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Inferior parietal lobule

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438556/the-brain-and-the-subjective-experience-of-time-a-voxel-based-symptom-lesion-mapping-study
#1
Luigi Trojano, Michelina Caccavale, Francesco De Bellis, Claudio Crisci
The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals...
April 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431987/patterns-of-brain-and-cardiovascular-activation-while-solving-rule-discovery-and-rule-application-numeric-tasks
#2
Tytus Sosnowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Małgorzata Wordecha, Anna Kępkowicz, Adrianna Majewska, Aleksandra Pstrągowska, Tomasz Oleksy, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka
It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429352/difference-in-resting-state-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-between-bipolar-depression-and-unipolar-depression-patients
#3
H-L Yu, W-B Liu, T Wang, P-Y Huang, L-Y Jie, J-Z Sun, C Wang, W Qian, M Xuan, Q-Q Gu, H Liu, F-L Zhang, M-M Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference in fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of localized brain activities in the resting-state between bipolar depression and unipolar depression patients and to find biological markers that differentiate the two groups of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with bipolar depression, 15 patients with unipolar depression, and 16 healthy control subjects that were matched in age and years of education were subjected to 3...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#4
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423021/trait-impulsivity-components-correlate-differently-with-proactive-and-reactive-control
#5
Shihua Huang, Zude Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yu Chen, Shuangju Zhen
The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422821/how-the-cognitive-reserve-interacts-with-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-in-mitigating-fdg-metabolism-an-observational-study
#6
Elena Carapelle, Laura Serra, Sergio Modoni, Michele Falcone, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali, Luigi Maria Specchio, Carlo Avolio
This observational study had the aim to assess the interaction between cognitive reserve (CR) and cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42) in modulating brain [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) metabolism in patients with moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).Twenty-seven patients with probable AD and 25 neurological normal subjects (NNS) entered the study. All participants had an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients also received a lumbar puncture to measure Aβ1-42, 181p-tau, and Tau concentrations...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413776/dissociable-neural-processes-during-risky-decision-making-in-individuals-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#7
Lu Liu, Gui Xue, Marc N Potenza, Jin-Tao Zhang, Yuan-Wei Yao, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Shan-Shan Ma, Xiao-Yi Fang
Risk-taking is purported to be central to addictive behaviors. However, for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), a condition conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, the neural processes underlying impaired decision-making (risk evaluation and outcome processing) related to gains and losses have not been systematically investigated. Forty-one males with IGD and 27 healthy comparison (HC) male participants were recruited, and the cups task was used to identify neural processes associated with gain- and loss-related risk- and outcome-processing in IGD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413706/basic-taste-processing-recruits-bilateral-anteroventral-and-middle-dorsal-insulae-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#8
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, Wai Keung Leung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported the locations of basic taste representations in the human brain, but they usually employed a limited number of subjects (<20) with different methodologies and stimuli. Moreover, the reported brain regions were sometimes inconsistent. Thus, we aimed at performing a meta-analysis of the published data to identify locations consistently activated across studies, and performed a connectivity analysis to reveal how these taste processing regions connect with other brain regions...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413699/white-matter-connections-of-the-inferior-parietal-lobule-a-study-of-surgical-anatomy
#9
Joshua D Burks, Lillian B Boettcher, Andrew K Conner, Chad A Glenn, Phillip A Bonney, Cordell M Baker, Robert G Briggs, Nathan A Pittman, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the function of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) has resulted in increased understanding of its involvement in visuospatial and cognitive functioning, and its role in semantic networks. A basic understanding of the nuanced white-matter anatomy in this region may be useful in improving outcomes when operating in this region of the brain. We sought to derive the surgical relationship between the IPL and underlying major white-matter bundles by characterizing macroscopic connectivity...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412558/relationship-of-mindful-awareness-to-neural-processing-of-angry-faces-and-impact-of-mindfulness-training-a-pilot-investigation
#10
Athene K W Lee, David A Gansler, Nanyin Zhang, Matthew W Jerram, Jean A King, Carl Fulwiler
Mindfulness is paying attention, non-judgmentally, to experience in the moment. Mindfulness training reduces depression and anxiety and influences neural processes in midline self-referential and lateralized somatosensory and executive networks. Although mindfulness benefits emotion regulation, less is known about its relationship to anger and the corresponding neural correlates. This study examined the relationship of mindful awareness and brain hemodynamics of angry face processing, and the impact of mindfulness training...
