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Episodic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#1
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324695/imagining-the-future-the-core-episodic-simulation-network-dissociates-as-a-function-of-timecourse-and-the-amount-of-simulated-information
#2
Preston P Thakral, Roland G Benoit, Daniel L Schacter
Neuroimaging data indicate that episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) and episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, often referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, lateral and medial parietal cortex, lateral temporal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence for a core network has been taken as support for the idea that episodic memory and episodic simulation are supported by common processes...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323683/genetic-alzheimer-disease-and-sporadic-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-comorbidity-presenting-as-primary-progressive-aphasia
#3
Tereza Picková, Radoslav Matěj, Ondrej Bezdicek, Jiří Keller, Julie van der Zee, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Zsolt Cséfalvay, Robert Rusina
We report a 44-year-old woman, with a family history of early-onset dementia, presenting with primary progressive aphasia. This clinically variable syndrome has multiple underlying pathologies, and correlations between clinical manifestations and postmortem neuropathologic findings are controversial. Our patient suffered worsening language impairment with major word-finding difficulties but preserved comprehension. She also developed episodic memory impairment. Her condition progressed to dementia with behavioral changes...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323680/transient-global-amnesia-commentary-on-trip-gabriel-s-first-person-account
#4
Howard S Kirshner
This paper comments on a companion article, a first-person account of an episode of transient global amnesia written by New York Times reporter Trip Gabriel (Gabriel T. 2017. Cogn Behav Neurol. 30:1-4). Mr Gabriel describes having no memories of a cold, rainy day that he had spent on a sailboat competing in two races. The episode may have been triggered by his exposure to water. Afterward, the skipper recalled that Mr Gabriel had functioned fine on the boat, although after returning to shore he needed help finding his car...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323679/the-day-that-went-missing-a-first-person-account-of-transient-global-amnesia
#5
Trip Gabriel
In this vivid first-person case history, political reporter Trip Gabriel describes experiencing a classic episode of transient global amnesia. He was near the average target age of 61. Although no cause has been established for the syndrome, as with many other patients his episode appears to have been triggered by contact with water: He was racing a sailboat. While remaining alert and handling complex sailing maneuvers, he suddenly developed amnesia that left him with no recollection of finishing two races, returning to shore, drinking a beer with his friends, needing help finding his car, and not knowing where he was or where he lived...
March 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316870/dural-arteriovenous-fistula-manifested-as-rapid-progressive-dementia-successfully-treated-by-endovascular-embolization-only
#6
Heewon Hwang, Yun Kyung La, Min Seok Baek, Kyoungwon Baik, Sang Hyun Suh, Won-Joo Kim
A 43-year-old male presented with daytime sleepiness at work and indifferent behavior like never before. Two weeks prior to hospital admission, he had episodic memory loss with well preserved remote memory. Brain MRI showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the right lateral transverse sinus with a bilateral thalamic venous infarction. Cerebral angiography confirmed a right transverse sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula with a feeding artery of the right occipital artery and left posterior meningeal artery...
March 2017: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315373/memory-for-objects-and-startle-responsivity-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-exposure-to-the-trier-social-stress-test
#7
Nadja Herten, Dennis Pomrehn, Oliver T Wolf
Previously we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST)...
