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Angular gyrus

Yu-Jie Dai, Xin Zhang, Yang Yang, Hai-Yan Nan, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Lin-Feng Yan, Bo Hu, Jin Zhang, Zi-Yu Qiu, Yi Gao, Guang-Bin Cui, Bi-Liang Chen, Wen Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Frederike Beyer, Nura Sidarus, Stephen Fleming, Patrick Haggard
Social contexts substantially influence individual behavior, but little is known about how they affect cognitive processes related to voluntary action. Previously, it has been shown that social context reduces participants' sense of agency over the outcomes of their actions and outcome monitoring. In this fMRI study on human volunteers, we investigated the neural mechanisms by which social context alters sense of agency. Participants made costly actions to stop inflating a balloon before it burst. On "social" trials, another player could act in their stead, but we analyzed only trials in which the other player remained passive...
January 2018: ENeuro
Arran T Reader, Ben P Royce, Jade E Marsh, Katy-Jayne Chivers, Nicholas P Holmes
Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e., unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the inferior parietal lobule is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left inferior parietal lobule, or how different types of action (i...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
ChunLei Wang, Yuan Pan, YanMei Liu, Ke Xu, LanXiang Hao, Fei Huang, Juan Ke, LiQin Sheng, HaiRong Ma, WeiFeng Guo
Independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the most popular and valid methods to investigate the default mode network (DMN), an intrinsic network which attracts particular attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, previous studies present inconsistent results regarding the topographical organization of the DMN in aMCI. Therefore, we conducted a quantitative, voxel-wise meta-analysis of resting-state ICA studies using Seed-based d Mapping to establish the most consistent pattern of DMN functional connectivity alterations in aMCI...
March 6, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Fumihito Yoshii, Chikako Kawaguchi, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Hiroe Onaka, Masafuchi Ryo, Wakoh Takahashi
The Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (Japanese version) cognitive subscale (ADAS-Jcog) is composed of a number of subscale tasks. However, it is not clear which subscale tasks are most susceptible to impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or what is the relationship between reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and decreased ADAS-Jcog scores. Subjects were 32 AD patients, aged 52-86 years. We examined the relationship between subscale tasks that showed marked score changes and brain regions that showed reduced rCBF over a 2-year period...
March 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Danilo S Silva, Wagner M Avelar, Brunno M de Campos, Ana Paula B L Lino, Márcio L F Balthazar, Marcio J O Figueiredo, Fernando Cendes, Ana Carolina Coan
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a widely accepted risk for causing stroke. However, recent studies show AF as a risk factor for dementia, even without causing stroke. The mechanisms by which dementia develops in stroke-free patients with AF are still poorly understood and the association of AF with abnormal function of brain networks activities, such as the default mode network (DMN), has not been previously studied. We aimed to determine whether, in the absence of stroke and dementia, patients with AF have abnormal resting-state brain networks compared to controls without AF...
March 2, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Zhou-Wei Zhan, Li-Zhen Lin, Er-Han Yu, Jia-Wei Xin, Lin Lin, Hai-Long Lin, Qin-Yong Ye, Xiao-Chun Chen, Xiao-Dong Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the functional connectivity (FC) pattern in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia by employing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-seven PD patients with different cognitive status and 9 healthy control subjects (control group) were enrolled for RS-fMRI. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed with DPARSF and REST software...
March 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Laura Zamarian, Christoph Scherfler, Christian Kremser, Marie-Theres Pertl, Elke Gizewski, Thomas Benke, Margarete Delazer
Acquisition of numerical knowledge and understanding of numerical information are crucial for coping with the changing demands of our digital society. In this study, we assessed arithmetic learning in older and younger individuals in a training experiment including brain imaging. In particular, we assessed age-related effects of training intensity, prior arithmetic competence, and neuropsychological variables on the acquisition of new arithmetic knowledge and on the transfer to new, unknown problems. Effects were assessed immediately after training and after 3 months...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Robin
Spatial context is a defining feature of episodic memories, which are often characterized as being events occurring in specific spatiotemporal contexts. In this review, I summarize research suggesting a common neural basis for episodic and spatial memory and relate this to the role of spatial context in episodic memory. I review evidence that spatial context serves as a scaffold for episodic memory and imagination, in terms of both behavioral and neural effects demonstrating a dependence of episodic memory on spatial representations...
February 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Isabel Arend, Kenneth Yuen, Nitzan Sagi, Avishai Henik
In synaesthesia, a specific sensory dimension leads to an involuntary sensation in another sensory dimension not commonly associated with it; for example, synaesthetes may experience a specific colour when listening or thinking of numbers or letters. Large-scale behavioural studies provide a rich description of different synaesthesia phenotypes, and a great amount of research has been oriented to uncovering whether a single or multiple brain mechanisms underlie these various synaesthesia phenotypes. Interestingly, most of the synaesthetic inducers are conceptual stimuli such as numbers, letters, and months...
February 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Susanne Vogel, Lisa Marieke Kluen, Guillén Fernández, Lars Schwabe
Prior knowledge, represented as a schema, facilitates memory encoding. This schema-related learning is assumed to rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that rapidly integrates new information into the schema, whereas schema-incongruent or novel information is encoded by the hippocampus. Stress is a powerful modulator of prefrontal and hippocampal functioning and first studies suggest a stress-induced deficit of schema-related learning. However, the underlying neural mechanism is currently unknown. To investigate the neural basis of a stress-induced schema-related learning impairment, participants first acquired a schema...
February 21, 2018: NeuroImage
Elisa M Trucco, Lora M Cope, Margit Burmeister, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
Neural and temperamental mechanisms through which a genetic risk marker in the γ-amino butyric acid α2 receptor subunit (GABRA2) impacts adolescent functioning were investigated. Participants (N = 80; 29 female) completed an emotional word task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral control, negative emotionality, and resiliency temperament constructs were assessed. Externalizing and internalizing problems were the outcomes. Those with the GABRA2 minor allele had reduced activation to positive words in the angular gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and cerebellum, and to negative words in frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Yan Zhu, Dongqing Wang, Zhe Liu, Yuefeng Li
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder is associated with altered activity patterns of the default-mode network (DMN). In this study, we sought to investigate the topological organization of the DMN in patients with remitted geriatric depression (RGD) and whether RGD patients would be more likely to show disrupted topological configuration of the DMN during the resting-state. METHODS: Thirty-three RGD patients and thirty-one healthy control participants underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
February 12, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Carsten Konrad, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) show deficits in working memory (WM) performance accompanied by bilateral fronto-parietal signal changes. It is unclear whether patients with a first depressive episode (FDE) exhibit the same BOLD signal changes as patients with recurrent depressive episodes (RDE). METHODS: We investigated seventy-four MDD inpatients (48 RDE, 26 FDE) and 74 healthy control (HC) subjects performing an n-back WM task (0-back, 2-back, 3-back condition) in a 3T-fMRI...
February 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Janne Kauttonen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Pia Tikka
How does the human brain recall and connect relevant memories with unfolding events? To study this, we presented 25 healthy subjects, during functional magnetic resonance imaging, the movie 'Memento' (director C. Nolan). In this movie, scenes are presented in chronologically reverse order with certain scenes briefly overlapping previously presented scenes. Such overlapping "key-frames" serve as effective memory cues for the viewers, prompting recall of relevant memories of the previously seen scene and connecting them with the concurrent scene...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
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