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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755373/bidirectional-causal-connectivity-in-the-cortico-limbic-cerebellar-circuit-related-to-structural-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-somatization-disorder
#1
Ranran Li, Feng Liu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jin Zhao, Ying Wang, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Anatomical and functional deficits in the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit are involved in the neurobiology of somatization disorder (SD). The present study was performed to examine causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit related to structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD at rest. Methods: A total of 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis (GCA) were used to analyze the data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754288/the-impact-of-hypoglycaemia-awareness-status-on-regional-brain-responses-to-acute-hypoglycaemia-in-men-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
Joel T Dunn, Pratik Choudhary, Ming Ming Teh, Ian Macdonald, Katharine F Hunt, Paul K Marsden, Stephanie A Amiel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) in type 1 diabetes increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia sixfold and can be resistant to intervention. We explored the impact of IAH on central responses to hypoglycaemia to investigate the mechanisms underlying barriers to therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We conducted [15 O]water positron emission tomography studies of regional brain perfusion during euglycaemia (target 5 mmol/l), hypoglycaemia (achieved level, 2...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753306/distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-reading-arabic-vs-verbal-numbers-an-erp-study
#3
Alice Mado Proverbio, Marco Bianco, Francesco de Benedetto
In this EEG/ERP study, 16 volunteers were asked to compare the numerical equality of 360 pairs of multi-digit numbers presented in Arabic or verbal format. Behavioural data showed faster and more accurate responses for digit targets, with a right hand/left hemisphere advantage only for verbal numerals. Occipito-temporal N1, peaking at approximately 180 ms, was strongly left-lateralized during verbal number processing and bilateral during digit processing. A LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) source reconstruction performed at the N1 latency stage (155-185 ms) revealed greater brain activation during coding of Arabic than of verbal stimuli...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753107/the-neural-basis-of-free-language-choice-in-bilingual-speakers-disentangling-language-choice-and-language-execution
#4
Carlo Reverberi, Anna K Kuhlen, Shima Seyed-Allaei, R Stefan Greulich, Albert Costa, Jubin Abutalebi, John-Dylan Haynes
For everyday communication bilingual speakers need to face the complex task of rapidly choosing the most appropriate language given the context, maintaining this choice over the current communicative act, and shielding lexical selection from competing alternatives from non-target languages. Yet, speech production of bilinguals is typically flawless and fluent. Most of the studies available to date constrain speakers' language choice by cueing the target language and conflate language choice with language use...
May 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749715/altered-resting-state-hippocampal-and-caudate-functional-networks-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#5
Xiaopeng Song, Bhaswati Roy, Daniel W Kang, Ravi S Aysola, Paul M Macey, Mary A Woo, Frisca L Yan-Go, Ronald M Harper, Rajesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Brain structural injury and metabolic deficits in the hippocampus and caudate nuclei may contribute to cognitive and emotional deficits found in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. If such contributions exist, resting-state interactions of these subcortical sites with cortical areas mediating affective symptoms and cognition should be disturbed. Our aim was to examine resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus and caudate to other brain areas in OSA relative to control subjects, and to relate these changes to mood and neuropsychological scores...
May 10, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748773/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-gray-matter-volume-in-subjects-with-internet-gaming-disorder-associations-with-history-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#6
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly comorbid with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Although childhood ADHD symptoms may decline during late brain maturation, structural alterations in some brain areas may persist into adulthood. This study investigated whether young adults with IGD and a history of childhood ADHD symptoms had gray matter volume (GMV) alterations that were distinct from subjects without a history of childhood ADHD. As an exploratory investigation, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm and applied an uncorrected threshold at the voxel level for multiple comparisons...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746646/corticostriatal-connectivity-in-antisocial-personality-disorder-by-mao-a-genotype-and-its-relationship-to-aggressive-behavior
#7
Nathan J Kolla, Katharine Dunlop, Jeffrey H Meyer, Jonathan Downar
Background: The influence of genetic variation on resting-state neural networks represents a burgeoning line of inquiry in psychiatric research. Monoamine oxidase A, an X-linked gene, is one example of a molecular target linked to brain activity in psychiatric illness. Monoamine oxidase A genetic variants, including the high and low variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphisms, have been shown to differentially affect brain functional connectivity in healthy humans. However, it is currently unknown whether these same polymorphisms influence resting-state brain activity in clinical conditions...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744797/the-role-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-processing-emotional-self-referential-information-a-combined-tms-fmri-study
#8
Nicola De Pisapia, Guido Barchiesi, Jorge Jovicich, Luigi Cattaneo
In this study we investigate the neural basis of emotional content in self-referential processing by using a combination of off-line repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) applied to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and whole-brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).We applied effective or ineffective (sham) 1-Hz rTMS to the mPFC of 14 healthy participants who immediately thereafter underwent fMRI while performing a personality attribution task to self or to others. rTMS produced an increase in the participants' reaction time (≈ 60 msec) when processing negative attributes...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732578/neural-activation-and-memory-for-natural-scenes-explicit-and-spontaneous-retrieval
#9
Mathias Weymar, Margaret M Bradley, Christopher T Sege, Peter J Lang
Stimulus repetition elicits either enhancement or suppression in neural activity, and a recent fMRI meta-analysis of repetition effects for visual stimuli (Kim, 2017) reported cross-stimulus repetition enhancement in medial and lateral parietal cortex, as well as regions of prefrontal, temporal, and posterior cingulate cortex. Repetition enhancement was assessed here for repeated and novel scenes presented in the context of either an explicit episodic recognition task or an implicit judgment task, in order to study the role of spontaneous retrieval of episodic memories...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730491/default-mode-network-abnormalities-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-novel-network-restricted-topology-approach
#10
Teddy J Akiki, Christopher L Averill, Kristen M Wrocklage, J Cobb Scott, Lynnette A Averill, Brian Schweinsburg, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Brenda Martini, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Chadi G Abdallah
Disruption in the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, studies have largely been limited to seed-based methods and involved inconsistent definitions of the DMN. Recent advances in neuroimaging and graph theory now permit the systematic exploration of intrinsic brain networks. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI, and graph theoretical analyses to systematically examine the DMN connectivity and its relationship with PTSD symptom severity in a cohort of 65 combat-exposed US Veterans...
