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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905649/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-brain-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#1
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890294/the-limbic-and-sensorimotor-pathways-of-the-human-amygdala-a-structural-connectivity-study
#2
Giuseppina Rizzo, Demetrio Milardi, Salvatore Bertino, Gianpaolo Antonio Basile, Debora Di Mauro, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Giuseppe Silvestri, Giuseppe Anastasi, Alessia Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola
The amygdala plays a key role in gathering social cues to context-appropriate responses that require refined motor behaviour, involving either direct or indirect connections with sensorimotor-related areas. Although, several studies investigated the structural and functional limbic connectivity of the amygdala both in animals and in humans, less is known about the limbic modulation on sensorimotor-related areas. However, recent evidences suggest the amygdala as a possible cornerstone in the limbic-motor interface...
June 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887528/-einstein-s-brain-the-problems-associated-with-investigating-the-uniqueness-of-an-individual-s-brain
#3
Juro Kawachi
The anatomical uniqueness of Einstein's brain is thought to be the seat of his intellectual prowess. Einstein's brain has been reported to contain: a higher neuron/glia ratio in the left inferior parietal lobule, greater neuron density in the frontal lobe, a larger expansion of the inferior parietal lobule, complex gyrification in many parts of the cerebral cortex, and a thick corpus callosum, especially the splenium. Individual differences in brain anatomy and current brain research were used to test the validity of these assertions...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885469/resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-externalizing-behavior-problems-in-adolescent-bullies
#4
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Yun-Hyong Kang, Jong-Min Lee, Jungho Cha, Yeong-Hun Park, Kuk-Ju Kweon, Bung-Nyun Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for externalizing behavior problems in perpetrators of school bullying using assessments of brain activity and behavior. Twenty-five adolescent bullies participated in an 8-session intervention. Prior to and after participation, 24 adolescents were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 23 completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and scores on the CBCL were analyzed...
June 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884867/a-multi-modal-mri-study-of-the-central-response-to-inflammation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Andrew Schrepf, Chelsea M Kaplan, Eric Ichesco, Tony Larkin, Steven E Harte, Richard E Harris, Alison D Murray, Gordon D Waiter, Daniel J Clauw, Neil Basu
It is unknown how chronic inflammation impacts the brain. Here, we examined whether higher levels of peripheral inflammation were associated with brain connectivity and structure in 54 rheumatoid arthritis patients using functional and structural MRI. We show that higher levels of inflammation are associated with more positive connections between the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), medial prefrontal cortex, and multiple brain networks, as well as reduced IPL grey matter, and that these patterns of connectivity predicted fatigue, pain and cognitive dysfunction...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883011/cortical-thickness-and-volume-abnormalities-in-internet-gaming-disorder-evidence-from-comparison-of-recreational-internet-game-users
#6
Ziliang Wang, Lingdan Wu, Kai Yuan, Yanbo Hu, Hui Zheng, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although online gaming may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most players are recreational game users (RGUs) who do not develop IGD. Thus far, little is known about brain structural abnormalities in IGD subjects relative to RGUs. The inclusion of RGUs as a control group could minimize the potential effects of gaming experience and gaming-related cue familiarity on the neural mechanism of IGD subjects. In the current study, structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 38 IGD subjects and 66 RGUs with comparable age, gender, and educational level...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881338/segregation-of-brain-structural-networks-supports-spatio-temporal-predictive-processing
#7
Valentina Ciullo, Daniela Vecchio, Tommaso Gili, Gianfranco Spalletta, Federica Piras
The ability to generate probabilistic expectancies regarding when and where sensory stimuli will occur, is critical to derive timely and accurate inferences about updating contexts. However, the existence of specialized neural networks for inferring predictive relationships between events is still debated. Using graph theoretical analysis applied to structural connectivity data, we tested the extent of brain connectivity properties associated with spatio-temporal predictive performance across 29 healthy subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875713/postural-effects-on-the-mental-rotation-of-body-related-pictures-an-fmri-study
#8
Fangbing Qu, Jianping Wang, Yuan Zhong, Haosheng Ye
This study investigated the embodied effects involved in the mental rotation of pictures of body parts (hands and feet). Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals were collected from 18 healthy volunteers who performed mental rotation tasks of rotated drawings of hands under different arm postures. Congruent drawings of hands (those congruent with left-hand posture) evoked stronger activation in the left supplementary motor area (SMA), left precentral gyrus, and left superior parietal lobule (SPL) than did incongruent drawings of hands...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864594/executive-dysfunction-contributes-to-verbal-encoding-and-retrieval-deficits-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#9
Deepti Putcha, Scott M McGinnis, Michael Brickhouse, Bonnie Wong, Janet C Sherman, Bradford C Dickerson
Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that typically presents with predominant visual and spatial impairments. The early diagnostic criteria specify a relative sparing of functioning in other cognitive domains, including executive functions, language, and episodic memory, yet little is known of the cognitive profile of PCA as the disease progresses. Studies of healthy adults and other posterior cortical lesion patients implicate posterior parietal and temporal regions in executive functions of working memory and verbal fluency, both of which may impact episodic memory...
May 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850803/a-longitudinal-study-of-local-gyrification-index-in-young-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Lauren E Libero, Marie Schaer, Deana D Li, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Local gyrification index (LGI), a metric quantifying cortical folding, was evaluated in 105 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 49 typically developing (TD) boys at 3 and 5 years-of-age. At 3 years-of-age, boys with ASD had reduced gyrification in the fusiform gyrus compared with TD boys. A longitudinal evaluation from 3 to 5 years revealed that while TD boys had stable/decreasing LGI, boys with ASD had increasing LGI in right inferior temporal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and stable LGI in left lingual gyrus...
