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Bulk heating

Haidong Zhang, Hanyu Liu, Kaya Wei, Oleksandr O Kurakevych, Yann Le Godec, Zhenxian Liu, Joshua Martin, Michael Guerrette, George S Nolas, Timothy A Strobel
Large-volume, phase-pure synthesis of BC8 silicon (Ia3[over ¯], cI16) has enabled bulk measurements of optical, electronic, and thermal properties. Unlike previous reports that conclude BC8-Si is semimetallic, we demonstrate that this phase is a direct band gap semiconductor with a very small energy gap and moderate carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature, based on far- and midinfrared optical spectroscopy, temperature-dependent electrical conductivity, Seebeck and heat capacity measurements...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
V H Tran, Z Bukowski
We have investigated the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat C p and Hall coefficient R H on a single crystal of a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice UCu0.9Sb2. The experimental [Formula: see text], C p (T) and [Formula: see text] data evidence a bulk magnetic phase transition at [Formula: see text] K, and additionally exhibit an unexpected bump located in the temperature range T C/10-T C/3. UCu0.9Sb2 has an enhanced electronic specific heat coefficient [Formula: see text] mJ molK(-2), corresponding to Kondo temperature [Formula: see text] K...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Navid Kazem, Tess Hellebrekers, Carmel Majidi
Binary mixtures of liquid metal (LM) or low-melting-point alloy (LMPA) in an elastomeric or fluidic carrier medium can exhibit unique combinations of electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This emerging class of soft multifunctional composites have potential applications in wearable computing, bio-inspired robotics, and shape-programmable architectures. The dispersion phase can range from dilute droplets to connected networks that support electrical conductivity. In contrast to deterministically patterned LM microfluidics, LMPA- and LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) composites are statistically homogenous and exhibit effective bulk properties...
April 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mitali Banerjee, Moty Heiblum, Amir Rosenblatt, Yuval Oreg, Dima E Feldman, Ady Stern, Vladimir Umansky
The quantum of thermal conductance of ballistic (collisionless) one-dimensional channels is a unique fundamental constant. Although the quantization of the electrical conductance of one-dimensional ballistic conductors has long been experimentally established, demonstrating the quantization of thermal conductance has been challenging as it necessitated an accurate measurement of very small temperature increase. It has been accomplished for weakly interacting systems of phonons, photons and electronic Fermi liquids; however, it should theoretically also hold in strongly interacting systems, such as those in which the fractional quantum Hall effect is observed...
April 17, 2017: Nature
Mouritz N Svenson, John C Mauro, Sylwester J Rzoska, Michal Bockowski, Morten M Smedskjaer
Density and hardness of glasses are known to increase upon both compression at the glass transition temperature (Tg) and ambient pressure sub-Tg annealing. However, a serial combination of the two methods does not result in higher density and hardness, since the effect of compression is countered by subsequent annealing and vice versa. In this study, we circumvent this by introducing a novel treatment protocol that enables the preparation of high-density, high-hardness bulk aluminosilicate glasses. This is done by first compressing a sodium-magnesium aluminosilicate glass at 1 GPa at Tg, followed by sub-Tg annealing in-situ at 1 GPa...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fabian B Wadsworth, Jérémie Vasseur, Edward W Llewellin, Donald B Dingwell
Sintering-or coalescence-of compacts of viscous droplets is driven by the interfacial tension between the droplets and the interstitial gas phase. The process, which occurs in a range of industrial and natural settings, such as the manufacture of ceramics and the welding of volcanic ash, causes the compact to densify, to become stronger, and to become less permeable. We investigate the role of droplet polydispersivity in sintering dynamics by conducting experiments in which populations of glass spheres with different size distributions are heated to temperatures above the glass transition interval...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
