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Episodic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454255/effects-of-adjunctive-eslicarbazepine-acetate-on-neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-refractory-focal-onset-seizures
#1
Sergiusz Jóźwiak, P Veggiotti, J Moreira, H Gama, F Rocha, P Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: This was a phase-II, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate neurocognitive effects of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients with refractory focal-onset seizures (FOS). METHODS: Children (6-16years old) with FOS were randomized (2:1) to ESL or placebo. Treatment started at 10mg/kg/day, was up-titrated up to 30mg/kg/day (target dose), and maintained for 8weeks, followed by one-year open-label follow-up...
February 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#2
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450821/episodic-life-stress-and-the-development-of-overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-to-positive-cues-in-youth
#3
Cope Feurer, Mary L Woody, Aliona Tsypes, Katie L Burkhouse, Katelynn Champagne, Brandon E Gibb
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been established as a risk factor for depression in both youth and adults, but questions remain as to how OGM develops. Although theorists have proposed that the experience of stressful life events may contribute to the development of OGM, no studies have examined the impact of negative life events on prospective changes in OGM. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature. Participants included 251 mothers and their biological children (aged 8-14 years old at the initial assessment)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449557/differential-patterns-of-contextual-organization-of-memory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#4
Vishnu P Murty, Rachel A McKinney, Sarah DuBrow, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Gretchen L Haas, Beatriz Luna
Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445769/prefrontal-%C3%AE-burst-stimulation-disrupts-the-organizing-influence-of-active-short-term-retrieval-on-episodic-memory
#5
Bianca M Marin, Stephen A VanHaerents, Joel L Voss, Donna J Bridge
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to organize items in working memory and this organizational role may also influence long-term memory. To causally test this hypothesized role of DLPFC in long-term memory formation, we used θ-burst noninvasive stimulation (TBS) to modulate DLPFC involvement in a memory task that assessed the influence of active short-term retrieval on later memory. Human subjects viewed three objects on a grid and then either actively retrieved or passively restudied one object's location after a brief delay...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444508/negative-aging-stereotypes-disrupt-both-the-selection-and-execution-of-strategies-in-older-adults
#6
Patrick Lemaire, Fleur Brun, Isabelle Régner
BACKGROUND: Age-based cognitive deficits are exacerbated by stereotype threat effects (i.e., the threat of being judged as cognitively incapable due to aging). We tested whether age-based stereotype threat effects can occur via impair- ing older adults' ability to select the best strategy and/or to execute strategies efficiently. METHODS: Older adults (age range: 64.3-89.5 years) were randomly assigned to a stereotype threat or control condition before taking an episodic memory task...
February 14, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441812/associations-between-functional-biological-age-and-cognition-among-older-adults-in-rural-bangladesh-comparisons-with-chronological-age
#7
Ola Sternäng, Katie Palmer, Zarina N Kabir, Mohammed I Hasan, Åke Wahlin
OBJECTIVES: We constructed a functional biological age (fBioAge) indicator by using four functional variables: grip strength, forced expiratory lung volume, visual acuity, and hearing. Our aim was to compare how chronological age (ChronAge) and fBioAge are related to cognitive abilities in older adults. METHOD: We used data from the Poverty and Health in Aging project, Bangladesh. Participants ( N = 400) were 60+ years of age and diagnosed as nondemented. Examined cognitive abilities were four episodic memory measures (including recall and recognition), two verbal fluency indicators, two semantic knowledge, and two processing speed tasks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#8
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440553/the-longitudinal-trajectory-of-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-healthy-older-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-age-and-is-associated-with-changes-in-episodic-memory-and-processing-speed
#9
Adam M Staffaroni, Jesse A Brown, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Fanny M Elahi, Jersey Deng, John Neuhaus, Yann Cobigo, Paige S Mumford, Samantha Walters, Rowan Saloner, Anna Karydas, Giovanni Coppola, Howie J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley, Joel H Kramer
The default mode network (DMN) supports memory functioning and may be sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's pathology. Little is known, however, about the longitudinal trajectory of this network's intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). In this study, we evaluated longitudinal FC in 111 cognitively-normal older human adults (ages 49-87, 46 women/65 men), 92 of whom had at least 3 task-free fMRI scans (n=353 total scans). Whole-brain FC and three DMN FC subnetworks were assessed: 1. within-DMN; 2. between anterior and posterior DMN (apDMN); and 3...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440309/the-phosphodiesterase-2a-inhibitor-tak-915-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-and-social-withdrawal-in-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-induced-rat-models-of-schizophrenia
#10
Masato Nakashima, Haruka Imada, Eri Shiraishi, Yuki Ito, Noriko Suzuki, Maki Miyamoto, Takahiko Taniguchi, Hiroki Iwashita
The pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. Modulation of the glutamatergic signaling pathway, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can provide a new therapeutic target for schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) is highly expressed in the forebrain, and is a dual substrate enzyme that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP, which play pivotal roles as intracellular second messengers downstream of NMDA receptors. Here we characterize the in vivo pharmacological profile of a selective and brain penetrant PDE2A inhibitor, (N-{(1S)-1-[3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-methoxyethyl}-7-methoxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazine-4(1H)-carboxamide) (TAK-915) as a novel treatment for schizophrenia...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440034/subclinical-compromise-in-cardiac-strain-relates-to-lower-cognitive-performances-in-older-adults
#11
Hailey A Kresge, Omair A Khan, Madison A Wagener, Dandan Liu, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Francis E Cambronero, Katherine A Gifford, Katie E Osborn, Timothy J Hohman, Kimberly R Pechman, Susan P Bell, Thomas J Wang, John Jeffrey Carr, Angela L Jefferson
BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal strain (GLS), reflecting total shortening of the myocardium during the cardiac cycle, has emerged as a more precise myocardial function measure than left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Longitudinal strain may be selectively affected in subclinical heart disease, even in the presence of normal LVEF. This study examines subclinical cardiac dysfunction, assessed by GLS and LVEF, and cognition among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vanderbilt Memory and Aging Project participants who were free of clinical dementia, stroke, and heart failure (n=318, 73±7 years, 58% male) completed neuropsychological assessment and cardiac magnetic resonance to quantify GLS and LVEF...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439356/frontal-cortex-epigenetic-dysregulation-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Laura Mahady, Muhammad Nadeem, Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kewei Chen, Sylvia E Perez, Elliott J Mufson
Although the frontal cortex plays an important role in cognitive function and undergoes neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the factors driving these cellular alterations remain unknown. Recent studies suggest that alterations in epigenetic regulation play a pivotal role in this process in AD. We evaluated frontal cortex histone deacetylase (HDAC) and sirtuin (SIRT) levels in tissue obtained from subjects with a premortem diagnosis of no-cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild to moderate AD (mAD), and severe AD (sAD) using quantitative western blotting...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439336/memory-binding-test-predicts-incident-dementia-results-from-the-einstein-aging-study
#13
Wenzhu B Mowrey, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Wendy S Ramratan, David A Loewenstein, Molly E Zimmerman, Herman Buschke
BACKGROUND: The Memory Binding Test (MBT) demonstrated good cross-sectional discriminative validity and predicted incident aMCI. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the MBT predicts incident dementia better than a conventional list learning test in a longitudinal community-based study. METHODS: As a sub-study in the Einstein Aging Study, 309 participants age≥70 initially free of dementia were administered the MBT and followed annually for incident dementia for up to 13 years...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435085/estimation-of-effective-connectivity-using-multi-layer-perceptron-artificial-neural-network
#14
Nasibeh Talebi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi, Iman Mohammad-Rezazadeh
Studies on interactions between brain regions estimate effective connectivity, (usually) based on the causality inferences made on the basis of temporal precedence. In this study, the causal relationship is modeled by a multi-layer perceptron feed-forward artificial neural network, because of the ANN's ability to generate appropriate input-output mapping and to learn from training examples without the need of detailed knowledge of the underlying system. At any time instant, the past samples of data are placed in the network input, and the subsequent values are predicted at its output...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434707/leuconostoc-pseudomesenteroides-associated-hemophagocytic-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Xinfeng Lin, Qilong Jiang, Jiduo Liu, Fu Zhao, Weitao Chen
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever, pancytopenia and splenomegaly. The underlying hemophagocytosis occurs primarily in the bone marrow, liver and lymph nodes. Multiple microbiological agents, including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HLH. The present study presents a case of HLH associated with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides infection treated successfully with clindamycin...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433682/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial-of-a-combined-extract-of-sage-rosemary-and-melissa-traditional-herbal-medicines-on-the-enhancement-of-memory-in-normal-healthy-subjects-including-influence-of-age
#16
N S L Perry, R Menzies, F Hodgson, P Wedgewood, M-J R Howes, H J Brooker, K A Wesnes, E K Perry
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for the first time the effects of a combination of sage, rosemary and melissa (Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.; SRM), traditional European medicines, on verbal recall in normal healthy subjects. To devise a suitable study design for assessing the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicines for memory and brain function. METHODS: Forty-four normal healthy subjects (mean age 61 ± 9.26y SD; m/f 6/38) participated in this study...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432784/cognitive-and-neuromodulation-strategies-for-unhealthy-eating-and-obesity-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-neurocognitive-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Laura Forcano, Fernanda Mata, Rafael de la Torre, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
We systematically reviewed research on cognitive training and neuromodulation interventions for reducing food craving/intake, unhealthy diet and weight, and discussed their mechanisms of action. We reviewed 50 studies involving six cognitive trainings: Approach and Attentional Bias Modification, Implementation Intentions, Response Inhibition, Episodic Future Thinking and Working Memory; and four neuromodulation approaches: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Neurofeedback...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432767/suppress-to-feel-and-remember-less-neural-correlates-of-explicit-and-implicit-emotional-suppression-on-perception-and-memory
#18
Yuta Katsumi, Sanda Dolcos
Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432613/circulating-dkk1-and-trail-are-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-with-cognitive-concerns
#19
Ryan D Ross, Raj C Shah, Sue Leurgans, Teodoro Bottligieri, Robert S Wilson, D Rick Sumner
Background: Osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are common diseases of aging that would seem to be unrelated, but may be linked through the influence of bone-derived signals on brain function. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating levels of bone-related biomarkers and cognition. Methods: The population included 103 community-dwelling older individuals with memory concerns but without cognitive impairment. A global cognition summary measure was collected at baseline and 6, 12, and 18-months post-enrollment by converting raw scores from 19 cognitive function tests to z-scores and averaging...
February 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430616/cognitive-control-of-eating-the-role-of-memory-in-appetite-and-weight-gain
#20
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review organises the recent literature on the role of memory in eating behaviours and provides an overview of the current evidence relating to the associations between memory and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last few years has highlighted working memory as an important cognitive process that underpins many aspects of appetite control. Recent work on episodic memory and appetite has replicated work showing that manipulating memory for recent eating affects later consumption and extended this work to examine associations between individual differences in memory and eating behaviours...
February 12, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
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