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Bulk heating

Tianyu Li, Zongchang Zhao, Xiaodong Zhang, Xican Sun
1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([Emim][Dmp])-water binary solution is one of the promising new working-pairs for absorption heat pump and absorption chillers, which are widely used to recover industrial waste heat. In the absorption process, the mass and heat transfer at the interface greatly depend on interface microscopes structure. Therefore, in order to understand the absorption process, it is very important to study the interface microscopes structure. The liquid-vapor interface properties, as well as the orientation of [Emim]+, [Dmp]-, water at the interface and its aqueous solution with different water mole fraction, were studied using classical all-atom force field by molecular dynamic simulations...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Karin M Rosenblatt, Heike Bunjes
When using lipid nanoparticles as drug carrier system it is important to know how much drug can be loaded to the nanoparticles. The mainly used drug loading procedure is an empirical approach dissolving the drug in the liquid lipid during preparation of the nanoparticles. This approach does not necessarily lead to the truly loadable amount, as the lipid can, e.g. be overloaded, in particular when it is processed in the heat. In this work, a different procedure, passive drug loading, was evaluated to determine the drug loading capacity of various lipid nanoparticles (supercooled trimyristin emulsion droplets, solid trimyristin nanoparticles, tristearin nanoparticles in the α-modification and cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles in the supercooled smectic as well as in the crystalline state)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Joseph L Bundy, Cynthia Vied, Richard S Nowakowski
BACKGROUND: A variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, major depressive disorder, dyslexia and autism, are differentially prevalent between females and males. To better understand the possible molecular basis for the sex-biased nature of neurological disorders, we used a developmental series of female and male mice at 1, 2, and 4 months of age to assess both mRNA and protein in the hippocampus with RNA-sequencing and mass-spectrometry, respectively...
March 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
Yu Shu, Dongli Yu, Wentao Hu, Yanbin Wang, Guoyin Shen, Yoshio Kono, Bo Xu, Julong He, Zhongyuan Liu, Yongjun Tian
As an archetypal semimetal with complex and anisotropic Fermi surface and unusual electric properties (e.g., high electrical resistance, large magnetoresistance, and giant Hall effect), bismuth (Bi) has played a critical role in metal physics. In general, Bi displays diamagnetism with a high volumetric susceptibility ([Formula: see text]10(-4)). Here, we report unusual ferromagnetism in bulk Bi samples recovered from a molten state at pressures of 1.4-2.5 GPa and temperatures above [Formula: see text]1,250 K...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shivaranjan Raghuraman, Meagan B Elinski, James D Batteas, Jonathan R Felts
Driving and measuring chemical reactions at the nanoscale is crucial for developing safer, more efficient and environ-ment-friendly reactors and for surface engineering. Quantitative understanding of surface chemical reactions in real operating environments is challenging due to resolution and environmental limitations of existing techniques. Here we report an atomic force microscope technique that can measure reaction kinetics driven at the nanoscale by multi-physical stimuli in an ambient environment. We demonstrate the technique by measuring local reduction of graphene oxide as a function of both temperature and force at the sliding contact...
March 10, 2017: Nano Letters
Jing Yuan, Difang Zhang, Yun Li, David Chadwick, Guoxue Li, Yu Li, Longlong Du
The influence of adding a bulking agent on the bio-stabilization and drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Three treatments were considered: the addition of either cornstalks or wood peat to MSW as a bulking agent before bio-drying and a control treatment that contained no bulking agent. Addition of bulking agents to MSW produced less leachate, higher moisture-removal rates, and consumed less volatile solids. Bulking with cornstalks achieved the highest water-removal rate (0.58-0.65kgkg(-1))...
