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Bulk heating

Makusu Tsutsui, Takanori Morikawa, Kazumichi Yokota, Masateru Taniguchi
Understanding and control of heat dissipation is an important challenge in nanoelectronics wherein field-accelerated hot carriers in current-carrying ballistic systems release a large part of the kinetic energy into external bulk phonon baths. Here we report on a physical mechanism of this remote heat dissipation and its role on the stability of atomic contacts. We used a nano-fabricated thermocouple to directly characterize the self-heating in a mechanically-configurable Au junction. We found more pronounced heat dissipation at the current downstream that signifies the electron-hole asymmetry in Au nanocontacts...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maximilian Joost, Matthew Nava, Wesley J Transue, Marie-Aline Martin-Drumel, Michael C McCarthy, David Patterson, Christopher C Cummins
Sulfur monoxide (SO) is a highly reactive molecule and thus, eludes bulk isolation. We report here on synthesis and reactivity of a molecular precursor for SO generation, namely 7-sulfinylamino-7-azadibenzonorbornadiene ( 1 ). This compound has been shown to fragment readily driven by dinitrogen expulsion and anthracene formation on heating in the solid state and in solution, releasing SO at mild temperatures (<100 °C). The generated SO was detected in the gas phase by MS and rotational spectroscopy. In solution, 1 allows for SO transfer to organic molecules as well as transition metal complexes...
May 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiaqi Ni, Muhuo Yu, Keqing Han
Hypereutectic Al⁻Si (20 wt.%) alloy parts were fabricated by employing a powder injection moulding (PIM) technique with a developed multi-component binder system composed of high-density polyethylene (35 wt.%), carnauba wax (62 wt.%) and stearic acid (3 wt.%). The feedstocks contained 83 wt.% metal powders. The debinding process was carried out by a combination of solvent extraction and thermal decomposition. The effects of solvent debinding variables such as kind of solvents, debinding temperatures and time, and the bulk surface area to volume ratios on the debinding process were investigated...
May 16, 2018: Materials
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Chaitali Mondal, Suvra Pal, Swapan K Mandal
Spin-state switching mechanism is investigated by measuring the temperature of the electrical conductivity of spin crossover (SCO) material Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 thin films grown on glass, quartz and silicon substrates. The morphology characterized by scanning electron microscopy, clearly reveals the growth of thin films of thickness ~300 nm comprising of nanocrystals, size and distribution of which is dependent on the nature of substrates. The film on quartz is found to have the most uniform growth of nanocrystals of size ~22 nm with a homogeneous distribution...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
M Brighenti, S Govindasamy-Lucey, J J Jaeggi, M E Johnson, J A Lucey
Manufacture of cream cheese involves the formation of an initial acid-induced gel made from high-fat milk, followed by a series of processing steps including shearing, heating, and dewatering that complete the conversion of the acid gel into a complex cheese product. We investigated 2 critical parameters for their effect on the initial gel: homogenization pressure (HP) of the high-fat cheese milk, and fermentation temperature (FT). The impact of a low (10 MPa) and high (25 MPa) HP, and low (20°C) and high (26°C) FT were investigated for their effects on rheological and textural properties of acid-induced gels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Nuria Fernández-Bautista, Lourdes Fernández-Calvino, Alfonso Muñoz, René Toribio, Hans P Mock, M Mar Castellano
HOP is a family of cytosolic cochaperones whose molecular role in thermotolerance is quite unknown in eukaryotes and unexplored in plants. In this article, we describe that the three members of the AtHOP family display a different induction pattern under heat, being HOP3 highly regulated during the challenge and the attenuation period. Despite HOP3 is the most heat-regulated member, the analysis of the hop1 hop2 hop3 triple mutant demonstrates that the three HOP proteins act redundantly to promote long term acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis...
