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Bulk heating

Hokyun Rho, Yea Sol Jang, Sungmin Kim, Sukang Bae, Tae-Wook Kim, Dong Su Lee, Jun-Seok Ha, Sang Hyun Lee
Recently, research on micro-electronic and optoelectronic devices has been rapidly increasing. Parts and products related to these devices are becoming smaller and more integrated within circuits. As a result, the heat generated in devices has increased greatly. When excess heat is generated, important properties are affected such as efficiency and lifetime and, in severe cases, this can result in the failure of devices. Therefore, efficient cooling is required and it becomes necessary to study the heat dissipation properties of device materials...
May 23, 2017: Nanoscale
Kristin D Mattice, Alejandro G Marangoni
Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own...
June 2017: Food Research International
K Kosiba, S Pauly
We developed a temperature-controlled inductive flash-annealing device, which heats bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) at defined rates of up to 200 K/s to a given temperature. Subsequent instantaneous quenching in water allows preserving the microstructures obtained at various stages of crystallization. One Zr-based and two CuZr-based BMGs were flash-annealed at the onset of crystallization with different heating rates in order to prepare advanced BMG-matrix composites. The highly reproducible composite microstructures contain uniformly dispersed crystals and a narrow crystal size distribution...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ramon Terrado, Alexis L Pasulka, Alle A-Y Lie, Victoria J Orphan, Karla B Heidelberg, David A Caron
Collectively, phagotrophic algae (mixotrophs) form a functional continuum of nutritional modes between autotrophy and heterotrophy, but the specific physiological benefits of mixotrophic nutrition differ among taxa. Ochromonas spp. are ubiquitous chrysophytes that exhibit high nutritional flexibility, although most species generally fall towards the heterotrophic end of the mixotrophy spectrum. We assessed the sources of carbon and nitrogen in Ochromonas sp. strain BG-1 growing mixotrophically via short-term stable isotope probing...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
J S Ross, D P Higginson, D Ryutov, F Fiuza, R Hatarik, C M Huntington, D H Kalantar, A Link, B B Pollock, B A Remington, H G Rinderknecht, G F Swadling, D P Turnbull, S Weber, S Wilks, D H Froula, M J Rosenberg, T Morita, Y Sakawa, H Takabe, R P Drake, C Kuranz, G Gregori, J Meinecke, M C Levy, M Koenig, A Spitkovsky, R D Petrasso, C K Li, H Sio, B Lahmann, A B Zylstra, H-S Park
A study of the transition from collisional to collisionless plasma flows has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility using high Mach number (M>4) counterstreaming plasmas. In these experiments, CD-CD and CD-CH planar foils separated by 6-10 mm are irradiated with laser energies of 250 kJ per foil, generating ∼1000  km/s plasma flows. Varying the foil separation distance scales the ion density and average bulk velocity and, therefore, the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path, at the interaction region at the midplane...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ken Niwa, Toshiki Terabe, Daiki Kato, Shin Takayama, Masahiko Kato, Kazuo Soda, Masashi Hasegawa
Highly coordinated iron and cobalt nitrides were successfully synthesized via direct chemical reaction between a transition metal and molecular nitrogen at pressures above approximately 30 GPa using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The synthesized novel transition metal nitrides were found to crystallize into the NiAs-type or marcasite-type structure. NiAs-type FeN could be quenched at ambient pressure, although it was gradually converted to the ZnS-type structure after the pressure was released. On the other hand, CoN was recovered with ZnS-type structure through a phase transition from NiAs-type structure at approximately a few gigapascals during decompression...
