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Episodic memory

Mark W Schurgin, Jonathan I Flombaum
A person sees an object once, and then seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks later, she sees it again. How is the person's visual memory for that object changed, improved, or degraded by the second encounter, compared to a situation in which she will have only seen the object once? The answer is unknown, a glaring lacuna in the current understanding of visual episodic memory. The overwhelming majority of research considers recognition following a single exposure to a set of objects, whereas objects reoccur regularly in lived experience...
July 2018: Learning & Memory
Sara E Alger, Shirley Chen, Jessica D Payne
Information that is the most salient and important for future use is preferentially preserved through active processing during sleep. Emotional salience is a biologically adaptive cue that influences episodic memory processing through interactions between amygdalar and hippocampal activity. However, other cues that influence the importance of information, such as the explicit direction to remember or forget, interact with the inherent salience of information to determine its fate in memory. It is unknown how sleep-based processes selectively consolidate this complex information...
June 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Alireza Salami, Anna Rieckmann, Nina Karalija, Bárbara Avelar-Pereira, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Katrine Riklund, Martin Lövdén, Ulman Lindenberger, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg
Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Danying Wang, Andrew Clouter, Qiaoyu Chen, Kimron L Shapiro, Simon Hanslmayr
Episodic memories are rich in sensory information and often contain integrated information from different sensory modalities. For instance, we can store memories of a recent concert with visual and auditory impressions being integrated in one episode. Theta oscillations have recently been implicated in playing a causal role synchronizing and effectively binding the different modalities together in memory. However, an open question is whether momentary fluctuations in theta synchronization predict the likelihood of associative memory formation for multisensory events...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Izadora Nogueira Fonte Boa, Carolina de Medeiros Rimkus, Kenia Repiso Campanholo, Samira Luisa Apóstolos Pereira, Thiago de Faria Junqueira, Melissa de Almeida Rodrigues Machado, Dagoberto Callegaro, Maria Concepción García Otaduy, Claudia da Costa Leite, Eliane Correa Miotto
OBJECTIVE: A 4.5-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize baseline verbal episodic memory (VEM) and its behavior and to assess the effects of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on this domain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with RRMS underwent two neuropsychological assessments performed an average of 4.5 years apart. Twenty-six control participants underwent a single neuropsychological assessment. A significance level of p < 0.005 was adopted to denote a significant difference between the groups on the Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon paired statistical analyses...
May 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Nathan Kuppermann, Simona Ghetti, Jeff E Schunk, Michael J Stoner, Arleta Rewers, Julie K McManemy, Sage R Myers, Lise E Nigrovic, Aris Garro, Kathleen M Brown, Kimberly S Quayle, Jennifer L Trainor, Leah Tzimenatos, Jonathan E Bennett, Andrew D DePiero, Maria Y Kwok, Clinton S Perry, Cody S Olsen, T Charles Casper, J Michael Dean, Nicole S Glaser
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis in children may cause brain injuries ranging from mild to severe. Whether intravenous fluids contribute to these injuries has been debated for decades. METHODS: We conducted a 13-center, randomized, controlled trial that examined the effects of the rate of administration and the sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids on neurologic outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Children were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups in a 2-by-2 factorial design (0...
June 14, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Ghootae Kim, Kenneth A Norman, Nicholas B Turk-Browne
We frequently encounter the same item in different contexts, and when that happens, memories of earlier encounters can get reactivated. We examined how existing memories are changed as a result of such reactivation. We hypothesized that when an item's initial and subsequent neural representations overlap, this allows the initial item to become associated with novel contextual information, interfering with later retrieval of the initial context. Specifically, we predicted a negative relationship between representational similarity across repeated experiences of an item and subsequent source memory for the initial context...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Kimberly Mercuri, Gill Terrett, Julie D Henry, H Valerie Curran, Morgan Elliott, Peter G Rendell
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is associated with a range of neurocognitive deficits, including impaired episodic memory. However, no study to date has assessed whether these difficulties extend to episodic foresight, a core component of which is the ability to mentally travel into one's personal future. This is a particularly surprising omission given that episodic memory is considered to be critical to engage episodic foresight. AIMS: In the present study, we provide the first test of how episodic foresight is affected in the context of differing levels of cannabis use, and the degree to which performance on a measure of this construct is related to episodic memory...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Matthew J Huentelman, Ignazio S Piras, Ashley L Siniard, Matthew D De Both, Ryan F Richholt, Chris D Balak, Pouya Jamshidi, Eileen H Bigio, Sandra Weintraub, Emmaleigh T Loyer, M-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula, Emily J Rogalski
Introduction : SuperAgers are adults age 80+ with episodic memory performance that is at least as good as that of average middle-aged adults. Understanding the biological determinants of SuperAging may have relevance to preventing age-related cognitive decline and dementia. This study aimed to identify associations between genetic variations and the SuperAging phenotype using Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Methods : Sequence Kernel Association Combined (SKAT-C) test was conducted at the gene level including both rare and common variants in 56 SuperAgers and 22 cognitively-average controls from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Juliana M Sartori, Ramiro Reckziegel, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Leticia S Czepielewski, Adam Fijtman, Leonardo A Sodré, Raffael Massuda, Pedro D Goi, Miréia Vianna-Sulzbach, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Flávio Kapczinski, Benson Mwangi, Clarissa S Gama
