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Episodic memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108955/-unforgettable-a-pictorial-essay-on-anatomy-and-pathology-of-the-hippocampus
#1
REVIEW
Sven Dekeyzer, Isabelle De Kock, Omid Nikoubashman, Stephanie Vanden Bossche, Ruth Van Eetvelde, Jeroen De Groote, Marjan Acou, Martin Wiesmann, Karel Deblaere, Eric Achten
: The hippocampus is a small but complex anatomical structure that plays an important role in spatial and episodic memory. The hippocampus can be affected by a wide range of congenital variants and degenerative, inflammatory, vascular, tumoral and toxic-metabolic pathologies. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging technique for evaluating the hippocampus. The main indications requiring tailored imaging sequences of the hippocampus are medically refractory epilepsy and dementia...
January 20, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108637/tomm40-523-variant-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-persons-with-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B53-3-genotype
#2
Lei Yu, Michael W Lutz, Robert S Wilson, Daniel K Burns, Allen D Roses, Ann M Saunders, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To interrogate a poly-T variant (rs10524523, '523) in TOMM40, a gene adjacent to the APOE gene on chromosome 19, in older persons with APOE ε3/3 homozygosity for association with cognitive decline, the clinical hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Data came from participants in 2 cohort studies of aging and dementia who underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 21 years. APOE and TOMM40'523 genotypes were determined from DNA from blood or brain samples...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108332/sex-dependent-effects-of-early-life-inflammatory-pain-on-sucrose-intake-and-sucrose-associated-hippocampal-arc-expression-in-adult-rats
#3
Yoko O Henderson, Rebecca Nalloor, Almira Vazdarjanova, Anne Z Murphy, Marise B Parent
We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that meal. In support, we showed previously that (1) consuming a sucrose meal induces expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in dHC neurons and (2) reversible inactivation of these neurons immediately following a sucrose meal accelerates the onset of the next meal and increases the size of that meal...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103200/depressive-symptoms-influence-global-cognitive-impairment-indirectly-by-reducing-memory-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Chathuri Yatawara, Levinia Lim, Russell Chander, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms negatively influence global cognition in the elderly; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depressive symptoms influence global cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by impeding specific neuropsychological abilities and under what conditions this effect might occur. METHOD: A sample of 259 participants (104 cognitively normal elderly controls, 66 patients with MCI and 89 patients with mild AD) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102474/anti-amnestic-effect-of-curcumin-in-combination-with-donepezil-an-anticholinesterase-drug-involvement-of-cholinergic-system
#5
Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Ganiyu Oboh, Sunday Idowu Oyeleye, Opeyemi Ogunsuyi
Recently, combination therapy involving cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor with other neuroprotective agents has shown better desirable effect in the management/prevention of dementia but limited information is available on their effect with dietary polyphenols. Hence, this study sought to assess the combined pretreatment effect of curcumin, the major polyphenolic compound of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes, with donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, on cognitive function in scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats...
