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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802988/does-education-play-a-role-in-language-reorganization-after-surgery-in-drug-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-fmri-based-study
#1
Kapil Chaudhary, Bhargavi Ramanujam, S Senthil Kumaran, P Sarat Chandra, Ashima Nehra Wadhawan, Ajay Garg, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: Patients with drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) and a high level of education may differ in their language recovery after surgery. Our aim was to determine whether there were differences in the extent of improvement and pattern of reorganization of language functions on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after surgery to treat refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) between patients with more than 12 years of formal education versus those with a shorter period of regular schooling...
July 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802589/ventral-lateral-parietal-cortex-and-episodic-memory-retrieval
#2
REVIEW
Michael D Rugg, Danielle R King
With the advent of functional neuroimaging it quickly became apparent that successful episodic memory retrieval was consistently associated with enhanced activity in ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC), especially the left angular gyrus. Here, we selectively review recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging evidence relevant to the question of the functional significance of this activity. We argue that the balance of the evidence suggests that the angular gyrus supports the representation of retrieved episodic information, and that this likely reflects a more general role for the region in representing multi-modal and multi-domain information...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801254/the-effect-of-visual-parameters-on-neural-activation-during-nonsymbolic-number-comparison-and-its-relation-to-math-competency
#3
Eric D Wilkey, Jordan C Barone, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephan E Vogel, Gavin R Price
Nonsymbolic numerical comparison task performance (whereby a participant judges which of two groups of objects is numerically larger) is thought to index the efficiency of neural systems supporting numerical magnitude perception and tasks has been related to individual differences in math competency. However, a growing body of research suggests performance on such tasks is heavily influenced by visual parameters of the stimuli (e.g. surface area and dot size of object sets) such that the correlation with math is driven by performance on trials in which number is incongruent with visual cues...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772125/discovering-event-structure-in-continuous-narrative-perception-and-memory
#4
Christopher Baldassano, Janice Chen, Asieh Zadbood, Jonathan W Pillow, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
During realistic, continuous perception, humans automatically segment experiences into discrete events. Using a novel model of cortical event dynamics, we investigate how cortical structures generate event representations during narrative perception and how these events are stored to and retrieved from memory. Our data-driven approach allows us to detect event boundaries as shifts between stable patterns of brain activity without relying on stimulus annotations and reveals a nested hierarchy from short events in sensory regions to long events in high-order areas (including angular gyrus and posterior medial cortex), which represent abstract, multimodal situation models...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746187/research-of-cerebral-activation-in-uygur-speaking-and-chinese-speaking-participants-during-verb-generation-task-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yanling Xi, Ling Liu, Grace Hao, Zulipinuer Abudusadike, Chunhui Jiang, Junran Zhang, Baolan Wang
The aims are to investigate and compare the activated cerebral regions of Uygur-speaking and Chinese-speaking participants during verb generation task.A total of 31 cases of Uygur and 28 cases of Han healthy volunteers were enrolled. They were requested to take verb generation tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was performed. The fMRI images were collected and activated brain regions were analyzed.In Chinese-speaking participants, the main activated cerebral regions were as follows: the left caudate nucleus, the left occipital gyrus, the left fusiform gyrus, bilateral supplementary motor area (BA8/ 6), the left BA32, left precuneus, the left superior parietal lobule, the left inferior parietal lobule (BA7), the left angular gyrus, the right side of the central gyrus (BA9), the left inferior frontal gyrus triangular section, the right pars opercularis gyri frontalis inferiorista, and bilateral cerebellum...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733357/a-role-for-the-left-angular-gyrus-in-episodic-simulation-and-memory
#6
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#7
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730563/functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-migraine-with-and-without-aura
#8