April 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#11
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401670/adolescents-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-e-cigarette-advertising
#12
Yvonnes Chen, Carina H Fowler, Vlad B Papa, Rebecca J Lepping, Morgan G Brucks, Andrew T Fox, Laura E Martin
Although adolescents are a group heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry, research in cue-reactivity has not previously examined adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising. This study addressed this gap through two experiments. In Experiment One, adult traditional cigarette smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 41) answered questions about e-cigarette and neutral advertising images. The 40 e-cigarette advertising images that most increased desire to use the product were matched to 40 neutral advertising images with similar content...
April 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400807/modulatory-effects-of-acupuncture-on-brain-networks-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#13
Ting-Ting Tan, Dan Wang, Ju-Ke Huang, Xiao-Mei Zhou, Xu Yuan, Jiu-Ping Liang, Liang Yin, Hong-Liang Xie, Xin-Yan Jia, Jiao Shi, Fang Wang, Hao-Bo Yang, Shang-Jie Chen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369235/uniformity-and-diversity-of-cortical-projections-to-precuneate-areas-in-the-macaque-monkey-what-defines-area-pgm
#14
Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Sophia Bakola, Michela Gamberini, Katrina H Worthy, Patrizia Fattori, Claudio Galletti
We report on the corticocortical connections of areas on the mesial surface of the macaque posterior parietal cortex, based on 10 retrograde tracer injections targeting different parts of the precuneate gyrus. Analysis of afferent connections supported the existence of two areas: PGm (also known as 7 m) and area 31. Both areas received major afferents from the V6A complex and from the external subdivision of area 23, but they differed in most other aspects. Area 31 showed greater emphasis on connections with premotor and parietal sensorimotor areas, whereas PGm received a greater proportion of its afferents from visuomotor structures involved in spatial cognition (including the lateral intraparietal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and the putative visual areas in the ventral part of the precuneus)...
March 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345197/attenuated-intrinsic-connectivity-within-cognitive-control-network-among-individuals-with-remitted-depression-temporal-stability-and-association-with-negative-cognitive-styles
#15
Jonathan P Stange, Katie L Bessette, Lisanne M Jenkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia Feldhaus, Natania A Crane, Olusola Ajilore, Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
Many individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience cognitive dysfunction including impaired cognitive control and negative cognitive styles. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with current MDD have documented altered resting-state connectivity within the default-mode network and across networks. However, no studies to date have evaluated the extent to which impaired connectivity within the cognitive control network (CCN) may be present in remitted MDD (rMDD), nor have studies examined the temporal stability of such attenuation over time...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#16
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342092/evaluation-of-structural-connectivity-changes-in-betel-quid-chewers-using-generalized-q-sampling-mri
#17
Jun-Cheng Weng, Te-Wei Kao, Guo-Joe Huang, Yeu-Sheng Tyan, Hsien-Chun Tseng, Ming-Chou Ho
RATIONALE: Betel quid (BQ) is a common addictive substance in many Asian countries. However, few studies have focused on the influences of BQ on the brain. It remains unclear how BQ can affect structural brain abnormalities in BQ chewers. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to use generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) to evaluate the impact of the neurological structure of white matter caused by BQ. METHODS: The study population comprised 16 BQ chewers, 15 tobacco and alcohol controls, and 17 healthy controls...
March 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338793/sensitivity-to-perception-level-differentiates-two-subnetworks-within-the-mirror-neuron-system
#18
Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
Mirror neurons are a subset of brain cells that discharge during action execution and passive observation of similar actions. An open question concerns the functional role of their ability to match observed and executed actions. Since understanding of goals requires conscious perception of actions, we expect that mirror neurons potentially involved in action goal coding, will be modulated by changes in action perception level. Here, we manipulated perception level of action videos depicting short hand movements and measured the corresponding fMRI BOLD responses in mirror regions...
February 17, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334189/neural-mechanisms-for-the-benefits-of-stimulus-driven-attention
#19
Katelyn M Wills, Jingtai Liu, Jonathan Hakun, David C Zhu, Eliot Hazeltine, Susan M Ravizza
Stimulus-driven attention can improve working memory (WM) when drawn to behaviorally relevant information, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test competing hypotheses regarding the nature of the benefits of stimulus-driven attention to WM: that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM directly via salience detection, that stimulus-driven attention benefits WM incidentally via cognitive control mechanisms recruited to reduce interference from salient features, or that both mechanisms are co-involved in enhancing WM for salient information...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#20
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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