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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691945/altered-intra-and-inter-network-functional-coupling-of-resting-state-networks-associated-with-motor-dysfunction-in-stroke
#1
Zhiyong Zhao, Jie Wu, Mingxia Fan, Dazhi Yin, Chaozheng Tang, Jiayu Gong, Guojun Xu, Xinjie Gao, Qiurong Yu, Hao Yang, Limin Sun, Jie Jia
Motor functions are supported through functional integration across the extended motor system network. Individuals following stroke often show deficits on motor performance requiring coordination of multiple brain networks; however, the assessment of connectivity patterns after stroke was still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of multiple networks following stroke and further correlate FC with motor performance. Thirty-three left subcortical chronic stroke patients and 34 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675389/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-youth-patients-with-comitant-exotropia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Pei-Wen Zhu, Xin Huang, Lei Ye, Nan Jiang, Yu-Lin Zhong, Qing Yuan, Fu-Qing Zhou, Yi Shao
AIM: To evaluate the differences in the functional connectivity (FC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) between the youth comitant exotropia (CE) patients and health subjects using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. METHODS: Totally, 32 CEs (25 males and 7 females) and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs) (25 males and 7 females) were enrolled in the study and underwent the MRI scanning. Two-sample t -test was used to examine differences in FC maps between the CE patients and HCs...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#3
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670548/neural-correlates-of-semantic-inhibition-in-relation-to-hypomanic-traits-an-fmri-study
#4
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Sarah Terrien, Fabien Gierski, Alexandre Obert, Stéphanie Caillies, Chrystel Besche-Richard, Arthur Kaladjian
Objectives: Language modifications are a core feature of mania, but little is known about the semantic mechanisms behind these disturbances. The aim of the present study was thus to identify deficits in semantic inhibition and their respective neural activation patterns in a sample of individuals assessed for hypomanic personality traits. Methods: Thirty-six young adults with no neurological or psychiatric diagnoses were assessed for hypomanic personality traits with the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) and underwent an fMRI task of semantic ambiguity resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660636/regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-major-depressive-disorder-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression-and-healthy-subjects
#5
Hui Sun, Lizhu Luo, Xinru Yuan, Lu Zhang, Yini He, Shuqiao Yao, Jiaojian Wang, Jing Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) is a high risk for depressive disorder. Recent studies focus on individuals with CVD to determine the neural basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) neuropathology. However, whether CVD showed specific or similar brain functional activity and connectivity patterns, compared to MDD, remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with CVD, healthy controls (HC) and MDD, regional homogeneity (ReHo) and resting-state functional connectivity (R-FC) analyses were conducted to assess local synchronization and changes in functional connectivity patterns...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#6
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656437/structural-correlates-of-openness-and-intellect-implications-for-the-contribution-of-personality-to-creativity
#7
Oshin Vartanian, Christopher J Wertz, Ranee A Flores, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Rex E Jung
Openness/Intellect (i.e., openness to experience) is the Big Five personality factor most consistently associated with individual differences in creativity. Recent psychometric evidence has demonstrated that this factor consists of two distinct aspects-Intellect and Openness. Whereas Intellect reflects perceived intelligence and intellectual engagement, Openness reflects engagement with fantasy, perception, and aesthetics. We investigated the extent to which Openness and Intellect are associated with variations in brain structure as measured by cortical thickness, area, and volume (N = 185)...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626167/intracranial-electrophysiology-reveals-reproducible-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-within-human-brain-networks
#8
Aaron Kucyi, Jessica Schrouff, Stephan Bickel, Brett L Foster, James M Shine, Josef Parvizi
Evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the human brain is largely from neuroimaging studies of hemodynamic activity. Data are lacking from anatomically precise electrophysiological recordings in the most widely studied nodes of human brain networks. Here we used a combination of fMRI and electrocorticography (ECoG) in five human neurosurgical patients with electrodes in the canonical "default" (medial prefrontal and posteromedial cortex), "dorsal attention" (frontal eye fields and superior parietal lobule) and "frontoparietal control" (inferior parietal lobule and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625429/a-latent-variable-approach-to-differentiating-neural-mechanisms-of-irritability-and-anxiety-in-youth
#9
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608925/transdiagnostic-and-diagnosis-specific-dynamic-functional-connectivity-anchored-in-the-right-anterior-insula-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-depression
#10
Yajing Pang, Heng Chen, Yifeng Wang, Zhiliang Long, Zongling He, Huangbin Zhang, Wei Liao, Qian Cui, Huafu Chen
Dysfunctional and abnormal functional connectivity in the right anterior insula (rAI) may underlie the pathophysiology of depression episode in bipolar disorder (BD) and of major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the rAI of 30 patients with BD, 30 patients with MDD, and 30 healthy controls. In the functional separation of rAI, the right dorsal AI (rdAI) and ventral AI (rvAI) were defined as seed regions. Sliding-window correlation of rAI subregions was implemented to measure the variance of dFC...