Viviana Lo Buono, Lilla Bonanno, Francesco Corallo, Laura Rosa Pisani, Riccardo Lo Presti, Rosario Grugno, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
BACKGROUND: Several fMRI studies in migraine assessed resting state functional connectivity in different networks suggesting that this neurological condition was associated with brain functional alteration. The aim of present study was to explore the association between cognitive functions and cerebral functional connectivity, in default mode network, in migraine patients without and with aura, during interictal episodic attack. METHODS: Twenty-eight migraine patients (14 without and 14 with aura) and 14 matched normal controls, were consecutively recruited...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719018/ante-mortem-csf-tau-levels-correlate-with-post-mortem-tau-pathology-in-ftld
#9
D J Irwin, A Lleó, S X Xie, C T McMillan, D Wolk, E B Lee, V M Van Deerlin, L M Shaw, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) antemortem cerebrospinal fluid tau levels correlate with postmortem tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 2) tauopathy patients have higher phosphorylated-tau levels compared to TDP-43 proteinopathy patients while accounting for Alzheimer's disease co-pathology. METHODS: Patients had autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (n=31), TDP-43 proteinopathy (n=49), or Alzheimer's disease (n=26) with antemortem cerebrospinal fluid...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709998/aversive-smell-associations-shape-social-judgment
#10
Philipp Homan, Benjamin A Ely, May Yuan, Tobias Brosch, John Ng, Yaacov Trope, Daniela Schiller
Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted with the smell-conditioned face (without any smell), the participants tended to judge both positive and negative behaviors as indicative of personality traits rather than related to the situation...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694044/more-randomized-and-resilient-in-the-topological-properties-of-functional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Huaizhou Li, Haiyan Zhou, Yang Yang, Haiyuan Wang, Ning Zhong
Previous studies have reported the enhanced randomization of functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the changes of key nodal attributes for randomization, the resilience of network, and the clinical significance of the alterations. In this study, we collected the resting-state functional MRI data from 19 MDD patients and 19 healthy control (HC) individuals. Graph theory analysis showed that decreases were found in the small-worldness, clustering coefficient, local efficiency, and characteristic path length (i...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666915/dr-norman-chater-and-chater-s-point-a-historical-vignette
#12
REVIEW
Lauren E Rotman, Mark R Harrigan
Dr. Norman Chater, a University of California, San Francisco-trained microvascular neurosurgeon, dedicated his career to the development of surgical bypass techniques. His work contributed to advancements in microvascular anatomy and the development of cerebral revascularization techniques. He identified Chater's point, an extracranial landmark that marks the posterior extent of the Sylvian fissure, which upon craniectomy reliably exposes vessels of the angular gyrus, vasculature found to be most appropriate for bypass procedures due to their accessibility and vascular diameter...
June 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666247/associations-between-psychopathic-traits-and-brain-activity-during-instructed-false-responding
#13
Andrea L Glenn, Hyemin Han, Yaling Yang, Adrian Raine, Robert A Schug
Lying is one of the characteristic features of psychopathy, and has been recognized in clinical and diagnostic descriptions of the disorder, yet individuals with psychopathic traits have been found to have reduced neural activity in many of the brain regions that are important for lying. In this study, we examine brain activity in sixteen individuals with varying degrees of psychopathic traits during a task in which they are instructed to falsify information or tell the truth about autobiographical and non-autobiographical facts, some of which was related to criminal behavior...
June 19, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655631/varieties-of-semantic-cognition-revealed-through-simultaneous-decomposition-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-and-behaviour
#14
Deniz Vatansever, Danilo Bzdok, Hao-Ting Wang, Giovanna Mollo, Mladen Sormaz, Charlotte Murphy, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Contemporary theories assume that semantic cognition emerges from a neural architecture in which different component processes are combined to produce aspects of conceptual thought and behaviour. In addition to the state-level, momentary variation in brain connectivity, individuals may also differ in their propensity to generate particular configurations of such components, and these trait-level differences may relate to individual differences in semantic cognition. We tested this view by exploring how variation in intrinsic brain functional connectivity between semantic nodes in fMRI was related to performance on a battery of semantic tasks in 154 healthy participants...
