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Episodic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656011/apoe-genotype-modifies-the-association-between-central-arterial-stiffening-and-cognition-in-older-adults
#1
Francis E Cambronero, Dandan Liu, Jacquelyn E Neal, Elizabeth E Moore, Katherine A Gifford, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Kimberly R Pechman, Katie E Osborn, Timothy J Hohman, Susan P Bell, J David Sweatt, Thomas J Wang, Joshua A Beckman, John Jeffrey Carr, Angela L Jefferson
Arterial stiffening is associated with cognitive impairment and prodromal Alzheimer's disease. This study tested the interaction between arterial stiffening and an Alzheimer's disease genetic risk factor (apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype) on cognition among older adults. Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project participants with normal cognition (n = 162, 72 ± 7 years, 29% APOE-ε4 carrier) and mild cognitive impairment (n = 121, 73 ± 8 years, 42% APOE-ε4 carrier) completed neuropsychological assessment and cardiac MRI to assess aortic stiffening using pulse wave velocity (PWV, m/s)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653338/long-term-effects-of-adjunctive-perampanel-on-cognition-in-adolescents-with-partial-seizures
#2
Jesus E Piña-Garza, Lieven Lagae, Vicente Villanueva, J Ben Renfroe, Antonio Laurenza, Betsy Williams, Dinesh Kumar, Kimford J Meador
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition, efficacy, growth, safety, and tolerability in adolescents with inadequately controlled partial seizures. METHODS: Study 235, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase II study with an open-label extension phase (NCT01161524), was primarily designed to assess the effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition. Patients (aged ≥12 to <18years) had a diagnosis of epilepsy with inadequately controlled partial seizures, with or without secondary generalization, despite receiving 1-3 antiepileptic drugs...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653137/hyperactivity-and-memory-learning-deficits-evoked-by-developmental-exposure-to-nicotine-and-or-ethanol-are-mitigated-by-camp-and-cgmp-signaling-cascades-activation
#3
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Anna C Carvalho-Graça, Gabriela Skinner, Bruna M Lotufo, Vitor H S Duarte-Pinheiro, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho, Alex C Manhães, Claudio C Filgueiras
Pregnant smoking women are frequently episodic drinkers. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure restricted to the brain growth spurt period when combined with chronic developmental exposure to nicotine aggravates memory/learning deficits and hyperactivity, and associated cAMP and cGMP signaling disruption. To further investigate the role of these signaling cascades, we verified whether vinpocetine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) ameliorates the neurochemical and behavioral outcomes. Swiss mice had free access to nicotine (NIC, 50 μg/ml) or water to drink during gestation and until the 8th postnatal day (PN8)...
April 10, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649304/sedentary-behavior-associated-with-reduced-medial-temporal-lobe-thickness-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#4
Prabha Siddarth, Alison C Burggren, Harris A Eyre, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
Atrophy of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) occurs with aging, resulting in impaired episodic memory. Aerobic fitness is positively correlated with total hippocampal volume, a heavily studied memory-critical region within the MTL. However, research on associations between sedentary behavior and MTL subregion integrity is limited. Here we explore associations between thickness of the MTL and its subregions (namely CA1, CA23DG, fusiform gyrus, subiculum, parahippocampal, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex,), physical activity, and sedentary behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648928/an-optimistic-outlook-creates-a-rosy-past-the-impact-of-episodic-simulation-on-subsequent-memory
#5
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
People frequently engage in future thinking in everyday life, but it is unknown how simulating an event in advance changes how that event is remembered once it takes place. To initiate study of this important topic, we conducted two experiments in which participants simulated emotional events before learning the hypothetical outcome of each event via narratives. Memory was assessed for emotional details contained in those narratives. Positive simulation resulted in a liberal response bias for positive information and a conservative bias for negative information...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648869/the-role-of-semantic-representations-in-verbal-working-memory
#6
Vanessa M Loaiza, Valérie Camos
Two main mechanisms, articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing, are argued to be involved in the maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). Whereas converging research has suggested that rehearsal promotes the phonological representations of memoranda in working memory, little is known about the representations that refreshing may promote. Not only would examining this question address this gap in the literature, but the investigation has profound implications for different theoretical proposals of how refreshing functions and on the relationships between WM and long-term memory (LTM)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644583/construction-of-past-and-future-events-in-children-and-adolescents-with-asd-role-of-self-relatedness-and-relevance-to-decision-making