May 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723638/magnetic-stimulation-selectively-affects-pre-stimulus-eeg-microstates
#11
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Spadone Sara, Paolo Capotosto
Different electrophysiological (EEG) correlates may provide specific important assessment of the period that anticipates an imperative stimulus. Previous study of our group showed that a local (i.e. parietal) anticipatory EEG marker (i.e. the event related de-synchronization of the alpha rhythms; ERD) is selectively affected when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is delivered over crucial nodes belonging to well-known human networks involved in different cognitive domains. Here, we investigated whether such distinction is also present in the whole brain activity as seen through the pre-stimulus microstate's topography, representing a global and reference-free measure of the neural activity...
April 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688873/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#12
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684644/a-gyral-coordinate-system-predictive-of-fibre-orientations
#13
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670138/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-and-parietal-cortical-contributions-to-real-world-autobiographical-episodic-and-autobiographical-semantic-memory
#14
Thackery I Brown, Jesse Rissman, Tiffany E Chow, Melina R Uncapher, Anthony D Wagner
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667272/different-brain-networks-underlying-intelligence-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Charles B Malpas, Stephen C Bowden, Marc L Seal
There has been sustained clinical and cognitive neuroscience research interest in how network correlates of brain-behavior relationships might be altered in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. As previous work has mostly focused on adults, the nature of whole-brain connectivity networks underlying intelligence in pediatric cohorts with abnormal neurodevelopment requires further investigation. We used network-based statistics (NBS) to examine the association between resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) connectivity and fluid intelligence ability in male children (n = 50) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; M = 10...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655937/the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-a-neural-crossroads-between-abstract-and-concrete-knowledge
#16
Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Eleonora Catricalà, Matteo Canini, Gabriella Vigliocco, Stefano F Cappa
Evidence from both neuropsychology and neuroimaging suggests that different types of information are necessary for representing and processing concrete and abstract word meanings. Both abstract and concrete concepts, however, conjointly rely on perceptual, verbal and contextual knowledge, with abstract concepts characterized by low values of imageability (IMG) (low sensory-motor grounding) and low context availability (CA) (more difficult to contextualize). Imaging studies supporting differences between abstract and concrete concepts show a greater recruitment of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for abstract concepts, which has been attributed either to the representation of abstract-specific semantic knowledge or to the request for more executive control than in the case of concrete concepts...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628272/altered-grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity
#17
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs...
March 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602910/neurocognition-sleep-and-pet-findings-in-type-2-vs-type-1-narcolepsy
#18
Yu-Shu Huang, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Feng-Yuan Liu, Fang-Ming Hwang, Kuang-Lin Lin, Wen-Cheng Huang, Christian Guilleminault
OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in functional brain images collected in patients with type 2 and type 1 narcolepsy compared to normal controls and the relationship among brain images, objective neuropsychologic tests, and sleep findings. METHODS: Data collection included comprehensive clinical investigation, study of sleep/wake with actigraphy, polysomnography, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, human leukocyte antigen typing, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET, and cognitive tests obtained from 29 patients with type 2 narcolepsy, 104 patients with type 1 narcolepsy, and 26 sex- and age-matched normal control individuals...
April 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593523/functional-hemispheric-a-symmetries-in-the-aged-brain-relevance-for-working-memory
#19
Madalena Esteves, Ricardo Magalhães, Paulo Marques, Teresa C Castanho, Carlos Portugal-Nunes, José M Soares, Armando Almeida, Nadine C Santos, Nuno Sousa, Hugo Leite-Almeida
Functional hemispheric asymmetries have been described in different cognitive processes, such as decision-making and motivation. Variations in the pattern of left/right activity have been associated with normal brain functioning, and with neuropsychiatric diseases. Such asymmetries in brain activity evolve throughout life and are thought to decrease with aging, but clear associations with cognitive function have never been established. Herein, we assessed functional laterality during a working memory task (N-Back) in a healthy aging cohort (over 50 years old) and associated these asymmetries with performance in the test...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572771/brain-functional-connectivity-correlates-of-coping-styles
#20
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Giulia Sprugnoli, Elisa Tatti, Lucia Mencarelli, Francesco Neri, Davide Momi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Simone Rossi, Alessandro Rossi
Coping abilities represent the individual set of mental and behavioral strategies adopted when facing stress or traumatic experiences. Coping styles related to avoidance have been linked to a disposition to develop psychiatric disorders such as PTSD, anxiety, and major depression, whereas problem-oriented coping skills have been positively correlated with well-being and high quality of life. Even though coping styles constitute an important determinant of resilience and can impact many aspects of everyday living, no study has investigated their brain functional connectivity underpinnings in humans...
March 23, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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