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Posterior parietal cortex

Abhijit Rajan, Scott N Siegel, Yuelu Liu, Jesse Bengson, George R Mangun, Mingzhou Ding
Attention can be attracted reflexively by sensory signals, biased by learning or reward, or focused voluntarily based on momentary goals. When voluntary attention is focused by purely internal decision processes (will), rather than instructions via external cues, we call this "willed attention." In prior work, we reported ERP and fMRI correlates of willed spatial attention in trial-by-trial cuing tasks. Here we further investigated the oscillatory mechanisms of willed attention by contrasting the event-related EEG spectrogram between instructional and choice cues...
June 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Min Wang, Ping Yang, Chaoyang Wan, Zhenlan Jin, Junjun Zhang, Ling Li
The contents of working memory (WM) can affect the subsequent visual search performance, resulting in either beneficial or cost effects, when the visual search target is included in or spatially dissociated from the memorized contents, respectively. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) have been suggested to be associated with the congruence/incongruence effects of the WM content and the visual search target. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the PPC in controlling the interaction between WM and attention during a visual search, using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bidhan Lamichhane, Mark A McDaniel, Emily R Waldum, Todd S Braver
The capability to remember and execute intentions in the future - termed prospective memory (PM) - may be of special significance for older adults to enable successful completion of important activities of daily living. Despite the importance of this cognitive function, mixed findings have been obtained regarding age-related decline in PM, and, currently, there is limited understanding of potential contributing mechanisms. In the current study, older (N=41) and younger adults (N=47) underwent task-functional MRI during performance of PM conditions that encouraged either spontaneous retrieval (Focal) or sustained attentional monitoring (Non-focal) to detect PM targets...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Irene Caprara, Elsie Premereur, Maria C Romero, Pedro Faria, Peter Janssen
The primate dorsal visual stream processes object shape to guide actions involving an object, but the transmission of shape information beyond posterior parietal cortex remains largely unknown. To clarify the information flow between parietal and frontal cortex, we applied electrical microstimulation during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in a shape-selective patch in the posterior part of the Anterior Intraparietal area (pAIP) to chart its connectivity. Subsequently, we recorded single-unit responses to images of objects in the fMRI activation in prefrontal cortex, corresponding to area 45B, elicited by pAIP microstimulation...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Arielle Tambini, Derek Evan Nee, Mark D'Esposito
The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memory, among other cognitive functions. However, few tools exist to causally manipulate hippocampal function in healthy human participants. Recent work has targeted hippocampal-cortical networks by performing TMS to a region interconnected with the hippocampus, posterior inferior parietal cortex (pIPC). Such hippocampal-targeted TMS enhances associative memory and influences hippocampal functional connectivity. However, it is currently unknown which stages of mnemonic processing (encoding or retrieval) are affected by hippocampal-targeted TMS...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sori Baek, Amy L Daitch, Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Josef Parvizi
Past research has identified anatomically specific sites within the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (PITG) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) areas that are engaged during arithmetic processing. Although a small region of the PITG (known as the number form area) is selectively engaged in the processing of numerals, its surrounding area is activated during both digit and number word processing. In eight participants with intracranial electrodes, we compared the timing and selectivity of electrophysiological responses in the number form area-surround and IPS regions during arithmetic processing with digits and number words...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Beat Meier, Philipp Sauter
Boosting memory with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be an elegant way to optimize learning. Here we tested whether tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or to the left posterior parietal cortex would boost recognition memory in general and/or particularly for action phrases enacted at study. During study, 48 young adults either read or enacted simple action phrases. Memory for the action phrases was assessed after a retention interval of 45 min and again after 7-days to investigate the long-term consequences of brain stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rutvik H Desai, Megan Reilly, Wessel van Dam
concepts play a central role in human behaviour and constitute a critical component of the human conceptual system. Here, we investigate the neural basis of four types of abstract concepts, examining their similarities and differences through neuroimaging meta-analyses. We examine numerical and emotional concepts, and two higher-order abstract processes, morality judgements and theory of mind. Three main findings emerge. First, representation of abstract concepts is more widespread than is often assumed. Second, representations of different types of abstract concepts differ in important respects...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Zachary A Monge, Matthew L Stanley, Benjamin R Geib, Simon W Davis, Roberto Cabeza
Although the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for both item memory (IM) and source memory (SM), the lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex play a greater role during SM than IM. It is unclear, however, how these differences translate into shared and distinct IM versus SM network components and how these network components vary with age. Within a sample of younger adults (YAs; n = 15, Mage  = 19.5 years) and older adults (OAs; n = 40, Mage  = 68.6 years), we investigated the functional networks underlying IM and SM...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Jet M J Vonk, Batool Rizvi, Patrick J Lao, Mariana Budge, Jennifer J Manly, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
Verbal fluency tasks are generally thought to be mediated by frontal brain regions for letter fluency and temporal regions for category fluency. This idea, however, is primarily based on lesion studies and adapted versions of the fluency tasks in functional neuroimaging, without fundamental evidence from structural neuroimaging in healthy individuals. We investigated the cortical structural correlates of letter and category fluency, including overlapping and different regions, in 505 individuals who participated in a community-based study of healthy aging...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Natalia Chechko, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Birgit Derntl, Lydia Kogler, André Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Iris E Sommer, Oliver Gruber, Simon B Eickhoff
In schizophrenia (SCZ), dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior) based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Svetlana Pundik, Aleka Scoco, Margaret Skelly, Jessica P McCabe, Janis J Daly
OBJECTIVE: Somatosensory function is critical to normal motor control. After stroke, dysfunction of the sensory systems prevents normal motor function and degrades quality of life. Structural neuroplasticity underpinnings of sensory recovery after stroke are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in bilateral cortical thickness (CT) that may drive recovery of sensory acuity. METHODS: Chronic stroke survivors (n = 20) were treated with 12 weeks of rehabilitation...