May 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Sean E Reichheld, Lisa D Muiznieks, Fred W Keeley, Simon Sharpe
Despite its growing importance in biology and in biomaterials development, liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins remains poorly understood. In particular, the molecular mechanisms underlying simple coacervation of proteins, such as the extracellular matrix protein elastin, have not been reported. Coacervation of the elastin monomer, tropoelastin, in response to heat and salt is a critical step in the assembly of elastic fibers in vivo, preceding chemical cross-linking. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) derived from the tropoelastin sequence have been shown to undergo a similar phase separation, allowing formation of biomaterials that closely mimic the material properties of native elastin...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jana Bocková, Ye Tian, Hualiang Yin, Nicole Delepine-Gilon, Yanping Chen, Pavel Veis, Jin Yu
We developed a method for sensitive elemental analysis of wines using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In order to overcome the inefficiency of direct ablation of bulk wine (an organic liquid), a thin layer of wine residue was prepared on a metallic target according to an appropriated heating procedure applied to an amount of liquid wine dropped on the target surface. The obtained ensemble was thus ablated. Such a sample preparation procedure used a very small volume of 2 mL of wine and took only 30 min without reagent or solvent...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
Bethany M Hudak, Sean W Depner, Gregory R Waetzig, Anjana Talapatra, Raymundo Arroyave, Sarbajit Banerjee, Beth S Guiton
High-temperature phases of hafnium dioxide have exceptionally high dielectric constants and large bandgaps, but quenching them to room temperature remains a challenge. Scaling the bulk form to nanocrystals, while successful in stabilizing the tetragonal phase of isomorphous ZrO2, has produced nanorods with a twinned version of the room temperature monoclinic phase in HfO2. Here we use in situ heating in a scanning transmission electron microscope to observe the transformation of an HfO2 nanorod from monoclinic to tetragonal, with a transformation temperature suppressed by over 1000°C from bulk...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Zhongwei Zhang, Shiqian Hu, Jie Chen, Baowen Li
Supported graphene on a standard SiO2 substrate exhibits unsatisfactory heat dissipation performance that is far inferior to the intrinsic ultrahigh thermal conductivity of a suspended sample. A suitable substrate for enhancing thermal transport in supported graphene is highly desirable for the development of graphene devices for thermal management. By using molecular dynamics simulations, here we demonstrate that bulk hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a more appealing substrate to achieve high performance heat dissipation in supported graphene...
May 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
Tristan Butler, Alexander S Mathew, Michal Sabat, Cassandra L Fraser
Mechanochromic luminescent (ML) materials, which show a change in emission due to an applied mechanical stimulus, are useful components in a variety of applications, including organic light-emitting diodes, force sensors, optical memory storage, and next-generation lighting materials. While there are many different ML active derivatives, few show room temperature self-erasing. Thin films of the methoxy substituted β-diketone, gbmOMe, initially exhibited blue (428 nm) emission; however, green (478 nm) emission was observed after smearing...
May 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elena Vishnyakova, Gaowei Chen, Bruce E Brinson, Lawrence B Alemany, W Edward Billups
As a result of the unique physical and electrical properties, graphene continues to attract the interest of a large segment of the scientific community. Since graphene does not occur naturally, the ability to exfoliate and isolate individual layers of graphene from graphite is an important and challenging process. The interlayer cohesive energy of graphite that results from van der Waals attractions has been determined experimentally to be 61 meV per carbon atom (61 meV/C atom). This requires the development of a method to overcome the strong attractive forces associated with graphite...
May 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Erik T Jansson, Yin-Hung Lai, Juan G Santiago, Richard N Zare
The rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) in aqueous droplets of phenethylamine has been determined with submillisecond temporal resolution by mass spectrometry using nanoelectrospray ionization with a theta-capillary. The average speed of the microdroplets is measured using microparticle image velocimetry. The droplet travel time is varied from 20 to 320 μs by changing the distance between the emitter and the heated inlet to the mass spectrometer and the voltage applied to the emitter source. The droplets were found to accelerate by ∼30% during their observable travel time...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Changping Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Hong Chang, Sanjun Zhang, Yuankai Tang, Jianhua Xu, Ruijuan Qi, Yiyun Cheng
Engineering near-infrared (NIR) light-sensitive enzymes remains a huge challenge. A photothermal effect-associated method is developed for tailoring the enzymatic activity of enzymes by exposure to NIR light. An ultrasmall platinum nanoparticle was anchored in an enzyme to generate local heating upon NIR irradiation, which enhanced the enzyme activity without increasing bulk temperature. Following NIR irradiation, the enzyme activity was tailored rapidly and reversibly, and was modulated by varying laser power density and irradiation time...