#7
Elisa Ciaramelli, Silvia Spoglianti, Elena Bertossi, Nadia Generali, Francesca Telarucci, Raffaella Tancredi, Filippo Muratori, Roberta Igliozzi
We studied episodic memory and future thinking for self-relevant and other-relevant events at different levels of retrieval support, theory of mind, and delay discounting in ASD children and adolescents (ASDs). Compared to typically developing controls, ASDs produced fewer internal (episodic) but a similar number of external (semantic) details while remembering past events, imagining future events, and imagining future events happening to others, indicating a general impairment of event construction. This deficit was driven by group differences under high retrieval support, and therefore unlikely to depend on self-initiated retrieval/construction deficits...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629501/gray-matter-volume-covariance-patterns-associated-with-gait-speed-in-older-adults-a-multi-cohort-mri-study
#8
Helena M Blumen, Lucy L Brown, Christian Habeck, Gilles Allali, Emmeline Ayers, Olivier Beauchet, Michele Callisaya, Richard B Lipton, P S Mathuranath, Thanh G Phan, V G Pradeep Kumar, Velandai Srikanth, Joe Verghese
Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625850/the-neural-representations-underlying-human-episodic-memory
#9
REVIEW
Gui Xue
A fundamental question of human episodic memory concerns the cognitive and neural representations and processes that give rise to the neural signals of memory. By integrating behavioral tests, formal computational models, and neural measures of brain activity patterns, recent studies suggest that memory signals not only depend on the neural processes and representations during encoding and retrieval, but also on the interaction between encoding and retrieval (e.g., transfer-appropriate processing), as well as on the interaction between the tested events and all other events in the episodic memory space (e...
April 3, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623900/pattern-separation-and-completion-of-distinct-axonal-inputs-transmitted-via-micro-tunnels-between-co-cultured-hippocampal-dentate-ca3-ca1-and-entorhinal-cortex-networks
#10
Daniele Poli, Bruce C Wheeler, Thomas B DeMarse, Gregory J Brewer
OBJECTIVE: Functions ascribed to the hippocampal sub-regions for encoding episodic memories include the separation of activity patterns propagated from the entorhinal cortex (EC) into the dentate gyrus (DG) and pattern completion in CA3 region. Since a direct assessment of these functions is lacking at the level of specific axonal inputs, our goal is to directly measure the separation and completion of distinct axonal inputs in engineered pairs of hippocampal sub-regional circuits. APPROACH: We co-cultured EC-DG, DG-CA3, CA3-CA1 or CA1-EC neurons in a two-chamber PDMS device over a micro-electrode array (MEA60), inter-connected via distinct axons that grow through the micro-tunnels between the compartments...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623839/identifying-patterns-in-signs-and-symptoms-preceding-the-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-retrospective-medical-record-review-study-and-a-nested-case-control-design
#11
Fidelia Bature, Dong Pang, Anthea Robinson, Norma Polson, Yannis Pappas, Barbara Guinn
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often diagnosed in the later stages of their disease with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to identify patterns in signs and symptoms preceding the clinical diagnosis of AD to suggest a predictive model for earlier diagnosis of the disease in the primary care. DESIGN: A retrospective medical record review; nested case control design. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included one hundred and nine patients from three general practice (GP) surgeries in Milton Keynes and Luton Clinical Commissioning groups (CCG) (37 cases with AD and 72 controls without AD)...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623196/classic-and-recent-advances-in-understanding-amnesia
#12
REVIEW
Richard J Allen
Neurological amnesia has been and remains the focus of intense study, motivated by the drive to understand typical and atypical memory function and the underlying brain basis that is involved. There is now a consensus that amnesia associated with hippocampal (and, in many cases, broader medial temporal lobe) damage results in deficits in episodic memory, delayed recall, and recollective experience. However, debate continues regarding the patterns of preservation and impairment across a range of abilities, including semantic memory and learning, delayed recognition, working memory, and imagination...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620525/shared-rhythmic-subcortical-gabaergic-input-to-the-entorhinal-cortex-and-presubiculum
#13
Tim James Viney, Minas Salib, Abhilasha Joshi, Gunes Unal, Naomi Berry, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum...
