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Posterior parietal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231459/multisensory-conflict-resolution-should-i-stay-or-should-i-go
#1
Daniel B Polley
Swift action is often required in the face of indeterminate sensory evidence. In this issue of Neuron, Song et al. (2017) describe an inhibitory circuit in the posterior parietal cortex that evaluates conflicting auditory and visual cues and supports resolute perceptual decision making.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223931/a-computational-model-for-spatial-navigation-based-on-reference-frames-in-the-hippocampus-retrosplenial-cortex-and-posterior-parietal-cortex
#2
Timo Oess, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Florian Röhrbein
Behavioral studies for humans, monkeys, and rats have shown that, while traversing an environment, these mammals tend to use different frames of reference and frequently switch between them. These frames represent allocentric, egocentric, or route-centric views of the environment. However, combinations of either of them are often deployed. Neurophysiological studies on rats have indicated that the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex, and the posterior parietal cortex contribute to the formation of these frames and mediate the transformation between those...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223685/finger-posture-modulates-structural-body-representations
#3
Luigi Tamè, Elanah Dransfield, Thomas Quettier, Matthew R Longo
Patients with lesions of the left posterior parietal cortex commonly fail in identifying their fingers, a condition known as finger agnosia, yet are relatively unimpaired in sensation and skilled action. Such dissociations have traditionally been interpreted as evidence that structural body representations (BSR), such as the body structural description, are distinct from sensorimotor representations, such as the body schema. We investigated whether performance on tasks commonly used to assess finger agnosia is modulated by changes in hand posture...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219776/deactivation-in-the-posterior-mid-cingulate-cortex-reflects-perceptual-transitions-during-binocular-rivalry-evidence-from-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#4
Abhrajeet Roy, Keith Jamison, Sheng He, Steve Engel, Bin He
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes' images were tagged with different temporal frequencies so that eye specific steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals could be extracted from the EEG data for direct comparison with changes in fMRI BOLD activity associated with binocular rivalry...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216087/neural-consequences-of-post-exertion-malaise-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#5
Dane B Cook, Alan R Light, Kathleen C Light, Gordon Broderick, Morgan R Shields, Ryan J Dougherty, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie VanRiper, Aaron J Stegner, Laura D Ellingson, Suzanne D Vernon
Post exertion malaise is one of the most debilitating aspects of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, yet the neurobiological consequences are largely unexplored. The objective of the study was to determine the neural consequences of acute exercise using functional brain imaging. Fifteen female Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients and 15 healthy female controls completed 30 minutes of submaximal exercise (70% of peak heart rate) on a cycle ergometer. Symptom assessments (e...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215391/childhood-trauma-related-alterations-in-brain-function-during-a-theory-of-mind-task-in-schizophrenia
#6
Yann Quidé, Xin H Ong, Sebastian Mohnke, Knut Schnell, Henrik Walter, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
February 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209980/the-contribution-of-the-human-posterior-parietal-cortex-to-episodic-memory
#7
REVIEW
Carlo Sestieri, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209975/the-attention-network-changes-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-evidence-from-an-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-study
#8
Xingui Chen, Xiaoxuan He, Longxiang Tao, Huaidong Cheng, Jingjing Li, Jingjie Zhang, Bensheng Qiu, Yongqiang Yu, Kai Wang
To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying attention deficits that are related to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with cerebral perfusion. Thirty one patients with breast cancer who were scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 34 healthy control subjects were included. The patients completed two assessments of the attention network tasks (ANT), neuropsychological background tests, and the arterial spin labeling scan, which were performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#9
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198413/pre-encoding-gamma-band-activity-during-auditory-working-memory
#10
Jochen Kaiser, Maria Rieder, Cornelius Abel, Benjamin Peters, Christoph Bledowski
Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195525/observing-others-speak-or-sing-activates-spt-and-neighboring-parietal-cortex
#11
Daniele Corbo, Guy A Orban
To obtain further evidence that action observation can serve as a proxy for action execution and planning in posterior parietal cortex, we scanned participants while they were (1) observing two classes of action: vocal communication and oral manipulation, which share the same effector but differ in nature, and (2) rehearsing and listening to nonsense sentences to localize area Spt, thought to be involved in audio-motor transformation during speech. Using this localizer, we found that Spt is specifically activated by vocal communication, indicating that Spt is not only involved in planning speech but also in observing vocal communication actions...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193488/validation-of-periodic-fmri-signals-in-response-to-wearable-tactile-stimulation
#12
Ching-Fu Chen, Kenneth Kreutz-Delgado, Martin I Sereno, Ruey-Song Huang
To map cortical representations of the body, we recently developed a wearable technology for automatic tactile stimulation in human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. In a two-condition block design experiment, air puffs were delivered to the face and hands periodically. Surface-based regions of interest (S-ROIs) were initially identified by thresholding a linear statistical measure of signal-to-noise ratio of periodic response. Across subjects, S-ROIs were found in the frontal, primary sensorimotor, posterior parietal, insular, temporal, cingulate, and occipital cortices...