March 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315340/in-vivo-pharmacological-profile-of-s-38093-a-novel-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist
#8
Fany Panayi, Aurore Sors, Lionel Bert, Brigitte Martin, Gaelle Rollin-Jego, Rodolphe Billiras, Isabelle Carrié, Karine Albinet, Laurence Danober, Nathalie Rogez, Jean-Yves Thomas, Luigi Pira, Valérie Bertaina-Anglade, Pierre Lestage
S 38093, a novel histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist, was tested in a series of neurochemical and behavioral paradigms designed to evaluate its procognitive and arousal properties. In intracerebral microdialysis studies performed in rats, S 38093 dose-dependently increased histamine extracellular levels in the prefrontal cortex and facilitated cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of rats after acute and chronic administration (10mg/kg i.p.). Acute oral administration of S 38093 at 0...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304289/episodic-memory-dysfunction-in%C3%A2-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-a-clinical-and-fdg-pet-study
#9
Marta Fernández-Matarrubia, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, María Valles-Salgado, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Episodic memory disturbance is still considered as an exclusion criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), but growing evidence suggests that memory can be impaired. OBJECTIVE: Our main purposes were to assess episodic memory in a group of bvFTD patients comparatively with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and analyze the relationship between episodic memory and brain metabolism measured using positron emission tomography imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302394/the-relationship-between-level-of-cognitive-impairments-and-functional-outcome-trajectories-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#10
Susie Fu, Nikolai Czajkowski, Bjørn Rishovd Rund, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen
Although cognitive impairments are consistently linked to functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia, the relationship remains unclear for patients with first-episode schizophrenia. The objective of this present study was to determine whether there are distinct developmental trajectories for functional outcome in patients with different levels of baseline cognition. The present study has a multi-follow-up design, and includes data from six follow-ups over four years. Assessments were conducted yearly, apart from the first year where assessments were conducted every six months...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301178/practice-increases-procedural-errors-after-task-interruption
#12
Erik M Altmann, David Z Hambrick
Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299814/functional-neuroanatomical-associations-of-working-memory-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Christopher Kobylecki, Cathleen Haense, Jennifer M Harris, Cheryl L Stopford, Shailendra H Segobin, Matthew Jones, Anna M T Richardson, Alexander Gerhard, José Anton-Rodriguez, Jennifer C Thompson, Karl Herholz, Julie S Snowden
OBJECTIVE: To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. BACKGROUND: Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299368/modafinil-improves-episodic-memory-and-working-memory-cognition-in-patients-with-remitted-depression-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Muzaffer Kaser, Julia B Deakin, Albert Michael, Camilo Zapata, Rachna Bansal, Dragana Ryan, Francesca Cormack, James B Rowe, Barbara J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of depression and tends to persist even after mood symptoms recover, leading to detrimental effects on clinical and functional outcomes. However, most currently available treatments have not typically addressed cognition. Modafinil has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and therefore has the potential to improve cognition in depression. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on cognitive functions in patients with remitted depression...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298555/low-lifetime-stress-exposure-is-associated-with-reduced-stimulus-response-memory
#15
Elizabeth V Goldfarb, Grant S Shields, Nathaniel D Daw, George M Slavich, Elizabeth A Phelps
Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme, effects of very low stress exposure are mixed, with some studies reporting that low stress leads to better outcomes, while others demonstrate that low stress is associated with diminished resilience and negative outcomes...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295837/compromised-hippocampus-striatum-pathway-as-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
D Rangaprakash, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Thomas A Daniel, Adam M Goodman, Jennifer L Robinson, Nouha Salibi, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas S Denney, Michael N Dretsch
OBJECTIVES: Military service members risk acquiring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild-traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with high comorbidity. Owing to overlapping symptomatology in chronic mTBI or postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and PTSD, it is difficult to assess the etiology of a patient's condition without objective measures. Using resting-state functional MRI in a novel framework, we tested the hypothesis that their neural signatures are characterized by functionally hyperconnected brain regions which are less variable over time...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#17
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294477/identifying-neurocognitive-markers-for-outcome-prediction-of-global-functioning-in-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis
#18
Kingo Sawada, Akiko Kanehara, Satoshi Eguchi, Mariko Tada, Yoshihiro Satomura, Motomu Suga, Shinsuke Koike, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: There is an increasing need for identifying neurocognitive predictors of global functional outcome in early psychosis toward optimizing early intervention strategy. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study to investigate an association between neurocognitive assessments at baseline and global functional outcome at an average of one-year follow-up. Participants included ultra-high-risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals who had not converted to psychosis during the follow-up period (UHR-NP), and those with first-episode psychosis (FEP) individuals...
March 14, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293467/relationships-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-hippocampal-volume-and-episodic-memory-in-a-population-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Ryan J Dougherty, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Laura D Ellingson, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie Van Riper, Aaron J Stegner, Dorothy F Edwards, Jennifer M Oh, Jean Einerson, Claudia E Korcarz, Rebecca L Koscik, Maritza N Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, James H Stein, Sterling C Johnson, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be related to brain health in older adults. In individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), CRF may be a modifiable risk factor that could attenuate anticipated declines in brain volume and episodic memory. The objective of this study was to determine the association between CRF and both hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a cohort of cognitively healthy older adults with familial and/or genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291864/sex-specific-cognitive-abnormalities-in-early-onset-psychosis
#20
Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla, Josefa Moreno-Granados, Maria D Salcedo-Marin, Maria L Barrigon, Maria J Blanco-Morales, Evelio Igunza, Anselmo Cañabate, Maria D Garcia, Teresa Guijarro, Francisco Diaz-Atienza, Maite Ferrin
Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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