April 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618235/integrative-review-of-the-relationship-between-sleep-disturbances-and-episodic-memory-in-older-adults
#14
An-Yun Yeh, Susan J Pressler, Bruno J Giordani, Bunny J Pozehl, Ann M Berger
Impaired episodic memory in older adults has been linked to many factors. One of these factors is sleep disturbances, which are reported by more than 50% of older adults. The relationship between episodic memory and sleep disturbances remains unclear, however, because of the multiple types of measures of sleep and episodic memory used in previous studies. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to integrate and compare findings on this relationship in adults aged 65 years. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsychINFO, and Medline for material published from the inception of the databases to December 2016...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617684/characteristics-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-the-thai-version-of-the-consortium-to-establish-a-registry-for-alzheimer-s-disease-tests-a-multivariate-and-machine-learning-study
#15
Chavit Tunvirachaisakul, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Sookjareon Tangwongchai, Solaphat Hemrunroj, Phenphichcha Chuchuen, Itthipol Tawankanjanachot, Yuthachai Likitchareon, Kamman Phanthumchinda, Sira Sriswasdi, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) developed a neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NP) to screen patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has received attention as a pre-dementia stage. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the CERAD-NP features of MCI and their clinical utility to externally validate MCI diagnosis. METHODS: The study included 60 patients with MCI, diagnosed using the Clinical Dementia Rating, and 63 normal controls...
April 4, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617670/manipulating-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-by-single-cell-stimulation-in-freely-moving-mice
#16
Maria Diamantaki, Stefano Coletta, Khaled Nasr, Roxana Zeraati, Sophie Laturnus, Philipp Berens, Patricia Preston-Ferrer, Andrea Burgalossi
Learning critically depends on the ability to rapidly form and store non-overlapping representations of the external world. In line with their postulated role in episodic memory, hippocampal place cells can undergo a rapid reorganization of their firing fields upon contextual manipulations. To explore the mechanisms underlying such global remapping, we juxtacellularly stimulated 42 hippocampal neurons in freely moving mice during spatial exploration. We found that evoking spike trains in silent neurons was sufficient for creating place fields, while in place cells, juxtacellular stimulation induced a rapid remapping of their place fields to the stimulus location...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615486/human-episodic-memory-retrieval-is-accompanied-by-a-neural-contiguity-effect
#17
Sarah Folkerts, Ueli Rutishauser, Marc W Howard
Cognitive psychologists have long hypothesized that experiences are encoded in a temporal context that changes gradually over time. When an episodic memory is retrieved, the state of context is recovered-a jump back in time. We recorded from single units in the MTL of epilepsy patients performing an item recognition task. The population vector changed gradually over minutes during presentation of the list. When a probe from the list was remembered with high confidence, the population vector reinstated the temporal context of the original presentation of that probe during study-a neural contiguity effect that provides a possible mechanism for behavioral contiguity effects...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614645/structural-anatomical-investigation-of-long-term-memory-deficit-in-behavioral-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Maxime Bertoux, Emma C Flanagan, Matthew Hobbs, Amparo Ruiz-Tagle, Carolina Delgado, Marcelo Miranda, Agustín Ibáñez, Andrea Slachevsky, Michael Hornberger
Although a growing body of work has shown that behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) could present with severe amnesia in approximately half of cases, memory assessment is currently the clinical standard to distinguish bvFTD from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the concept of "relatively preserved episodic memory" in bvFTD remains the basis of its clinical distinction from AD and a criterion for bvFTD's diagnosis. This view is supported by the idea that bvFTD is not characterized by genuine amnesia and hippocampal degeneration, by contrast to AD...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614377/neural-representations-of-time-linked-memory
#19
Maryna Pilkiw, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Many cognitive processes, such episodic memory and decision making, rely on the ability to form associations between two events that occur separately in time. The formation of such temporal associations depends on neural representations of three types of information: what has been presented (trace holding), what will follow (temporal expectation), and when the following event will occur (explicit timing). The present review seeks to link these representations with firing patterns of single neurons recorded while rodents and non-human primates associate stimuli, outcomes, and motor responses over time intervals...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613944/neurocognitive-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-with-a-2-coil-device-in-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Brian C Kavanaugh, Scott T Aaronson, Gregory N Clarke, Paul E Holtzheimer, Clark W Johnson, William M McDonald, M Bret Schneider, Linda L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive dysfunction is an understudied and undertreated aspect of psychiatric research and treatment. There is emerging evidence to suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may possess neurocognition-enhancing capabilities. METHODS: This study examined the neurocognitive data from a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of an investigational 2-coil rTMS device in antidepressant treatment or treatment-intolerant major depressive disorder patients...
April 2, 2018: Journal of ECT
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