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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232968/altered-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Ying Wang, Shuming Zhong, Guanmao Chen, Tao Liu, Lianping Zhao, Yao Sun, Yanbin Jia, Li Huang
OBJECTIVES: Several recent studies have reported a strong association between the cerebellar structural and functional abnormalities and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no studies to investigate possible changes in cerebellar functional connectivity in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to examine the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with remitted bipolar disorder II, in particular in the cerebellum. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with remitted bipolar disorder II and 25 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226863/associations-between-use-of-specific-analgesics-and-concentrations-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-or-phospho-tau-in-regions-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#2
Margaret E Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Rod L Walker, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Brenna Cholerton, Joshua A Sonnen, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Thomas J Montine
Analgesics are commonly used by older adults, raising the question of whether their use might contribute to dementia risk and neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study is a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia among people 65 years or older who are community dwelling and not demented at entry. Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and phospho-tau were quantified using Histelide in regions of cerebral cortex from 420 brain autopsies. Total standard daily doses of prescription opioid and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during a defined 10-year exposure window were identified using automated pharmacy dispensing data and used to classify people as having no/low, intermediate, or high exposure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214728/disruption-of-network-for-visual-perception-of-natural-motion-in-primary-dystonia
#3
Koji Fujita, Wataru Sako, An Vo, Susan B Bressman, David Eidelberg
In healthy subjects, brain activation in motor regions is greater during the visual perception of "natural" target motion, which complies with the two-thirds power law, than of "unnatural" motion, which does not. It is unknown whether motion perception is normally mediated by a specific network that can be altered in the setting of disease. We used block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging and covariance analysis to identify normal network topographies activated in response to "natural" versus "unnatural" motion...
December 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209186/the-neural-association-between-tendency-to-forgive-and-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-healthy-young-adults
#4
Haijiang Li, Jiamei Lu
The tendency to forgive (TTF) refers to one's global dispositional level of forgiveness across situations and relationships. Previous brain imaging studies examined activation patterns underlying forgiving process, yet the association between individual differences in the TTF and spontaneous brain activity at resting-state remains unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the correlation between the TTF and spontaneous brain activity in a young adult sample...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205671/fronto-parietal-coding-of-goal-directed-actions-performed-by-artificial-agents
#5
Aleksandra Kupferberg, Marco Iacoboni, Virginia Flanagin, Markus Huber, Anna Kasparbauer, Thomas Baumgartner, Gregor Hasler, Florian Schmidt, Christoph Borst, Stefan Glasauer
With advances in technology, artificial agents such as humanoid robots will soon become a part of our daily lives. For safe and intuitive collaboration, it is important to understand the goals behind their motor actions. In humans, this process is mediated by changes in activity in fronto-parietal brain areas. The extent to which these areas are activated when observing artificial agents indicates the naturalness and easiness of interaction. Previous studies indicated that fronto-parietal activity does not depend on whether the agent is human or artificial...
December 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201639/visual-feedback-alters-force-control-and-functional-activity-in-the-visuomotor-network-after-stroke
#6
Derek B Archer, Nyeonju Kang, Gaurav Misra, Shannon Marble, Carolynn Patten, Stephen A Coombes
Modulating visual feedback may be a viable option to improve motor function after stroke, but the neurophysiological basis for this improvement is not clear. Visual gain can be manipulated by increasing or decreasing the spatial amplitude of an error signal. Here, we combined a unilateral visually guided grip force task with functional MRI to understand how changes in the gain of visual feedback alter brain activity in the chronic phase after stroke. Analyses focused on brain activation when force was produced by the most impaired hand of the stroke group as compared to the non-dominant hand of the control group...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201543/object-words-modulate-the-activity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-action-imitation
#7
Haiyan Wu, Honghong Tang, Yue Ge, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqin Mai, Yue-Jia Luo, Chao Liu
Background: Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Methods: Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196811/cortical-and-subcortical-connections-of-parietal-and-premotor-nodes-of-the-monkey-hand-mirror-neuron-network
#8
Stefania Bruni, Marzio Gerbella, Luca Bonini, Elena Borra, Gino Coudé, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Leonardo Fogassi, Monica Maranesi, Francesca Rodà, Luciano Simone, Francesca Ugolotti Serventi, Stefano Rozzi
Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of cells originally discovered in the monkey ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). They discharge during both action execution and action observation and appear to play a crucial role in understanding others' actions. It has been proposed that the mirror mechanism is based on a match between the visual description of actions, encoded in temporal cortical regions, and their motor representation, provided by PMv and IPL. However, neurons responding to action observation have been recently found in other cortical regions, suggesting that the mirror mechanism relies on a wider network...