January 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100737/selectivity-in-postencoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#6
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100294/why-do-we-remember-the-communicative-function-of-episodic-memory
#7
Johannes Mahr, Gergely Csibra
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099630/the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-val66met-polymorphism-affects-memory-performance-in-older-adults
#8
Lucas A de Azeredo, Tatiana De Nardi, Mateus L Levandowski, Saulo G Tractenberg, Julia Kommers-Molina, Andrea Wieck, Tatiana Q Irigaray, Irênio G da Silva, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Objective: Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098162/novel-genetic-loci-associated-with-hippocampal-volume
#9
Derrek P Hibar, Hieab H H Adams, Neda Jahanshad, Ganesh Chauhan, Jason L Stein, Edith Hofer, Miguel E Renteria, Joshua C Bis, Alejandro Arias-Vasquez, M Kamran Ikram, Sylvane Desrivières, Meike W Vernooij, Lucija Abramovic, Saud Alhusaini, Najaf Amin, Micael Andersson, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Benjamin S Aribisala, Nicola J Armstrong, Lavinia Athanasiu, Tomas Axelsson, Ashley H Beecham, Alexa Beiser, Manon Bernard, Susan H Blanton, Marc M Bohlken, Marco P Boks, Janita Bralten, Adam M Brickman, Owen Carmichael, M Mallar Chakravarty, Qiang Chen, Christopher R K Ching, Vincent Chouraki, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Fabrice Crivello, Anouk Den Braber, Nhat Trung Doan, Stefan Ehrlich, Sudheer Giddaluru, Aaron L Goldman, Rebecca F Gottesman, Oliver Grimm, Michael E Griswold, Tulio Guadalupe, Boris A Gutman, Johanna Hass, Unn K Haukvik, David Hoehn, Avram J Holmes, Martine Hoogman, Deborah Janowitz, Tianye Jia, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Nazanin Karbalai, Dalia Kasperaviciute, Sungeun Kim, Marieke Klein, Bernd Kraemer, Phil H Lee, David C M Liewald, Lorna M Lopez, Michelle Luciano, Christine Macare, Andre F Marquand, Mar Matarin, Karen A Mather, Manuel Mattheisen, David R McKay, Yuri Milaneschi, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Kwangsik Nho, Allison C Nugent, Paul Nyquist, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Jaap Oosterlaan, Martina Papmeyer, Lukas Pirpamer, Benno Pütz, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Jennifer S Richards, Shannon L Risacher, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Nanda Rommelse, Stefan Ropele, Emma J Rose, Natalie A Royle, Tatjana Rundek, Philipp G Sämann, Arvin Saremi, Claudia L Satizabal, Lianne Schmaal, Andrew J Schork, Li Shen, Jean Shin, Elena Shumskaya, Albert V Smith, Emma Sprooten, Lachlan T Strike, Alexander Teumer, Diana Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Roberto Toro, Daniah Trabzuni, Stella Trompet, Dhananjay Vaidya, Jeroen Van der Grond, Sven J Van der Lee, Dennis Van der Meer, Marjolein M J Van Donkelaar, Kristel R Van Eijk, Theo G M Van Erp, Daan Van Rooij, Esther Walton, Lars T Westlye, Christopher D Whelan, Beverly G Windham, Anderson M Winkler, Katharina Wittfeld, Girma Woldehawariat, Christiane Wolf, Thomas Wolfers, Lisa R Yanek, Jingyun Yang, Alex Zijdenbos, Marcel P Zwiers, Ingrid Agartz, Laura Almasy, David Ames, Philippe Amouyel, Ole A Andreassen, Sampath Arepalli, Amelia A Assareh, Sandra Barral, Mark E Bastin, Diane M Becker, James T Becker, David A Bennett, John Blangero, Hans van Bokhoven, Dorret I Boomsma, Henry Brodaty, Rachel M Brouwer, Han G Brunner, Randy L Buckner, Jan K Buitelaar, Kazima B Bulayeva, Wiepke Cahn, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Ching-Yu Cheng, Sven Cichon, Mark R Cookson, Aiden Corvin, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Joanne E Curran, Michael Czisch, Anders M Dale, Gareth E Davies, Anton J M De Craen, Eco J C De Geus, Philip L De Jager, Greig I De Zubicaray, Ian J Deary, Stéphanie Debette, Charles DeCarli, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Anita