March 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593512/presbycusis-disrupts-spontaneous-activity-revealed-by-resting-state-functional-mri
#11
Yu-Chen Chen, Huiyou Chen, Liang Jiang, Fan Bo, Jin-Jing Xu, Cun-Nan Mao, Richard Salvi, Xindao Yin, Guangming Lu, Jian-Ping Gu
Purpose : Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. Methods : Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587165/disrupted-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-the-insula-subregions-in-drug-free-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Chao Wang, Huawang Wu, Fangfang Chen, Jinping Xu, Hongming Li, Hong Li, Jiaojian Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impairments in emotional and cognitive functions. Emerging studies have shown that cognition and emotion interact by reaching identical brain regions, and the insula is one such region with functional and structural heterogeneity. Although previous literatures have shown the role of insula in MDD,it remains unclear whether the insular subregions show differential change patterns in MDD. METHODS: Using the resting-state fMRI data in a group of 23 drug-free MDD patients and 34 healthy controls (HCs), we investigated whether the abnormal connectivity patterns of insular sub-regions or any behavioural correlates can be detected in MDD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580768/functional-connectivity-between-anterior-insula-and-key-nodes-of-frontoparietal-executive-control-and-salience-networks-distinguish-bipolar-depression-from-unipolar-depression-and-healthy-control-subjects
#13
Kristen K Ellard, Jared P Zimmerman, Navneet Kaur, Koene R A Van Dijk, Joshua L Roffman, Andrew A Nierenberg, Darin D Dougherty, Thilo Deckersbach, Joan A Camprodon
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar depression are characterized by dysregulation across the full spectrum of mood, differentiating them from patients with unipolar depression. The ability to switch neural resources among the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network (ECN) has been proposed as a key mechanism for adaptive mood regulation. The anterior insula is implicated in the modulation of functional network switching. Differential connectivity between anterior insula and functional networks may provide insights into pathophysiological differences between bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, with implications for diagnosis and treatment...
February 7, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577011/current-understanding-of-the-neural-mechanisms-of-dissociation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Annegret Krause-Utz, Bernet Elzinga
Purpose of Review: In this article, we aim to give an overview over recent neuroimaging research on dissociation in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Stress-related dissociation is highly prevalent in BPD, while so far only little is known about its neural underpinnings. Recent Findings: Based on research in depersonalization and the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder, it has been proposed that dissociation involves alterations in a cortico-limbic network...
2018: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572062/better-imagined-neural-correlates-of-the-episodic-simulation-boost-to-prospective-memory-performance
#15
R Nathan Spreng, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic simulation is an adaptive process that can support goal-directed activity and planning success. We investigated the neural architecture associated with the episodic simulation improvement to the likelihood of carrying out future actions by isolating the brain regions associated with this facilitation in a prospective memory paradigm. Participants performed a lexical decision task by making word/non-word judgments, with rarely occurring prospective memory target words requiring a pre-specified manual response...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559932/adult-attachment-affects-neural-response-to-preference-inferring-in-ambiguous-scenarios-evidence-from-an-fmri-study
#16
Xing Zhang, Guangming Ran, Wenjian Xu, Yuanxiao Ma, Xu Chen
Humans are highly social animals, and the ability to cater to the preferences of other individuals is encouraged by society. Preference-inferring is an important aspect of the theory of mind (TOM). Many previous studies have shown that attachment style is closely related to TOM ability. However, little is known about the effects of adult attachment style on preferences inferring under different levels of certainty. Here, we investigated how adult attachment style affects neural activity underlying preferences inferred under different levels of certainty by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556185/feasibility-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-to-investigate-the-mirror-neuron-system-an-experimental-study-in-a-real-life-situation
#17
Pei-Pei Sun, Fu-Lun Tan, Zong Zhang, Yi-Han Jiang, Yang Zhao, Chao-Zhe Zhu
The mirror neuron system (MNS), mainly including the premotor cortex (PMC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior parietal lobule (SPL), and rostral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), has attracted extensive attention as a possible neural mechanism of social interaction. Owing to high ecological validity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an ideal approach for exploring the MNS. Unfortunately, for the feasibility of fNIRS to detect the MNS, none of the four dominant regions were found in previous studies, implying a very limited capacity of fNIRS to investigate the MNS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545745/monetary-reward-and-punishment-to-response-inhibition-modulate-activation-and-synchronization-within-the-inhibitory-brain-network
#18
Rupesh K Chikara, Erik C Chang, Yi-Chen Lu, Dar-Shong Lin, Chin-Teng Lin, Li-Wei Ko
A reward or punishment can modulate motivation and emotions, which in turn affect cognitive processing. The present simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography study examines neural mechanisms of response inhibition under the influence of a monetary reward or punishment by implementing a modified stop-signal task in a virtual battlefield scenario. The participants were instructed to play as snipers who open fire at a terrorist target but withhold shooting in the presence of a hostage...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543689/topographical-memory-for-newly-learned-maps-is-differentially-affected-by-route-based-versus-landmark-based-learning-a-functional-mri-study
#19
Erin L Beatty, Alexandra Muller-Gass, Dorothy Wojtarowicz, Marie-Eve Jobidon, Ingrid Smith, Quan Lam, Oshin Vartanian
Humans rely on topographical memory to encode information about spatial aspects of environments. However, even though people adopt different strategies when learning new maps, little is known about the impact of those strategies on topographical memory, and their neural correlates. To examine that issue, we presented participants with 40 unfamiliar maps, each of which displayed one major route and three landmarks. Half were instructed to memorize the maps by focusing on the route, whereas the other half memorized the maps by focusing on the landmarks...
March 14, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536592/listening-under-difficult-conditions-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#20
Claude Alain, Yi Du, Lori J Bernstein, Thijs Barten, Karen Banai
The brain networks supporting speech identification and comprehension under difficult listening conditions are not well specified. The networks hypothesized to underlie effortful listening include regions responsible for executive control. We conducted meta-analyses of auditory neuroimaging studies to determine whether a common activation pattern of the frontal lobe supports effortful listening under different speech manipulations. Fifty-three functional neuroimaging studies investigating speech perception were divided into three independent Activation Likelihood Estimate analyses based on the type of speech manipulation paradigm used: Speech-in-noise (SIN, 16 studies, involving 224 participants); spectrally degraded speech using filtering techniques (15 studies involving 270 participants); and linguistic complexity (i...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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