June 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Francesca M Filbey, Suril Gohel, Shikha Prashad, Bharat B Biswal
Concomitant cannabis and nicotine use is more prevalent than cannabis use alone; however, to date, most of the literature has focused on associations of isolated cannabis and nicotine use limiting the generalizability of existing research. To determine differential associations of concomitant use of cannabis and nicotine, isolated cannabis use and isolated nicotine use on brain network connectivity, we examined systems-level neural functioning via independent components analysis (ICA) on resting state networks (RSNs) in cannabis users (CAN, n = 53), nicotine users (NIC, n = 28), concomitant nicotine and cannabis users (NIC + CAN, n = 26), and non-users (CTRL, n = 30)...
June 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Talitha C Ford, Tamara Simpson, Grace McPhee, Con Stough, Luke A Downey
Anxiety is associated with compromised cognitive control functions, such as working memory. State and trait anxiety within the non-clinical population can be utilised to investigate potential neural markers for anxiety, which may help to elucidate potential prevention and intervention methods. Thirty-two healthy adults (20 female, 12 male), aged between 30 and 65 years, performed a 2-back task whilst fMRI BOLD signal was acquired using a 3T scanner. Mean BOLD signal was obtained in cognitive control network regions of interest of: left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal lobe (PPL), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)...
May 16, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Alberto Pisoni, Giulia Mattavelli, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Lorenzo Bello, Costanza Papagno
Data concerning the neural basis of noun and verb processing are inconsistent. Some authors assume that action-verb processing is based on frontal areas while nouns processing relies on temporal regions; others argue that the circuits processing verbs and nouns are closely interconnected in a predominantly left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal network; yet, other researchers consider that the primary motor cortex plays a crucial role in processing action verbs. In the present study, one hundred and two patients with a tumour either in the right or left hemisphere were submitted to picture naming of objects and actions before and after surgery...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Marie Brossard-Racine, Marni Jacobs, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Objectives: To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. Study design: We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Samrah Ahmed, Muireann Irish, Clare Loane, Ian Baker, Masud Husain, Sian Thompson, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Clare Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni, David Foxe, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Christopher Butler
Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive disruption of visual and perceptual processing, associated with atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. Current diagnostic criteria describe relative sparing of episodic memory function, but recent findings suggest that anterograde memory is often impaired. Whether these deficits extend to remote memory has not been addressed. A large body of evidence suggests that the recollection of an autobiographical event from the remote past coincides with the successful retrieval of visual images...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kasia Kozlowska, Chris J Spooner, Donna M Palmer, Anthony Harris, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stephen Scher, Leanne M Williams
Objective: Children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) present with diverse neurological symptoms not explained by a disease process. Functional neurological symptoms have been conceptualized as somatoform dissociation, a disruption of the brain's intrinsic organization and reversion to a more primitive level of function. We used EEG to investigate neural function and functional brain organization in children/adolescents with FND. Method: EEG was recorded in the resting eyes-open condition in 57 patients (aged 8...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Samra Kadić-Vukas, Mirsada Hodžić, Lejla Tandir-Lihić, Lejla Hrvat, Azra Kožo-Kajmaković, Nina Kuzmanović, Haris Vukas
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome with seizures, altered consciousness, visual disturbances and headache among other symptoms. Hinchey et al. first described Pres in 1996, with two other case series published shortly after. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old women patient was emergency sent from General Hospital Tešanj due to a crisis of consciousness and repeated epileptic seizures. The patient had a second birth before 10 days (postpartum cesarean) in general endotracheal anaesthesia (two cesarean-born babies)...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Zhaoyang Huang, Yue Li, Matt T Bianchi, Shuqin Zhan, Fengying Jiang, Ning Li, Yan Ding, Yue Hou, Li Wang, Quping Ouyang, Yuping Wang
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been considered to be a promising technique for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the effectiveness of rTMS in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, treatment data on comorbid GAD and insomnia remain lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of 1 Hz rTMS applied over the right parietal lobe on both anxiety and insomnia symptoms in patients with comorbid GAD and insomnia...
May 29, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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