DeStefano, Allissa Dillman, Srdjan Djurovic, Gary Donohoe, Wayne C Drevets, Ravi Duggirala, Thomas D Dyer, Christian Enzinger, Susanne Erk, Thomas Espeseth, Iryna O Fedko, Guillén Fernández, Luigi Ferrucci, Simon E Fisher, Debra A Fleischman, Ian Ford, Myriam Fornage, Tatiana M Foroud, Peter T Fox, Clyde Francks, Masaki Fukunaga, J Raphael Gibbs, David C Glahn, Randy L Gollub, Harald H H Göring, Robert C Green, Oliver Gruber, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sebastian Guelfi, Asta K Håberg, Narelle K Hansell, John Hardy, Catharina A Hartman, Ryota Hashimoto, Katrin Hegenscheid, Andreas Heinz, Stephanie Le Hellard, Dena G Hernandez, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Beng-Choon Ho, Pieter J Hoekstra, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Florian Holsboer, Georg Homuth, Norbert Hosten, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Matthew Huentelman, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Masashi Ikeda, Clifford R Jack, Mark Jenkinson, Robert Johnson, Erik G Jönsson, J Wouter Jukema, René S Kahn, Ryota Kanai, Iwona Kloszewska, David S Knopman, Peter Kochunov, John B Kwok, Stephen M Lawrie, Hervé Lemaître, Xinmin Liu, Dan L Longo, Oscar L Lopez, Simon Lovestone, Oliver Martinez, Jean-Luc Martinot, Venkata S Mattay, Colm McDonald, Andrew M McIntosh, Francis J McMahon, Katie L McMahon, Patrizia Mecocci, Ingrid Melle, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Grant W Montgomery, Derek W Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Thomas W Mühleisen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Michael A Nalls, Matthias Nauck, Thomas E Nichols, Wiro J Niessen, Markus M Nöthen, Lars Nyberg, Kazutaka Ohi, Rene L Olvera, Roel A Ophoff, Massimo Pandolfo, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Brenda W J H Penninx, G Bruce Pike, Steven G Potkin, Bruce M Psaty, Simone Reppermund, Marcella Rietschel, Joshua L Roffman, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Jerome I Rotter, Mina Ryten, Ralph L Sacco, Perminder S Sachdev, Andrew J Saykin, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, Peter R Schofield, Sigurdur Sigursson, Andrew Simmons, Andrew Singleton, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Colin Smith, Jordan W Smoller, Hilkka Soininen, Vidar M Steen, David J Stott, Jessika E Sussmann, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Arthur W Toga, Bryan J Traynor, Juan Troncoso, Magda Tsolaki, Christophe Tzourio, Andre G Uitterlinden, Maria C Valdés Hernández, Marcel Van der Brug, Aad van der Lugt, Nic J A van der Wee, Neeltje E M Van Haren, Dennis van 't Ent, Marie-Jose Van Tol, Badri N Vardarajan, Bruno Vellas, Dick J Veltman, Henry Völzke, Henrik Walter, Joanna M Wardlaw, Thomas H Wassink, Michael E Weale, Daniel R Weinberger, Michael W Weiner, Wei Wen, Eric Westman, Tonya White, Tien Y Wong, Clinton B Wright, Ronald H Zielke, Alan B Zonderman, Nicholas G Martin, Cornelia M Van Duijn, Margaret J Wright, W T Longstreth, Gunter Schumann, Hans J Grabe, Barbara Franke, Lenore J Launer, Sarah E Medland, Sudha Seshadri, Paul M Thompson, M Arfan Ikram
The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095376/review-of-decision-making-in-game-tasks-in-elderly-participants-with-alzheimer-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Alaise Silva Santos de Siqueira, Juliana Emy Yokomizo, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Mônica Sanches Yassuda, Ivan Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: Changes in decision-making (DM) have recently been investigated in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DM is highly relevant to everyday functioning and autonomy. It relies on several cognitive abilities, such as semantic and episodic memory, as well as aspects of executive functioning. We conducted a systematic review of DM in older adults with MCI and AD. SUMMARY: Only 5 studies whose main objective was to evaluate the DM performance were selected...