May 30, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846531/neural-correlates-of-personalized-spiritual-experiences
#11
Lisa Miller, Iris M Balodis, Clayton H McClintock, Jiansong Xu, Cheryl M Lacadie, Rajita Sinha, Marc N Potenza
Across cultures and throughout history, human beings have reported a variety of spiritual experiences and the concomitant perceived sense of union that transcends one's ordinary sense of self. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms of spiritual experiences, particularly when examined across different traditions and practices. By adapting an individualized guided-imagery task, we investigated neural correlates of personally meaningful spiritual experiences as compared with stressful and neutral-relaxing experiences...
May 29, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800886/cerebral-activation-effects-of-acupuncture-at-yanglinquan-gb34-point-acquired-using-resting-state-fmri
#12
Liansheng Liu, Shuqi Chen, Daohui Zeng, Hengguo Li, Changzheng Shi, Lihong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the central mechanism of acupuncture points for regional homogeneity(ReHo) of resting state in brain function after acupuncture at GB34. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled, which included 4 males and 6 females, aged 20-34 years old with median age of 23. The GE Signa HDxt 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging were performed before (control group) and after acupuncture at GB34, and differences of different brain ReHo of 2 groups by statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) software and ReHo data processing methods were analyzed...
July 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787449/functional-connectivity-during-monitoring-for-visuomotor-incongruence
#13
Yoshihiro Ohashi, Takanori Kochiyama, Katsuya Tsuneyoshi, Yoshitaka Ohi-Gashi, Toshiya Murai, Keita Ueda
Previous human studies on monitoring for visuomotor incongruence emphasized the contribution of the fronto-parietal network and revealed significant activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right rostral inferior parietal lobule. Using functional MRI, this study investigated the brain regions involved in explicit monitoring for incongruence between motor intention and visual and/or proprioceptive information, particularly focusing on the fronto-parietal network. During in-phase bimanual movements, a static image of the participant's own hands was randomly inserted within real-time visual feedback of the movements to produce a mismatch between the actual performance and the visual input...
May 21, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760183/neural-mechanisms-underlying-individual-differences-in-control-averse-behavior
#14
Sarah Rudorf, Katrin Schmelz, Thomas Baumgartner, Roland Wiest, Urs Fischbacher, Daria Knoch
When another person tries to control one's decisions, some people might comply, but many will feel the urge to act against that control. This control aversion can lead to suboptimal decisions and it affects social interactions in many societal domains. To date, however, it has been unclear what drives individual differences in control-averse behavior. Here, we address this issue by measuring brain activity with fMRI while healthy female and male human participants make choices that are either free or controlled by another person, with real consequences to both interaction partners...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758392/effects-of-mindfulness-and-psychoeducation-on-working-memory-in-adult-adhd-a-randomised-controlled-fmri-study
#15
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753562/cortical-processing-of-location-changes-in-a-cocktail-party-situation-spatial-oddball-effects-on-electrophysiological-correlates-of-auditory-selective-attention
#16
Jörg Lewald, Michael-Christian Schlüter, Stephan Getzmann
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened. Targets either appeared in isolation or in the presence of two distractor sound sources at different locations ("cocktail-party" condition)...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753019/psychophysical-and-neuroimaging-responses-to-moving-stimuli-in-a-patient-with-the-riddoch-phenomenon-due-to-bilateral-visual-cortex-lesions
#17
Michael J Arcaro, Lore Thaler, Derek J Quinlan, Simona Monaco, Sarah Khan, Kenneth F Valyear, Rainer Goebel, Gordon N Dutton, Melvyn A Goodale, Sabine Kastner, Jody C Culham
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blindness in visual field perimetry testing with static targets. Nevertheless, she shows a remarkably robust preserved ability to perceive motion, enabling her to navigate through cluttered environments and perform actions like catching moving balls...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749060/visual-processing-as-a-potential-endophenotype-in-youths-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-sibling-study-design-using-the-counting-stroop-functional-mri
#18
Li-Ying Fan, Chi-Yung Shang, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Tai-Li Chou
Deficits in inhibitory control and visual processing are common in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about endophenotypes for unaffected siblings of youths with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the potential endophenotypes of brain activation and performance in inhibitory control and visual processing among ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and neurotypical youths. We assessed 27 ADHD probands, 27 unaffected siblings, and 27 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical youths using the counting Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging and two tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and spatial span (SSP) for visual processing...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739476/altered-brain-gyrification-in-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#19
Yoichiro Takayanagi, Daiki Sasabayashi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Patients with the deficit form of schizophrenia (D-SZ) are characterized by severe primary negative symptoms and differ from patients with the non-deficit form of schizophrenia (ND-SZ) in several aspects. No study has measured brain gyrification, which is a potential marker of neurodevelopment, in D-SZ and ND-SZ. METHODS: We obtained magnetic resonance scans from 135 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. The proxy scale for deficit syndrome (PDS) was used for the classification of D-SZ and ND-SZ...
May 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736883/abnormalities-of-regional-homogeneity-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-in-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
Xiaoxin Zhao, Jingjing Yao, Yiding Lv, Xinyue Zhang, Chongyang Han, Lijun Chen, Fangfang Ren, Zhuma Jin, Yuan Li, Yuxiu Sui
Several resting-state neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) in chronic schizophrenia; however, little work has been conducted to investigate naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Even less investigated is the association between ReHo measures and clinical symptom severity in naïve patients with FES. The current study evaluated ReHo alterations in whole brain, and assessed the correlations between ReHo measures and clinical variables in naïve patients with FES...
May 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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