March 5, 2017: Waste Management
P I Dorogokupets, A M Dymshits, K D Litasov, T S Sokolova
The equations of state for solid (with bcc, fcc, and hcp structures) and liquid phases of Fe were defined via simultaneous optimization of the heat capacity, bulk moduli, thermal expansion, and volume at room and higher temperatures. The calculated triple points at the phase diagram have the following parameters: bcc-fcc-hcp is located at 7.3 GPa and 820 K, bcc-fcc-liquid at 5.2 GPa and 1998 K, and fcc-hcp-liquid at 106.5 GPa and 3787 K. At conditions near the fcc-hcp-liquid triple point, the Clapeyron slope of the fcc-liquid curve is dT/dP = 12...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Dohr, H M A Ehmann, A O F Jones, I Salzmann, Q Shen, C Teichert, C Ruzié, G Schweicher, Y H Geerts, R Resel, M Sferrazza, O Werzer
Film forming properties of semiconducting organic molecules comprising alkyl-chains combined with an aromatic unit have a decisive impact on possible applications in organic electronics. In particular, knowledge on the film formation process in terms of wetting or dewetting, and the precise control of these processes, is of high importance. In the present work, the subtle effect of temperature on the morphology and structure of dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films deposited on silica surfaces by spin coating is investigated in situ via X-ray diffraction techniques and atomic force microscopy...
March 6, 2017: Soft Matter
M Matin, R Kulkarni, A Thamizhavel, S K Dhar, A Provino, P Manfrinetti
Motivated by the report of superconductivity in R3TiSb5 (R  =  La and Ce) and possibly Nd3TiSb5 at  ∼4 K, we grew single crystals of La3TiSb5 and Ce3TiSb5 by the high-temperature solution method using Sn as a flux. While in both compounds we observed a superconducting transition at 3.7 K for resistivity and low-field magnetization, our data conclusively show that it arose from residual Sn flux present in the single crystals. In particular, the heat capacity data do not present any of the anomalies expected from a bulk superconducting transition...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Cengiz Yegin, Nirup Nagabandi, Xuhui Feng, Charles King, Massimo Catalano, Jun Kyun Oh, Ansam J Talib, Ethan A Scholar, Stanislav V Verkhoturov, Tahir Cagin, Alexei V Sokolov, Moon J Kim, Kaiser Matin, Sreekant Narumanchi, Mustafa Akbulut
As electronic devices get smaller and more powerful, energy density of energy storage devices increases continuously, and moving components of machinery operate at higher speeds, the need for better thermal management strategies is becoming increasingly important. The removal of heat dissipated during the operation of electronic, electrochemical, and mechanical devices is facilitated by high-performance thermal interface materials (TIMs) which are utilized to couple devices to heat sinks. Herein, we report a new class of TIMs involving the chemical integration of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS), soft organic linkers, and a copper matrix-which are prepared by the chemisorption-coupled electrodeposition approach...
March 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yousef Farraj, Ariel Smooha, Alexander Kamyshny, Shlomo Magdassi
The use of Cu-formate-2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol ink and low-pressure plasma for the formation of highly conductive patterns on heat sensitive plastic substrates was studied. It was found that plasma results in decomposition of copper complex to form metallic copper without heating at high temperatures. Ink composition and plasma parameters (predrying conditions, plasma treatment duration, gas type, and flow rate) were optimized to obtain uniform conductive metallic films. The morphology and electrical characteristics of these films were evaluated...
March 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Anne Helene Gelebart, Ghislaine Vantomme, Bert E W Meijer, Dirk J Broer
Chemical networks and molecular switches dominate the area of research geared toward macroscopic motion of materials. A counter-intuitive approach to create self-sustained oscillation by light irradiation of ordinary photostabilizers in splay-aligned liquid-crystalline networks made from commercial mesogens is developed. Photostabilizers or any molecules that are able to quickly dissipate the absorbed light through heat, by vibrational and/or rotational modes, can reach self-oscillating macroscopic motion where self-shadowing plays a critical role...
February 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
Chang-Min Kwak, Young-Tae Kim, Chan-Gyung Park, Jae-Bok Seol
Two challenges exist in laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). First, a drastic decline in mass-resolving power is caused, not only by laser-induced thermal effects on the APT tips of bulk oxide materials, but also the associated asymmetric evaporation behavior; second, the field evaporation mechanisms of bulk oxide tips under laser illumination are still unclear due to the complex relations between laser pulse and oxide materials. In this study, both phenomena were investigated by depositing Ni- and Co-capping layers onto the bulk LaAlO3 tips, and using stepwise APT analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the tip shapes...