May 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Shakeel Ahmad Khandy, Ishtihadah Islam, Dinesh C Gupta, Amel Laref
Density functional theory (DFT)-based investigations have been put forward on the elastic, mechanical, and thermo-dynamical properties of BaPaO3 . The pressure dependence of electronic band structure and other physical properties has been carefully analyzed. The increase in Bulk modulus and decrease in lattice constant is seen on going from 0 to 30 GPa. The predicted lattice constants describe this material as anisotropic and ductile in nature at ambient conditions. Post-DFT calculations using quasi-harmonic Debye model are employed to envisage the pressure-dependent thermodynamic properties like Debye temperature, specific heat capacity, Grüneisen parameter, thermal expansion, etc...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Sanil Bhatia, Daniela Diedrich, Benedikt Frieg, Heinz Ahlert, Stefan Stein, Bertan Bopp, Franziska Lang, Tao Zang, Tobias Kröger, Thomas Ernst, Gesine Kögler, Andreas Krieg, Steffen Lüdeke, Hana Kunkel, Ana J Rodrigues Moita, Matthias U Kassack, Viktoria Marquardt, Friederike V Opitz, Marina Oldenburg, Marc Remke, Florian Babor, Manuel Grez, Andreas Hochhaus, Arndt Borkhardt, Georg Groth, Luitgard Nagel-Steger, Joachim Jose, Thomas Kurz, Holger Gohlke, Finn K Hansen, Julia Hauer
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizes many client proteins including BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein. BCR-ABL1 is the hallmark of CML in which treatment-free remission (TFR) is limited with clinical and economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutics, which synergize with current treatment approaches. Several inhibitors targeting the N-terminal domain (NTD) of HSP90 are under investigation; however, side effects such as induction of heat shock response (HSR) and toxicity have so far precluded their FDA approval...
May 3, 2018: Blood
Ediberto Garcia, Daniel Newfang, Jayme P Coyle, Charles L Blake, John W Spencer, Leonard G Burrelli, Giffe T Johnson, Raymond D Harbison
Three independently conducted asbestos exposure evaluations were conducted using wire gauze pads similar to standard practice in the laboratory setting. All testing occurred in a controlled atmosphere inside an enclosed chamber simulating a laboratory setting. Separate teams consisting of a laboratory technician, or technician and assistant simulated common tasks involving wire gauze pads, including heating and direct wire gauze manipulation. Area and personal air samples were collected and evaluated for asbestos consistent with the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health method 7400 and 7402, and the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) method...
April 30, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Hyun-Taek Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Gil-Yong Lee, Chung-Soo Kim, Sung-Hoon Ahn
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are widely utilized as an actuation source in microscale devices, since they have a simple actuation mechanism and high-power density. However, they have limitations in terms of strain range and actuation speed. High-speed microscale SMA actuators are developed having diamond-shaped frame structures with a diameter of 25 µm. These structures allow for a large elongation range compared with bulk SMA materials, with the aid of spring-like behavior under tensile deformation. These actuators are validated in terms of their applicability as an artificial muscle in microscale by investigating their behavior under mechanical deformation and changes in thermal conditions...
May 2, 2018: Small
J M O'Reilly, P Stamenov
Here two new techniques for the detection of broadband (100 MHz-20 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR)/ferrimagnetic resonance in single and poly-crystalline materials, which rely on SQUID-based gradiometry detection of small changes in the magnetisation, are developed. In the first method, small changes in the along-the-applied-field projection of the coupled magnetic moment (Δmz ) are detected as the material is driven into resonance. Absolute measurement of the longitudinal component of the magnetisation and the resonance induced lowering of this moment makes estimation of the precession cone angle accessible, which is typically difficult to extract using conventional cavity or stripline based detection methods...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Qi Liu, Nan Zhang, Jianjun Yang, Hongzhen Qiao, Chunlei Guo
Two-dimensional arrays of periodic nanostructures are fabricated on bulk tungsten surface within a single step using collinear propagation of two time-delayed femtosecond laser beams with orthogonal polarizations. It is surprisingly found that the geometric profile of the structure unit exhibits a triangle shape in hundred nanometer scales, and its spatial dimension can be modulated by the ambient air pressure ranging from 1 atm to 10-3 Pa. As the ambient air pressure decreases, the obtained surface structures display a large depth covered with nanowires...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Congcong Zhang, Siyang Liu, Junming Su, Chunguang Chen, Mengmeng Liu, Xiang Chen, Jianhua Wu, Tao Huang, Aishui Yu
Although Ni-rich layered oxides are considered a candidate of next-generation cathode materials, their inherent properties, such as surface lithium residues and structural destruction, cause detrimental electrochemical performance, especially at elevated temperatures. Here, a facile ball-milling method is proposed to remove the lithium residues and enhance the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2. After NH4VO3 treatment, a lithium ion-conductive Li3VO4 coating layer is found on the LiNi0.6Co0...