A P Furlan, E Lomba, M C Barbosa
We perform an extensive computational study of binary mixtures of water and short-chain alcohols resorting to two-scale potential models to account for the singularities of hydrogen bonded liquids. Water molecules are represented by a well studied core softened potential which is known to qualitatively account for a large number of water's characteristic anomalies. Along the same lines, alcohol molecules are idealized by dimers in which the hydroxyl groups interact with each other and with water with a core softened potential as well...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Victor Lee, Chi-Hsun Wu, Zong-Xing Lou, Wei-Li Lee, Chih-Wei Chang
Low-dimensional materials could display anomalous thermal conduction that the thermal conductivity (κ) diverges with increasing lengths, in ways inconceivable in any bulk materials. However, previous theoretical or experimental investigations were plagued with many finite-size effects, rendering the results either indirect or inconclusive. Indeed, investigations on the anomalous thermal conduction must demand the sample length to be sufficiently long so that the phenomena could emerge from unwanted finite-size effects...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
F F Han, A Inoue, Y Han, F L Kong, S L Zhu, E Shalaan, F Al-Marzouki, A L Greer
Thermal stability and crystallization of three multicomponent glassy alloys, Al86Y7Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5, Al85Y8Ni5Co1Fe0.5Pd0.5 and Al84Y9Ni4Co1.5Fe0.5Pd1, were examined to assess the ability to form the mixture of amorphous (am) and fcc-aluminum (α-Al) phases. On heating, the glass transition into the supercooled liquid is shown by the 85Al and 84Al glasses. The crystallization sequences are [am] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + compounds] for the 86Al and 85Al alloys, and [am] → [am + α-Al + cubic AlxMy (M = Y, Ni, Co, Fe, Pd)] → [am + α-Al] → [α-Al + Al3Y + Al9(Co, Ni)2 + unknown phase] for the 84Al alloy...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yen-Ju Hsieh, Yu-Ching Huang, Wei-Shin Liu, Yu-An Su, Cheng-Si Tsao, Syang-Peng Rwei, Leeyih Wang
The impact of the morphological stability of the donor/acceptor mixture under thermal stress on the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on the poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']-dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7-Th/PC61BM) blend is extensively investigated. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that long-term high-temperature aging stimulates the formation of microscale clusters, the size of which, however, is about 1 order of magnitude smaller than those observed in thermally annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PC61BM composite film...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hyun Chang Kim, Yun Hwa Choi, Wei Bu, Mati Meron, Binhua Lin, You-Yeon Won
Glassy Langmuir polymer films exhibit a rapid increase in surface pressure at high compression. High relative humidity typically mitigates this increase in surface pressure. In an attempt to understand the origin of this phenomenon, we investigated the effects of relative humidity on surface pressure-area isotherm properties for four different types of polymers with similar bulk glass transition temperatures: poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, Tg ≈ 45 °C), poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc, Tg ≈ 41 °C), poly(n-propyl methacrylate) (PnPMA, Tg ≈ 41 °C), and poly(vinyl stearate) (PVS, Tg ≈ 47 °C, Tm ≈ 47 °C)...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Michael A Fusella, Frank Schreiber, Kevin Abbasi, Jae Joon Kim, Alejandro L Briseno, Barry P Rand
The smooth surface of crystalline rubrene films formed through an abrupt heating process provides a valuable platform to study organic homoepitaxy. By varying growth rate and substrate temperature, we are able to manipulate the onset of a transition from layer-by-layer to island growth modes, while the crystalline thin films maintain a remarkably smooth surface (less than 2.3 nm root-mean-square roughness) even with thick (80 nm) adlayers. We also uncover evidence of point and line defect formation in these films, indicating that homoepitaxy under our conditions is not at equilibrium or strain-free...