February 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Krupaliben Patel, Bhushan Munjal, Arvind K Bansal
Mannitol is a commonly used bulking agent in lyophilized formulations. It can crystallize into multiple solid forms during lyophilization thereby exhibiting phase heterogeneity and variability in product performance. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on the solid form of mannitol during lyophilization from aqueous solutions. Freeze-concentration studies were performed in the DSC while lyophilization was performed in a lab scale freeze dryer. DSC experiments revealed two-stage crystallization of mannitol (1...
April 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
G Brabants, M Hubin, E K Reichel, B Jakoby, E Breynaert, F Taulelle, J A Martens, C E A Kirschhock
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to detect and investigate nucleation in silicalite-1 clear solutions. Although zeolite nucleation was previously assumed to be a step event, inducing a sharp discontinuity around a Si/OH(-) ratio of 1, complex bulk conductivity measurements at elevated temperatures reveal a gradual decay of conductivity with increased silicon concentrations. Inverse Laplace transformation of the complex conductivity allows the observation of the chemical exchange phenomena governing nanoaggregate formation...
March 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chinna Bathula, Kezia Buruga, Youngjong Kang, Imtiyaz Ahmed M Khazi
This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel donor-acceptor conjugated polymers, P1 and P2 by solvent free eutectic melt polymerization reaction. Triisopropylsilylethynyl(TIPS) substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene(BDT) is used as donor, thienithiophene(TT) and thienopyrroledione(TPD) are utilized as acceptors for demonstrating eutectic polymerization. The most important fact in the solvent-free reaction between solid reactants actually proceeds through bulk liquid phases. Such liquid phases are possible due to the formation of eutectics between the reactants and product(s) and any evolution of heat...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Ilya A Bryukhanov, Andrey A Rybakov, Alexander V Larin, Dmitry N Trubnikov, Daniel P Vercauteren
The bulk and Young moduli and heats of hydration have been calculated at the DFT level for fully optimized models of all-siliceous and cationic zeolites with and without water, and then compared to the corresponding experimental data. Upon the addition of water, the monovalent alkali ion and divalent alkaline earth ion exchanged zeolites presented opposite trends in the elastic modulus. The main contribution to the decrease in the elastic modulus of the alkali ion exchanged zeolites appeared to be a shift of cations from the framework oxygen atoms upon water addition, with the coordination number often remaining the same...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Mingjie Li, Saikat Bhaumik, Teck Wee Goh, Muduli Subas Kumar, Natalia Yantara, Michael Grätzel, Subodh Mhaisalkar, Nripan Mathews, Tze Chien Sum
Hot-carrier solar cells can overcome the Schottky-Queisser limit by harvesting excess energy from hot carriers. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are considered prime candidates. However, hot-carrier harvesting is compromised by competitive relaxation pathways (for example, intraband Auger process and defects) that overwhelm their phonon bottlenecks. Here we show colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals transcend these limitations and exhibit around two orders slower hot-carrier cooling times and around four times larger hot-carrier temperatures than their bulk-film counterparts...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Zhi-Cheng Wang, Chao-Yang He, Si-Qi Wu, Zhang-Tu Tang, Yi Liu, Abduweli Ablimit, Qian Tao, Chun-Mu Feng, Zhu-An Xu, Guang-Han Cao
We report synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of a novel quinary compound RbGd2Fe4As4O2. The new iron oxyarsenide is isostructural to the fluo-arsenide KCa2Fe4As4F2, both of which contain separate double Fe2As2 layers that are self hole-doped in the stoichiometric composition. Bulk superconductivity at [Formula: see text] K is demonstrated by the measurements of electrical resistivity, dc magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity. An exceptionally high value of the initial slope of the upper critical field ([Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] T K(-1)) is measured for the polycrystalline sample...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Koichiro Uto, Takao Aoyagi, Cole A DeForest, Allan S Hoffman, Mitsuhiro Ebara
A novel shape-memory cell culture platform has been designed that is capable of simultaneously tuning surface topography and dimensionality to manipulate cell alignment. By crosslinking poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) macromonomers of precisely designed nanoarchitectures, a shape-memory PCL with switching temperature near body temperature is successfully prepared. The temporary strain-fixed PCLs are prepared by processing through heating, stretching, and cooling about the switching temperature. Temporary nanowrinkles are also formed spontaneously during the strain-fixing process with magnitudes that are dependent on the applied strain...
February 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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