June 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626967/strategy-over-operation-neural-activation-in-subtraction-and-multiplication-during-fact-retrieval-and-procedural-strategy-use-in-children
#15
Brecht Polspoel, Lien Peters, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Arithmetic development is characterized by strategy shifts between procedural strategy use and fact retrieval. This study is the first to explicitly investigate children's neural activation associated with the use of these different strategies. Participants were 26 typically developing 4th graders (9- to 10-year-olds), who, in a behavioral session, were asked to verbally report on a trial-by-trial basis how they had solved 100 subtraction and multiplication items. These items were subsequently presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616382/improving-language-mapping-in-clinical-fmri-through-assessment-of-grammar
#16
Monika Połczyńska, Kevin Japardi, Susan Curtiss, Teena Moody, Christopher Benjamin, Andrew Cho, Celia Vigil, Taylor Kuhn, Michael Jones, Susan Bookheimer
INTRODUCTION: Brain surgery in the language dominant hemisphere remains challenging due to unintended post-surgical language deficits, despite using pre-surgical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and intraoperative cortical stimulation. Moreover, patients are often recommended not to undergo surgery if the accompanying risk to language appears to be too high. While standard fMRI language mapping protocols may have relatively good predictive value at the group level, they remain sub-optimal on an individual level...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608647/specifying-the-brain-anatomy-underlying-temporo-parietal-junction-activations-for-theory-of-mind-a-review-using-probabilistic-atlases-from-different-imaging-modalities
#17
REVIEW
Matthias Schurz, Matthias G Tholen, Josef Perner, Rogier B Mars, Jerome Sallet
In this quantitative review, we specified the anatomical basis of brain activity reported in the Temporo-Parietal Junction (TPJ) in Theory of Mind (ToM) research. Using probabilistic brain atlases, we labeled TPJ peak coordinates reported in the literature. This was carried out for four different atlas modalities: (i) gyral-parcellation, (ii) sulco-gyral parcellation, (iii) cytoarchitectonic parcellation and (iv) connectivity-based parcellation. In addition, our review distinguished between two ToM task types (false belief and social animations) and a nonsocial task (attention reorienting)...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602997/neural-mechanisms-underlying-valence-inferences-to-sound-the-role-of-the-right-angular-gyrus
#18
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Sarah Hawkins, Nadia Gonzalez, Jorge Docampo, Claudio Bruno, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis
We frequently infer others' intentions based on non-verbal auditory cues. Although the brain underpinnings of social cognition have been extensively studied, no empirical work has yet examined the impact of musical structure manipulation on the neural processing of emotional valence during mental state inferences. We used a novel sound-based theory-of-mind paradigm in which participants categorized stimuli of different sensory dissonance level in terms of positive/negative valence. Whilst consistent with previous studies which propose facilitated encoding of consonances, our results demonstrated that distinct levels of consonance/dissonance elicited differential influences on the right angular gyrus, an area implicated in mental state attribution and attention reorienting processes...
June 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580681/recently-learned-foreign-abstract-and-concrete-nouns-are-represented-in-distinct-cortical-networks-similar-to-the-native-language
#19
Katja M Mayer, Manuela Macedonia, Katharina von Kriegstein
In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559827/pure-amorphagnosia-without-tactile-object-agnosia
#20
Shinichirou Kubota, Mai Yamada, Hideyo Satoh, Akira Satoh, Mitsuhiro Tsujihata
A 54-year-old female showed amorphagnosia without ahylognosia and tactile agnosia 40 days after the onset of right cerebral infarction. Her basic somatosensory functions were normal. The appreciation of substance qualities (hylognosia) was preserved, but the patient's inability to recognize the size and shape (morphagnosia) was confined to 2- and 3-dimensional shapes (amorphagnosia) in the left hand. However, the patient's ability to recognize real daily objects was well preserved. Brain MRI after admission showed ischemic lesions confined to the right pre- and postcentral gyri and the medial frontal cortex on DWI and FLAIR images...
January 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
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