebral correlates of altruistic decisions have increasingly attracted the interest of neuroscientists. To date, investigations on the neural underpinnings of altruistic decisions have primarily been conducted in healthy adults undergoing functional neuroimaging as they engaged in decisions to punish third parties. The chief purpose of the present study was to investigate altruistic decisions following focal brain damage with a novel altruistic decision task. In contrast to studies that have focused either on altruistic punishment or donation, the Altruistic Decision Task allows players to anonymously punish or donate to 30 charitable organizations involved with salient societal issues such as abortion, nuclear energy and civil rights...
March 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587165/disrupted-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-the-insula-subregions-in-drug-free-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Chao Wang, Huawang Wu, Fangfang Chen, Jinping Xu, Hongming Li, Hong Li, Jiaojian Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impairments in emotional and cognitive functions. Emerging studies have shown that cognition and emotion interact by reaching identical brain regions, and the insula is one such region with functional and structural heterogeneity. Although previous literatures have shown the role of insula in MDD,it remains unclear whether the insular subregions show differential change patterns in MDD. METHODS: Using the resting-state fMRI data in a group of 23 drug-free MDD patients and 34 healthy controls (HCs), we investigated whether the abnormal connectivity patterns of insular sub-regions or any behavioural correlates can be detected in MDD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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