January 18, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095105/regular-latin-dancing-and-health-education-may-improve-cognition-of-late-middle-aged-and-older-latinos
#11
David X Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes, Charles Spanbauer
Disparities exist between Latinos and non-Latino whites in cognitive function. Dance is culturally appropriate and challenges individuals physically and cognitively, yet the impact of regular dancing on cognitive function in older Latinos has not been examined. A two-group pilot trial was employed among inactive, older Latinos. Participants (N = 57) participated in the BAILAMOS(©) dance program or a health education program. Cognitive test scores were converted to z-scores and measures of global cognition and specific domains (executive function, episodic memory, working memory) were derived...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093557/hebbian-plasticity-requires-compensatory-processes-on-multiple-timescales
#12
REVIEW
Friedemann Zenke, Wulfram Gerstner
We review a body of theoretical and experimental research on Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity, starting from a puzzling observation: while homeostasis of synapses found in experiments is a slow compensatory process, most mathematical models of synaptic plasticity use rapid compensatory processes (RCPs). Even worse, with the slow homeostatic plasticity reported in experiments, simulations of existing plasticity models cannot maintain network stability unless further control mechanisms are implemented. To solve this paradox, we suggest that in addition to slow forms of homeostatic plasticity there are RCPs which stabilize synaptic plasticity on short timescales...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093279/obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-associated-with-reduced-activity-in-core-memory-regions-of-the-brain
#13
Lucy G Cheke, Heidi M Bonnici, Nicola S Clayton, Jon S Simons
Increasing research in animals and humans suggests that obesity may be associated with learning and memory deficits, and in particular with reductions in episodic memory. Rodent models have implicated the hippocampus in obesity-related memory impairments, but the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory deficits in obese humans remain undetermined. In the present study, lean and obese human participants were scanned using fMRI while completing a What-Where-When episodic memory test (the "Treasure-Hunt Task") that assessed the ability to remember integrated item, spatial, and temporal details of previously encoded complex events...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089351/longitudinal-association-between-hippocampus-atrophy-and-episodic-memory-decline
#14
Tetiana Gorbach, Sara Pudas, Anders Lundquist, Greger Orädd, Maria Josefsson, Alireza Salami, Xavier de Luna, Lars Nyberg
There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions...
December 11, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088728/the-association-between-insomnia-related-sleep-disruptions-and-cognitive-dysfunction-during-the-inter-episode-phase-of-bipolar-disorder
#15
Jennifer C Kanady, Adriane M Soehner, Alexandra B Klein, Allison G Harvey
Sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction are two domains of impairment during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Despite evidence demonstrating the importance of sleep for cognition in healthy and sleep-disordered samples, this link has been minimally examined in bipolar disorder. The present study tested the association between insomnia-related sleep disruptions and cognitive dysfunction during inter-episode bipolar disorder. Forty-seven participants with bipolar disorder and a comorbid insomnia diagnosis (BD-Insomnia) and 19 participants with bipolar disorder without sleep disturbance in the last six months (BD-Control) participated in the study...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#16
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#17
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081495/emotional-intensity-in-episodic-autobiographical-memory-and-counterfactual-thinking
#18
Matthew L Stanley, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Episodic counterfactual thoughts-imagined alternative ways in which personal past events might have occurred-are frequently accompanied by intense emotions. Here, participants recollected positive and negative autobiographical memories and then generated better and worse episodic counterfactual events from those memories. Our results suggest that the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event is significantly higher than but typically positively related to the emotional intensity while remembering/imagining the event...
January 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#19
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080117/effects-of-learned-episodic-event-structure-on-prospective-duration-judgments
#20
Myrthe Faber, Silvia P Gennari
The field of psychology of time has typically distinguished between prospective timing and retrospective duration estimation: in prospective timing, participants attend to and encode time, whereas in retrospective estimation, estimates are based on the memory of what happened. Prior research on prospective timing has primarily focused on attentional mechanisms to explain timing behavior, but it remains unclear the extent to which memory processes may also play a role. The present studies investigate this issue, and specifically, the role of newly learned encoded event structure...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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