April 12, 2017: Nano Letters
YinBo Zhu, FengChao Wang, HengAn Wu
The freezing and melting of low-dimensional materials, either via a first-order phase transition or without any discontinuity in thermodynamic, still remain a matter of debate. Melting (superheating) in two-dimensional (2D) ice is fundamentally different from that in bulk counterpart. Here, we perform comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations of the superheating of monolayer ice in graphene nanocapillaries to understand the nature of melting transition in 2D water/ice. We find four different superheating (melting) scenarios can happen in the superheating of monolayer square-like ice, which are closely related to the lateral pressure and the channel width...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alexander Surrey, Kornelius Nielsch, Bernd Rellinghaus
The effect of an electron beam induced dehydrogenation of MgH2 in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is largely underestimated by Nogita et al., and led the authors to a misinterpretation of their TEM observations. Firstly, the selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern is falsely interpreted. A re-evaluation of the SAD pattern reveals that no MgH2 is present in the sample, but that it rather consists of Mg and MgO only. Secondly, the transformation of the sample upon in-situ heating in the TEM cannot be ascribed to dehydrogenation, but is rather to be explained by the (nanoscale) Kirkendall effect, which leads to the formation of hollow MgO shells without any metallic Mg in their cores...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rizwan M Gul, Katharina Fung, Brinda N Doshi, Ebru Oral, Orhun K Muratoglu
Crosslinking of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used to improve its wear performance. Wear is a surface phenomenon and limiting crosslinking to a layer only on the surface is desirable, as crosslinking of the bulk of the implant reduces its mechanical strength and toughness. We present a novel technique to surface crosslink consolidated UHMWPE/vitamin-E blend by diffusing an organic peroxide into the polymer at moderate temperatures, followed by heating to above the peroxide decomposition temperature to cause crosslinking on the surface...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Faith Bamiduro, Guozhao Ji, Andy P Brown, Valerie A Dupont, Ming Zhao, Steven J Milne
Improved powders for capturing CO2 at high temperatures are required for H2 production using sorption-enhanced steam reforming. Here, we examine the relationship between particle structure and carbonation rate for two types of Na2 ZrO3 powders. Hollow spray-dried microgranules with a wall thickness of 100-300 nm corresponding to the dimensions of the primary acetate-derived particles gave about 75 wt % theoretical CO2 conversion after a process-relevant 5 min exposure to 15 vol % CO2 . A conventional powder prepared by solid-state reaction carbonated more slowly, achieving only 50 % conversion owing to a greater proportion of the reaction requiring bulk diffusion through the densely agglomerated particles...
April 3, 2017: ChemSusChem
Jin Luo, Wei Sun, Zhen Zhou, Yu Bai, Zhan Jie Wang, Guo Tian, Deyang Chen, Xingsen Gao, Fangyuan Zhu, Jing-Feng Li
Recent research progress in (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics has attracted increasing attention for their applications to microsystems or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in the form of thin films. This work demonstrates that high-quality KNN-based epitaxial films can be synthesized by a conventional sol-gel method, whose phase structure and domain characteristics have been investigated with emphasis on the temperature effect. A monoclinic MC structure is observed at room temperature in KNN-based epitaxial films, which is close to but different from the orthorhombic phase in bulk counterparts...
April 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Allen Y Yi
In compression molding of polymer optical components with micro/nanoscale surface features, rapid heating of the mold surface is critical for the implementation of this technology for large-scale applications. In this Letter, a novel method of a localized rapid heating process is reported. This process is based on induction heating of a thin conductive coating deposited on a silicon mold. Since the graphene coating is very thin (∼45  nm), a high heating rate of 10∼20°C/s can be achieved by employing a 1200 W 30 kHz electrical power unit...
April 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Xiao Yun, Giuseppe L Quarini
We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment showed that, under the proper conditions, ice can be produced when water is introduced to a bath of cold brine. To make ice form, in addition to having the brine and water mix, the rate of heat transfer must bypass that of mass transfer. When water is introduced in the form of tiny droplets to the brine surface, the mode of heat and mass transfer is by diffusion...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Seung S Lee, Philip Jr Roche, Paresa N Giannopoulos, Elliot J Mitmaker, Michael Tamilia, Miltiadis Paliouras, Mark A Trifiro
Almost all biological therapeutic interventions cannot overcome neoplastic heterogeneity. Physical ablation therapy is immune to tumor heterogeneity, but nearby tissue damage is the limiting factor in delivering lethal doses. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes offer a number of unique properties: chemical stability, photonic properties including efficient light absorption, thermal conductivity, and extensive surface area availability for covalent chemical ligation. When combined together with a targeting moiety such as an antibody or small molecule, one can deliver highly localized temperature increases and cause extensive cellular damage...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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