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Posterior parietal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#1
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642168/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-as-integrative-hub-for-whisker-sensorimotor-information
#2
REVIEW
Hemanth Mohan, Roel de Haan, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock
Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#3
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#4
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625347/reachability-judgement-in-optic-ataxia-effect-of-peripheral-vision-on-hand-and-target-perception-in-depth
#5
Angela Bartolo, Yves Rossetti, Patrice Revol, Christian Urquizar, Laure Pisella, Yann Coello
The concept of peripersonal space was first proposed by Rizzolatti, Scandolara, Matelli, and Gentilucci (1981), who introduced the term to highlight the close links between somatosensory and visual processing for stimuli close to the body and suggested that this near-body space could in fact be characterized as an action space (Rizzolatti, Fadiga, Fogassi, & Gallese, 1997). Supporting this idea, patients with right hemisphere lesions have been described as impaired in performing actions towards objects and in perceiving their location - but only when the objects were presented within arm's reach (Bartolo, Carlier, Hassaini, Martin, & Coello, 2014; Brain, 1941)...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624681/semantic-word-category-processing-in-semantic-dementia-and-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#6
Zubaida Shebani, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor, Lara Z Diaz-de-Grenu, Kate Dawson, Friedemann Pulvermüller
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623718/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-reveals-a-dissociation-between-snarc-and-marc-effects-implication-for-the-polarity-correspondence-account
#7
Elisa Di Rosa, Lara Bardi, Carlo Umiltà, Fabio Masina, Margherita Forgione, Daniela Mapelli
The concept of stimulus response compatibility (SRC) refers to the existence of a privileged association between a specific stimulus feature and a specific response feature. Two examples of SRC are the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) and the Markedness Association of Response Codes (MARC) effects. According to the polarity correspondence principle, these two SRC effects occur because of a match between the most salient dimensions of stimulus and response. Specifically, the SNARC effect would be caused by a match between right-sided responses and large numbers, while a match between right-sided responses and even numbers would give rise to the MARC effect...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#8
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612547/-treatment-of-unilateral-neglect-using-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-and-sensory-cueing-sc-in-stroke-patients
#9
Ren-Gang Zhang, Sha-Xin Liu, Feng-Yi Wang, Xi-Chao Ma, Yong-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sensory cueing (SC) for improving hemi-spatial attention deficits related to unilateral neglect, upper limb function and independence of stroke patients. METHODS: An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Eligible stroke patients were treated with rTMS (n =17) or rTMS combined with SC (n =16) in addition to conventional rehabilitation measures...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611616/differential-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-two-subdivisions-within-the-right-dlpfc-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Julian Caspers, Christian Mathys, Felix Hoffstaedter, Martin Südmeyer, Edna C Cieslik, Christian Rubbert, Christian J Hartmann, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Christian Grefkes, Jochen Michely, Bernd Turowski, Alfons Schnitzler, Simon B Eickhoff
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605972/resting-state-connectivity-between-default-mode-network-and-insula-encodes-acute-migraine-headache
#11
Gianluca Coppola, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Marco Scapeccia, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Maurizio Evangelista, Anna Ambrosini, Claudio Colonnese, Jean Schoenen, Francesco Pierelli
Background Previous functional MRI studies have revealed that ongoing clinical pain in different chronic pain syndromes is directly correlated to the connectivity strength of the resting default mode network (DMN) with the insula. Here, we investigated seed-based resting state DMN-insula connectivity during acute migraine headaches. Methods Thirteen migraine without aura patients (MI) underwent 3 T MRI scans during the initial six hours of a spontaneous migraine attack, and were compared to a group of 19 healthy volunteers (HV)...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602998/the-right-hemisphere-is-independent-from-the-left-hemisphere-in-allocating-visuospatial-attention
#12
Arianna Zuanazzi, Luigi Cattaneo
The capacity to allocate visuospatial attention is traditionally considered right-lateralized according to the effects of unilateral cerebral lesions. Contralateral hemi-spatial neglect occurs much more frequently after lesions of the right hemisphere, which has therefore been dubbed as 'dominant'. This pattern of symptoms is supported by functional models that postulate either independence or reciprocal influences between the two hemispheres. Here we specifically explored the dependency of the right hemisphere (RH) from the left hemisphere (LH) in spatial attention...