Neuroimaging studies have been steadily explored in Bipolar Disorder (BD) in the last decades. Neuroanatomical changes tend to be more pronounced in patients with repeated episodes. Although the role of such changes in cognition and memory is well established, daily-life functioning impairments bulge among the consequences of the proposed progression. The objective of this study was to analyze MRI volumetric modifications in BD and healthy controls (HC) as possible predictors of daily-life functioning through a machine learning approach...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Amanda M Brunette, Matthew Calamia, Jenah Black, Daniel Tranel
Objective: Episodic future thinking is the ability to mentally project oneself into the future. This construct has been explored extensively in cognitive neuroscience and may be relevant for adaptive functioning. However, it has not been determined whether the measurement of episodic future thinking might be valuable in a clinical neuropsychological setting. The current study investigated (1) the relationship between episodic future thinking and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs); and (2) whether episodic future thinking is related to IADLs over and above standard measures of cognition...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Danielle Yanes, Paul D Loprinzi
The present experiment evaluated the effects of acute exercise on iconic memory and short- and long-term episodic memory. A two-arm, parallel-group randomized experiment was employed ( n = 20 per group; Mage = 21 year). The experimental group engaged in an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 15 min, while the control group engaged in a seated, time-matched computer task. Afterwards, the participants engaged in a paragraph-level episodic memory task (20 min delay and 24 h delay recall) as well as an iconic memory task, which involved 10 trials (at various speeds from 100 ms to 800 ms) of recalling letters from a 3 &times; 3 array matrix...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
David Green, Paul D Loprinzi
Research demonstrates that acute exercise can enhance retrospective episodic memory performance. However, limited research has examined the effects of acute exercise on prospective memory, and no studies have examined the effects of exercise on false memory performance. This study examined the potential effects of acute exercise on prospective memory and false memory performance. A between-group randomized controlled trial was employed, with participants (college students; Mage  = 20 years) randomized into an exercise group (15-minute acute bout of treadmill walking; N = 25) or a control group (15 minutes of sitting; N = 26)...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Per M Aslaksen, Martin K Bystad, Marte C Ørbo, Torgil R Vangberg
Total hippocampal volume has previously been shown to correlate with performance on tests for verbal episodic memory. However, there are sparse evidence on how hippocampal subfield volumes are related to verbal episodic memory in healthy adults. The present study investigated the association between volumes of separate hippocampal subfields and verbal episodic memory performance in healthy volunteers. Forty-seven participants (31 females) between 20 to 71 years age underwent testing with the California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLT II), and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) to obtain an estimate of cognitive functioning...
June 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chia-Ying Chou, Roberto La Marca, Andrew Steptoe, Chris R Brewin
Voluntary recall of trauma is a key element in exposure-based psychotherapies and can trigger spontaneous dissociative responses such as flashbacks, depersonalisation, and derealisation. In order to examine the associations between cardiovascular and psychological responses to voluntary recollection of trauma, individuals with PTSD recalled a traumatic memory. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded continuously and the episodes when different forms of dissociation were experienced during the recall were identified...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Michal M Milczarek, Seralynne D Vann, Frank Sengpiel
Memory relies on lasting adaptations of neuronal properties elicited by stimulus-driven plastic changes [1]. The strengthening (and weakening) of synapses results in the establishment of functional ensembles. It is presumed that such ensembles (or engrams) are activated during memory acquisition and re-activated upon memory retrieval. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has emerged as a key brain area supporting memory [2], including episodic and topographical memory in humans [3-5], as well as spatial memory in rodents [6, 7]...
May 30, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Josephine Heine, Harald Prüss, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Thomas Münte, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch, Carsten Finke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal inflammation in anti-LGI1 encephalitis causes memory deficits, seizures and behavioural abnormalities. Recent findings suggest that extralimbic brain areas are additionally affected and that patients also suffer from non-limbic cognitive symptoms. Moreover, up to 60% of patients show no structural MRI abnormalities in the acute disease stage. We therefore investigated whether functional connectivity analyses can identify brain network changes underlying disease-related symptoms...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Angela Gutchess, Elizabeth A Kensinger
The literatures on episodic memory for self-referential and emotional information have proceeded relatively independently, and most studies examining the effects of age on these memory processes have been interpreted within domain-specific frameworks. However, there is increasing evidence for shared mechanisms that contribute to episodic memory benefits in these two domains. We review this evidence and propose a model that incorporates overlapping as well as domain-specific contributions to episodic memory encoding of self-referential and emotional material...
June 6, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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