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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351881/phonotactic-processing-deficit-following-left-hemisphere-stroke
#1
Maryam Ghaleh, Laura M Skipper-Kallal, Shihui Xing, Elizabeth Lacey, Iain DeWitt, Andrew DeMarco, Peter Turkeltaub
The neural basis of speech processing is still a matter of great debate. Phonotactic knowledge-knowledge of the allowable sound combinations in a language-remains particularly understudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain regions crucial to phonotactic knowledge in left-hemisphere stroke survivors. Results were compared to areas in which gray matter anatomy related to phonotactic knowledge in healthy controls. 44 patients with chronic left-hemisphere stroke, and 32 controls performed an English-likeness rating task on 60 auditory non-words of varying phonotactic regularities...
December 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#2
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329055/altered-brain-structure-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#3
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#4
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291529/anatomical-and-functional-changes-in-the-brain-after-simultaneous-interpreting-training-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Lorna García-Pentón, Evy Woumans, Aster Dijkgraaf, Wouter Duyck
In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on other variables. In the present neuroimaging study, we adopted a longitudinal design, assessing the long-term anatomical and cognitive effects of an extreme form of bilingualism, namely simultaneous interpreting. We compared a group of students starting interpreting training with a closely matched group of translators, before and after nine months of training...
December 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287243/individual-variation-in-the-propensity-for-prospective-thought-is-associated-with-functional-integration-between-visual-and-retrosplenial-cortex
#6
Mario Villena-Gonzalez, Hao-Ting Wang, Mladen Sormaz, Giovanna Mollo, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth A Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought...
December 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283042/rethinking-the-role-of-the-angular-gyrus-in-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future-the-contextual-integration-model
#7
Siddharth Ramanan, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
Despite consistent activation on tasks of episodic memory, the precise contribution of the left angular gyrus (AG) to mnemonic functions remains vigorously debated. Mounting evidence suggests that AG activity scales with subjective ratings of vividness and confidence in recollection, with further evidence pointing to its involvement during construction of detailed and coherent future simulations. Lesion studies, however, indicate that damage to the AG does not render patients amnesic on standard source and associative memory paradigms...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247294/rcbf-and-cognitive-impairment-changes-assessed-by-spect-and-adas-cog-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-after-18%C3%A2-months-of-treatment-with-the-cholinesterase-inhibitors-donepezil-or-galantamine
#8
Yukihiko Shirayama, Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Kouhei Yoshino, Koichi Sato, Toshiyuki Okubo, Masaomi Iyo
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) differs substantially from early-onset AD. In this cross sectional study we investigated brain perfusion changes after 18 months of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil or galantamine. Twenty-five drug-naïve late-onset AD patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined brain perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and used three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) and the stereotactic extraction estimation method (SEE) level 3 to analyze classified gyrus level segments...
December 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246978/stress-leads-to-aberrant-hippocampal-involvement-when-processing-schema-related-information
#9
Susanne Vogel, Lisa Marieke Kluen, Guillén Fernández, Lars Schwabe
Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding schema-unrelated information but not for schema-related information. A recent study indicated that stress mediators may affect schema-related memory, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown...
January 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#10
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236647/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218005/distributed-neural-activity-patterns-during-human-to-human-competition
#12
Matthew Piva, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Steve W C Chang, Joy Hirsch
Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214997/the-influences-and-neural-correlates-of-past-and-present-during-gambling-in-humans
#13
Pierre Sacré, Sandya Subramanian, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Matthew A Johnson, Juan Bulacio, Jorge A González-Martínez, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
During financial decision-making tasks, humans often make "rational" decisions, where they maximize expected reward. However, this rationality may compete with a bias that reflects past outcomes. That is, if one just lost money or won money, this may impact future decisions. It is unclear how past outcomes influence future decisions in humans, and how neural circuits encode present and past information. In this study, six human subjects performed a financial decision-making task while we recorded local field potentials from multiple brain structures...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213512/transient-gerstmann-syndrome-as-manifestation-of-stroke-case-report-and-brief-literature-review
#14
Rafael Batista João, Raquel Mattos Filgueiras, Marcelo Lucci Mussi, João Eliezer Ferri de Barros
Gerstmann Syndrome (GS) is a rare neurological condition described as a group of cognitive changes corresponding to a tetrad of symptoms comprising agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia. It is known that some specific brain lesions may lead to such findings, particularly when there is impairment of the angular gyrus and adjacent structures. In addition, the possibility of disconnection syndrome should be considered in some cases. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a young, cardiac patient, non-adherent to treatment, who presented with a stroke in which transient clinical symptoms were compatible with the tetrad of GS...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211656/the-neural-basis-of-successful-word-reading-in-aphasia
#15
Sara B Pillay, William L Gross, William W Graves, Colin Humphries, Diane S Book, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by examining differences in brain activity associated with correct and incorrect responses on an overt reading task. On the basis of previous proposals that semantic retrieval can assist pronunciation of written words, we hypothesized that recruitment of semantic areas would be greater on successful trials...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209202/neural-basis-of-enhanced-executive-function-in-older-video-game-players-an-fmri-study
#16
Ping Wang, Xing-Ting Zhu, Zhigang Qi, Silin Huang, Hui-Jie Li
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#17
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190619/ruptured-de-novo-aneurysm-following-gamma-knife-surgery-for-arteriovenous-malformation-case-report
#18
Yun-Sik Dho, Dong Gyu Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung
Stereotactic radiosurgery is a well-known treatment tool for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The method has high validity and minimal invasiveness, but late-onset problems involving tumor formation and vasculopathy induced by radiation have been reported. We present a rare case of a radiation-induced ruptured de novo aneurysm following Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for an AVM. A 17-year-old, right-handed male underwent GKS for AVM at the left parietal lobe. After 3 years, a follow-up angiogram showed a residual AVM at the angular gyrus...
December 1, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190332/the-neural-correlates-of-intelligence-comparison
#19
Xue Wen, Jonathan S Cant, Yanhui Xiang, Ruiwang Huang, Lei Mo
Social comparison plays an important role in our daily life. Several studies have investigated the neural mechanism of social comparison; however, their conclusions remain controversial. The present study explored the neural correlates of intelligence comparison and nonsocial size comparison using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a distance effect paradigm. We found that both intelligence and size comparisons obeyed the behavioral distance effect-longer response times for near than far distances and this effect involved an overlapping frontal network including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and insula...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180950/dissociable-electroencephalograph-correlates-of-visual-awareness-and-feature-based-attention
#20
Yifan Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Yanglan Yu, Ying Liu
Background: The relationship between awareness and attention is complex and controversial. A growing body of literature has shown that the neural bases of consciousness and endogenous attention (voluntary attention) are independent. The important role of exogenous attention (reflexive attention) on conscious experience has been noted in several studies. However, exogenous attention can also modulate subliminal processing, suggesting independence between the two processes. The question of whether visual awareness and exogenous attention rely on independent mechanisms under certain circumstances remains unanswered...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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