February 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192502/theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-prefrontal-or-parietal-cortex-does-not-impair-metacognitive-visual-awareness
#13
Daniel Bor, David J Schwartzman, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth
Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186664/disruption-in-cerebellar-and-basal-ganglia-networks-during-a-visuospatial-task-in-cervical-dystonia
#14
Pavel Filip, Cécile Gallea, Stéphane Lehéricy, Eric Bertasi, Traian Popa, Radek Mareček, Ovidiu V Lungu, Tomáš Kašpárek, Jiří Vaníček, Martin Bareš
BACKGROUND: Although dystonia is traditionally conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, increasing interest has been directed at a different neural network node, the cerebellum, which may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. Abnormal sensorimotor processing and disturbed motor schemes, possibly attributable to cerebellar changes, remain unclear. METHODS: We sought to characterize the extent of cerebellar dysfunction within the motor network using functional MRI activation analysis, connectivity analysis, and voxel-based morphometry in cervical dystonia patients (n = 25, 15 women, mean age 45...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185950/can-responses-to-basic-non-numerical-visual-features-explain-neural-numerosity-responses
#15
Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
Humans and many animals can distinguish between stimuli that differ in numerosity, the number of objects in a set. Human and macaque parietal lobes contain neurons that respond to changes in stimulus numerosity. However, basic non-numerical visual features can affect neural responses to and perception of numerosity, and visual features often co-vary with numerosity. Therefore, it is debated whether numerosity or co-varying low-level visual features underlie neural and behavioral responses to numerosity. To test the hypothesis that non-numerical visual features underlie neural numerosity responses in a human parietal numerosity map, we analyze responses to a group of numerosity stimulus configurations that have the same numerosity progression but vary considerably in their non-numerical visual features...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180083/lateralized-occipital-degeneration-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-predicts-visual-field-deficits
#16
Rebecca S Millington, Merle James-Galton, Mari N Maia Da Silva, Gordon T Plant, Holly Bridge
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease, leads to high-level visual deficits such as alexia or agnosia. Visual field deficits have also been identified, but often inconsistently reported. Little is known about the pattern of visual field deficits or the underlying cortical changes leading to this visual loss. METHODS: Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate differences in gray matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and functional activity in patients with PCA compared to age-matched controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180077/multicenter-stability-of-resting-state-fmri-in-the-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mci
#17
Stefan J Teipel, Alexandra Wohlert, Coraline Metzger, Timo Grimmer, Christian Sorg, Michael Ewers, Eva Meisenzahl, Stefan Klöppel, Viola Borchardt, Michel J Grothe, Martin Walter, Martin Dyrba
BACKGROUND: In monocentric studies, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibited alterations of functional cortical connectivity in resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analyses. Multicenter studies provide access to large sample sizes, but rs-fMRI may be particularly sensitive to multiscanner effects. METHODS: We used data from five centers of the "German resting-state initiative for diagnostic biomarkers" (psymri...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179556/distinct-oscillatory-frequencies-underlie-excitability-of-human-occipital-and-parietal-cortex
#18
Jason Samaha, Olivia Gosseries, Bradley R Postle
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of human occipital and posterior parietal cortex can give rise to visual sensations called phosphenes. We used near-threshold TMS with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure how oscillatory brain dynamics covary, on single trials, with the perception of phosphenes following occipital and parietal TMS. Prestimulus power and phase, predominantly in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), predicted occipital TMS phosphenes, whereas higher frequency beta-band (13-20 Hz) power (but not phase) predicted parietal TMS phosphenes...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176413/anomalous-single-subject-based-morphological-cortical-networks-in-drug-naive-first-episode-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Taolin Chen, Keith M Kendrick, Jinhui Wang, Min Wu, Kaiming Li, Xiaoqi Huang, Yuejia Luo, Su Lui, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain morphological networks in group-level data. Such disruptions have not yet been identified in single-patients, which is needed to show relations with symptom severity and to evaluate their potential as biomarkers for illness. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional structural brain network study of 33 treatment-naive, first-episode MDD patients and 33 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176262/modifications-in-resting-state-functional-anticorrelation-between-default-mode-network-and-dorsal-attention-network-comparison-among-young-adults-healthy-elders-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#20
Roberto Esposito, Filippo Cieri, Piero Chiacchiaretta, Nicoletta Cera, Mariella Lauriola, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Armando Tartaro, Antonio Ferretti
Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients...
February 7, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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