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Inferior parietal lobule

Zhi Dou, Xueyi Zhang, Liqiang Yang, Wanqian Wang, Na Li, Zhicheng Liu, Jiaxiang Ni
We used resting-state fMRI to investigate regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in patients with TN before and after PRT procedure, and to speculate about its possible mechanisms.Thirty-one TN patients underwent the PRT procedure had MRI scans just before and 6 months after surgery. The anatomical and resting-state functional images were all acquired. Patients' visual analog scales (VAS) scores, facial numbness, and disease duration were also recorded. Voxel-wise ReHo analysis was performed to detect the altered regional clusters after surgery...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Chiara Sarappa, Elena Salvatore, Alessandro Filla, Sirio Cocozza, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Francesco Saccà, Arturo Brunetti, Giuseppe De Michele, Mario Quarantelli
The fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) and the degree of local synchronization (Regional Homogeneity - ReHo) of resting-state BOLD signal have been suggested to map spontaneous neuronal activity and local functional connectivity, respectively. We compared voxelwise, independent of atrophy, the fALFF and ReHo patterns of 11 presymptomatic (ps-HD) and 28 symptomatic (sHD) Huntington's disease mutation carriers, with those of 40 normal volunteers, and tested their possible correlations with the motor and cognitive subscores of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Benjamin Boller, Samira Mellah, Gabriel Ducharme-Laliberté, Sylvie Belleville
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between educational attainment, regional grey matter volume, and functional working memory-related brain activation in older adults. The final sample included 32 healthy older adults with 8 to 22 years of education. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure regional volume and functional MRI was used to measure activation associated with performing an n-back task. A positive correlation was found between years of education and cortical grey matter volume in the right medial and middle frontal gyri, in the middle and posterior cingulate gyri, and in the right inferior parietal lobule...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elise B Barbeau, Xiaoqian J Chai, Jen-Kai Chen, Jennika Soles, Jonathan Berken, Shari Baum, Kate E Watkins, Denise Klein
Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a twelve-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
Wangbing Shen, Yuan Yuan, Chang Liu, Xiaojiang Zhang, Jing Luo, Zhe Gong
The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yanbing Hou, Chunyan Luo, Jing Yang, Wei Song, Ruwei Ou, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Drooling is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study used resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to evaluate the brain connectivity of cortico-striatal circuits in PD patients with drooling. METHOD: We enrolled 30 early-stage drug-naïve PD patients and 30 matched normal controls. Among the PD patients, 15 patients were classified as "droolers" with the presence of drooling and 15 patients as "non-droolers" with the absence of drooling. All participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans on a 3-T MR system, focusing on the functional connectivity of striatum subregions...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Antonio Del Casale, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Chiara Rapinesi, Serena Sorice, Nicoletta Girardi, Stefano Ferracuti, Paolo Girardi
BACKGROUND: The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. METHODS: We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychobiology
Miao Wei, Anand A Joshi, Mingxia Zhang, Leilei Mei, Franklin R Manis, Qinghua He, Rachel L Beattie, Gui Xue, David W Shattuck, Richard M Leahy, Feng Xue, Suzanne M Houston, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong, Zhong-Lin Lu
In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL's standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest...
November 2015: Journal of Neurolinguistics
Shaojia Lu, Weijia Gao, Zhaoguo Wei, Dandan Wang, Shaohua Hu, Manli Huang, Yi Xu, Lingjiang Li
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma confers great risk for the development of multiple psychiatric disorders; however, the neural basis for this association is still unknown. The present resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to detect the effects of childhood trauma on brain function in a group of young healthy adults. METHODS: In total, 24 healthy individuals with childhood trauma and 24 age- and sex-matched adults without childhood trauma were recruited...
September 30, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Nathaniel G Harnett, Joshua R Shumen, Pooja A Wagle, Kimberly H Wood, Muriah D Wheelock, James H Baños, David C Knight
Learning the temporal relationship between a warning cue (conditioned stimulus; CS) and aversive threat (unconditioned stimulus; UCS) is an important aspect of Pavlovian conditioning. Although prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research has identified brain regions that support Pavlovian conditioning, it remains unclear whether these regions support time-related processes important for this type of associative learning. Elucidating the neural substrates of temporal conditioning is important for a complete understanding of the Pavlovian conditioning process...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Frøydis Morken, Turid Helland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Karsten Specht
Dyslexia is a literacy disorder affecting the efficient acquisition of reading and writing skills. The disorder is neurobiological in origin. Due to its developmental nature, longitudinal studies of dyslexia are of essence. They are, however, relatively scarce. The present study took a longitudinal approach to cortical connectivity of brain imaging data in reading tasks in children with dyslexia and children with typical reading development. The participants were followed with repeated measurements through Pre-literacy (6 years old), Emergent Literacy (8 years old) and Literacy (12 years old) stages, using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) when analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Nikos Konstantinou, Fofi Constantinidou, Ryota Kanai
Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM...
September 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Patrick S Malone, Laurie S Glezer, Judy Kim, Xiong Jiang, Maximilian Riesenhuber
UNLABELLED: The neural substrates of semantic representation have been the subject of much controversy. The study of semantic representations is complicated by difficulty in disentangling perceptual and semantic influences on neural activity, as well as in identifying stimulus-driven, "bottom-up" semantic selectivity unconfounded by top-down task-related modulations. To address these challenges, we trained human subjects to associate pseudowords (TPWs) with various animal and tool categories...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Natalia Chechko, Thilo Kellermann, Marc Augustin, Michael Zvyagintsev, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both associated with abnormalities in the regulation of emotion, with BPD being highly comorbid with MDD. Disorder-specific dysfunctions in BPD, however, have hardly been addressed, hence the lack of knowledge pertaining to the specificity of emotion processing deficits and their commonality with MDD. 24 healthy comparison subjects, 21 patients with MDD, and 13 patients with comorbid BPD and MDD (BPD + MDD group) were studied using functional MRI...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Eun Young Choi, Yoko Tanimura, Priti R Vage, Ellen H Yates, Suzanne N Haber
Visual attentional bias forms for rewarding and punishing stimuli in the environment. While this attentional bias is adaptive in healthy situations, it is maladaptive in disorders such as drug addiction or PTSD. In both these disorders, the ability to exert control over this attentional bias is associated with drug abstinence rates or reduced PTSD symptoms, indicating the interaction of visual attention, cognitive control, and stimulus association. The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is central to attention, while the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for reward, cognitive control, and attention...
September 16, 2016: NeuroImage
Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Hideki Otsuka, Kenji Mori, Hiromichi Ito, Takashi Iwanaga
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in normal aging and in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and independent component analysis. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) in four age groups (1-3, 4-8, 20-29, and 50-59 years) and 14 childhood ASD cases (1-8 years of age) were examined by rsfMRI echo-planar imaging on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
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