May 1, 2018: Nanoscale
Álvaro Martín Ortega, Ana Lacoste, Tiberiu Minea
X-ray gas attenuators act as stress-free high-pass filters for synchrotron and free-electron laser beamlines to reduce the heat load in downstream optical elements without affecting other properties of the X-ray beam. The absorption of the X-ray beam triggers a cascade of processes that ionize and heat up the gas locally, changing its density and therefore the X-ray absorption. Aiming to understand and predict the behaviour of the gas attenuator in terms of efficiency versus gas pressure, a hybrid model has been developed, combining three approaches: an analytical description of the X-ray absorption; Monte Carlo for the electron thermalization; and a fluid treatment for the electron diffusion, recombination and excited-states relaxation...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Zara E Gerrard, Benjamin M C Swift, George Botsaris, Ross S Davidson, Michael R Hutchings, Jonathon N Huxley, Catherine E D Rees
A survey of retail purchased semi-skimmed pasteurised milk (n = 368) for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was conducted between May 2014 and June 2015 across the midlands of England using the Phage-PCR assay. Overall, 10.3% of the total samples collected contained viable MAP cells, confirming that pasteurisation is not capable of fully eliminating human exposure to viable MAP through milk. Comparison of the results gained using the Phage-PCR assay with the results of surveys using either culture or direct PCR suggest that the phage-PCR assay is able to detect lower numbers of cells, resulting in an increase in the number of MAP-positive samples detected...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Difang Zhang, Wenhai Luo, Jing Yuan, Guoxue Li
This study investigated the performance of co-biodrying sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at different proportions. Cornstalk was added at 15% (of total wet weight) as the bulking agent. Results show that increasing OFMSW percentage promoted the biodegradation of organic matter, thus enhancing the temperature integration value and water removal to above 75% during sludge and OFMSW co-biodrying. In particular, adding more OFMSW accelerated the biodegradation of soluble carbohydrates, lignins, lipids, and amylums, resulting in more organic loss and thus lower biodrying index (3...
April 26, 2018: Waste Management
Nikolay A Barinov, Anna D Protopopova, Evgeniy V Dubrovin, Dmitry V Klinov
Fibrinogen denaturation is an important phenomenon in biology and medicine. It has been previously investigated with bulk methods and characterized by parameters, which refer to big protein ensembles. Here we provide a new insight into fibrinogen denaturation with a high-resolution single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ultrastructure of individual fibrinogen molecules was studied after heating or extended contact with the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface (HOPG) modified with oligoglycine-hydrocarbon graphite modifier (GM)...
April 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
David Ehinger, Jörg Weise, Joachim Baumeister, Alexander Funk, Anja Waske, Lutz Krüger, Ulrich Martin
The implementation of hollow S60HS glass microspheres and Fillite 106 cenospheres in a martensitically transformable AISI 304L stainless steel matrix was realized by means of metal injection molding of feedstock with varying fractions of the filler material. The so-called TRIP-steel syntactic foams were studied with respect to their behavior under quasi-static compression and dynamic impact loading. The interplay between matrix material behavior and foam structure was discussed in relation to the findings of micro-structural investigations, electron back scatter diffraction EBSD phase analyses and magnetic measurements...
April 24, 2018: Materials
Xiaojue Zhu, Varghese Mathai, Richard J A M Stevens, Roberto Verzicco, Detlef Lohse
The possible transition to the so-called ultimate regime, wherein both the bulk and the boundary layers are turbulent, has been an outstanding issue in thermal convection, since the seminal work by Kraichnan [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962)PFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1706533]. Yet, when this transition takes place and how the local flow induces it is not fully understood. Here, by performing two-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence covering six decades in Rayleigh number Ra up to 10^{14} for Prandtl number Pr=1, for the first time in numerical simulations we find the transition to the ultimate regime, namely, at Ra^{*}=10^{13}...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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