June 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602963/brain-activity-related-to-working-memory-for-temporal-order-and-object-information
#13
Brooke M Roberts, Laura A Libby, Marika C Inhoff, Charan Ranganath
Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598839/functional-disintegration-of-the-default-mode-network-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Kim N H Dillen, Heidi I L Jacobs, Juraj Kukolja, Nils Richter, Boris von Reutern, Özgür A Onur, Karl-Josef Langen, Gereon R Fink
Neurodegenerative brain changes can affect the functional connectivity strength between nodes of the default-mode network (DMN), which may underlie changes in cognitive performance. It remains unclear how the functional connectivity strength of DMN nodes differs from healthy to pathological aging and whether these changes are cognitively relevant. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional connectivity strength across five DMN nodes in 25 healthy controls (HC), 28 subjective cognitive decline (SCD) participants, and 25 prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598432/neural-correlates-of-evidence-accumulation-during-value-based-decisions-revealed-via-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#15
M Andrea Pisauro, Elsa Fouragnan, Chris Retzler, Marios G Philiastides
Current computational accounts posit that, in simple binary choices, humans accumulate evidence in favour of the different alternatives before committing to a decision. Neural correlates of this accumulating activity have been found during perceptual decisions in parietal and prefrontal cortex; however the source of such activity in value-based choices remains unknown. Here we use simultaneous EEG-fMRI and computational modelling to identify EEG signals reflecting an accumulation process and demonstrate that the within- and across-trial variability in these signals explains fMRI responses in posterior-medial frontal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594097/functional-activity-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-and-cerebellum-relates-to-cervical-dystonia-symptoms
#16
Roxana G Burciu, Christopher W Hess, Stephen A Coombes, Edward Ofori, Priyank Shukla, Jae Woo Chung, Nikolaus R McFarland, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities...
June 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589287/transitive-versus-intransitive-complex-gesture-representation-a-comparison-between-execution-observation-and-imagination-by-fnirs
#17
Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Livia Cortesi
The aim of the present study was to examine cortical correlates of motor execution, motor observation and motor imagery of hand complex gestures, in particular by comparing meaningful gestures implying the use of an object (transitive action) or not (intransitive action). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to verify the presence of partial overlapping between some cortical areas involved in those different tasks. Participants were instructed to observe videos of transitive vs. intransitive gestures and then to execute or imagine them...
June 6, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575475/abnormal-brain-activation-during-theory-of-mind-tasks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#18
Lisa Kronbichler, Melanie Tschernegg, Anna Isabel Martin, Matthias Schurz, Martin Kronbichler
Social cognition abilities are severely impaired in schizophrenia (SZ). The current meta-analysis used foci of 21 individual studies on functional abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain in order to identify regions that reveal convergent under- or over-activation during theory of mind (TOM) tasks. Studies were included in the analyses when contrasting tasks that require the processing of mental states with tasks which did not. Only studies that investigated patients with an ICD or DSM diagnosis were included...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566104/attention-and-regional-gray-matter-development-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-12-years
#19
Rachel E Lean, Tracy R Melzer, Samudragupta Bora, Richard Watts, Lianne J Woodward
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. METHODS: A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561534/gender-differences-in-healthy-aging-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-18-f-fdg-pet-study-of-brain-and-cognitive-reserve
#20
Maura Malpetti, Tommaso Ballarini, Luca Presotto, Valentina Garibotto, Marco Tettamanti, Daniela Perani
Cognitive reserve (CR) and brain reserve (BR) are protective factors against age-associated cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders. Very limited evidence exists about gender effects on brain aging and on the effect of CR on brain modulation in healthy aging and Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). We investigated gender differences in brain metabolic activity and resting-state network connectivity, as measured by (18) F-FDG-PET, in healthy aging and AD, also considering the effects of education and occupation...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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