December 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196699/altered-resting-state-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-freezing-of-gait
#9
Tao-Mian Mi, Shan-Shan Mei, Pei-Peng Liang, Lin-Lin Gao, Kun-Cheng Li, Tao Wu, Piu Chan
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study investigated alterations of resting-state spontaneous brain activity in PD patients with FOG. A total of 29 patients with FOG, 28 patients without FOG and 31 controls were included. All subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to measure the spontaneous brain activity. Between-group differences and correlations with FOG severity (both subjective and objective measures) were analyzed...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196661/fmri-investigation-on-gradual-change-of-awareness-states-in-implicit-sequence-learning
#10
Jianping Huang, Yingli Li, Jianxin Zhang, Xiangpeng Wang, Chunlu Huang, Antao Chen, Dianzhi Liu
Awareness of implicit knowledge is a changing process. Previous studies have examined brain activation patterns corresponding to the start and end stages of implicit learning, but failed to reveal the gradual changing course of awareness in implicit learning. The present study explored brain activation changes corresponding to different awareness states elicited by two different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, 850 ms and 1350 ms) over the whole course of implicit sequence learning (i.e., divided into three phases), by using a process dissociation procedure (PDP) paradigm and the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194453/neural-correlates-of-processing-sentences-and-compound-words-in-chinese
#11
Talat Bulut, Yi-Hui Hung, Ovid Tzeng, Denise H Wu
Sentence reading involves multiple linguistic operations including processing of lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Previous studies on Indo-European languages have associated left anterior temporal lobe (aTL) and left interior frontal gyrus (IFG) with reading sentences compared to reading unstructured word lists. To examine whether these brain regions are also involved in reading a typologically distinct language with limited morphosyntax and lack of agreement between sentential arguments, an FMRI study was conducted to compare passive reading of Chinese sentences, unstructured word lists and disconnected character lists that are created by only changing the order of an identical set of characters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190989/aberrant-pattern-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-voxel-wise-meta-analysis-of-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-studies
#12
Hai Rong Ma, Ping Lei Pan, Li Qin Sheng, Zhen Yu Dai, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Jia Hui Chen, Pei Rong Xiao, Jian Guo Zhong, Hai Cun Shi
Many studies have applied arterial spin labeling (ASL) to characterize cerebral perfusion patterns of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, findings across studies are not conclusive. A quantitatively voxel-wise meta-analysis to pool the resting-state ASL studies that measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations in AD was conducted to identify the most consistent and replicable perfusion pattern using seed-based d mapping. The meta-analysis, including 17 ASL studies encompassing 327 AD patients and 357 healthy controls, demonstrated that decreased rCBF in AD patients relative to healthy controls were consistently identified in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)/precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184200/altered-cerebellar-connectivity-in-autism-and-cerebellar-mediated-rescue-of-autism-related-behaviors-in-mice
#13
Catherine J Stoodley, Anila M D'Mello, Jacob Ellegood, Vikram Jakkamsetti, Pei Liu, Mary Beth Nebel, Jennifer M Gibson, Elyza Kelly, Fantao Meng, Christopher A Cano, Juan M Pascual, Stewart H Mostofsky, Jason P Lerch, Peter T Tsai
Cerebellar abnormalities, particularly in Right Crus I (RCrusI), are consistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although RCrusI is functionally connected with ASD-implicated circuits, the contribution of RCrusI dysfunction to ASD remains unclear. Here neuromodulation of RCrusI in neurotypical humans resulted in altered functional connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule, and children with ASD showed atypical functional connectivity in this circuit. Atypical RCrusI-inferior parietal lobule structural connectivity was also evident in the Purkinje neuron (PN) TscI ASD mouse model...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175538/white-matter-structural-connectivity-and-episodic-memory-in-early-childhood
#14
Chi T Ngo, Kylie H Alm, Athanasia Metoki, William Hampton, Tracy Riggins, Nora S Newcombe, Ingrid R Olson
Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children...
November 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172013/the-association-between-brain-activity-and-motor-imagery-during-motor-illusion-induction-by-vibratory-stimulation
#15
Takayuki Kodama, Hideki Nakano, Osamu Katayama, Shin Murata
BACKGROUND: The association between motor imagery ability and brain neural activity that leads to the manifestation of a motor illusion remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the association between the ability to generate motor imagery and brain neural activity leading to the induction of a motor illusion by vibratory stimulation. METHODS: The sample consisted of 20 healthy individuals who did not have movement or sensory disorders...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162521/intrinsic-insula-network-engagement-underlying-children-s-reading-and-arithmetic-skills
#16
Ting-Ting Chang, Pei-Hong Lee, Arron W S Metcalfe
The neural substrates of children's reading and arithmetic skills have long been of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists. However, most previous studies have focused on the contrast between these skills as specific domains. Here, we investigate the potentially shared processes across these domains by focusing on how the neural circuits associated with cognitive control influence reading and arithmetic proficiency in 8-to-10-year-old children. Using a task-free resting state approach, we correlated the intrinsic functional connectivity of the right anterior insula (rAI) network with performance on assessments of Chinese character recognition, reading comprehension, subtraction, and multiplication performance...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159055/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-deficits-and-associations-to-response-inhibition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Rosa Grützmann, Robert Hummel, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
Previous research in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has indicated performance decrements in working memory (WM) and response inhibition. However, underlying neural mechanisms of WM deficits are not well understood to date, and empirical evidence for a proposed conceptual link to inhibition deficits is missing. We investigated WM performance in a numeric n-back task with four WM load conditions during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in 51 patients with OCD and 49 healthy control participants who were matched for age, sex, and education...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159047/voxel-based-comparison-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-between-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects
#18
Shuai Liu, Yinyan Wang, Kaibin Xu, Fan Ping, Fang Li, Renzhi Wang, Xin Cheng
Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) owing to elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Molecular neuroimaging methods may help to detect changes in the brain of patients with CD. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metabolism and its association with serum cortisol level in CD. We compared brain metabolism, as measured using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), between 92 patients with CD and 118 normal subjects on a voxel-wise basis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#19
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#20
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
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