May 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Martina Havenith-Newen, Gerhard Schwaab, Fabian Böhm
Using THz spectroscopy we were able to probe changes that occur in the hydrogen bond network dynamics upon solvation of alcohol chains. The THz spectra can be decomposed into the spectrum of bulk water, tetrahedral hydration water, and more disordered (or interstitial) hydration water. The tetrahedrally-ordered hydration water exhibits a band at 195 cm-1 and is localized around the hydrophobic moiety. The interstitial component yields a band at 164 cm-1 and is associated with hydration water in the first hydration shell...
May 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Huimin Wang, Guangzhao Qin, Guojian Li, Qiang Wang, Ming Hu
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous interest due to their fascinating physical and chemical properties and promising applications in nano-electronics, where thermal transport plays a vital role in determining the performance of devices. In this paper, we present a first-principles study of the thermal transport properties of monolayer zinc oxide (ZnO), which has potential applications in nano-electronics and thermoelectrics. The thermal conductivity of monolayer ZnO is found to be as low as 4...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chengwu Yang, Fabian Bebensee, Jun Chen, Xiaojuan Yu, Alexei Nefedov, Christof Wöll
The adsorption of CO₂ on the surface of a CeO₂(110) bulk single crystal was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The high-quality XPS and C K-edge NEXAFS data show that CO₂ adsorbs as a carbonate species on both fully oxidized CeO₂(110) and partially reduced CeO₂-x(110). No evidence for the formation of a carboxylate intermediate could be found. On the fully oxidized CeO₂(110) substrate, the carbonate decomposes upon heating to above 400 K, leading to the desorption of CO₂...
May 4, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
W Marchal, G Vandevenne, J D'Haen, A Calmont de Andrade Almeida, M A Durand Sola, E J van den Ham, J Drijkoningen, K Elen, W Deferme, M K Van Bael, A Hardy
Integration of electronic circuit components onto flexible materials such as plastic foils, paper and textiles is a key challenge for the development of future smart applications. Therefore, conductive metal features need to be deposited on temperature sensitive substrates in a fast and straightforward way. The feasibility of these emerging (nano-) electronic technologies depends on the availability of well-designed deposition techniques and on novel functional metal inks. As ultrasonic spray coating (USSC) is one of the most promising techniques to meet the above requirements, innovative metal organic decomposition (MOD) inks are designed to deposit silver features on plastic foils...
May 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yiju Li, Tingting Gao, Zhi Yang, Chaoji Chen, Wei Luo, Jianwei Song, Emily Hitz, Chao Jia, Yubing Zhou, Boyang Liu, Bao Yang, Liangbing Hu
Using solar energy to generate steam is a clean and sustainable approach to addressing the issue of water shortage. The current challenge for solar steam generation is to develop easy-to-manufacture and scalable methods which can convert solar irradiation into exploitable thermal energy with high efficiency. Although various material and structure designs have been reported, high efficiency in solar steam generation usually can be achieved only at concentrated solar illumination. For the first time, 3D printing to construct an all-in-one evaporator with a concave structure for high-efficiency solar steam generation under 1 sun illumination is used...
May 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
Petra Honnerová, Jiří Martan, Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner
Coatings deposited on a material surface are effective way of changing its surface properties. For increasing or decreasing radiation heat transfer, coatings with high or low emissivity are used. Measurement of spectral emissivity is a fundamental step to effective use of coatings for this application. Up to now the measurement methods are focused on bulk samples and mainly opaque ones. Here we present a method enabling measurement of emissivity of semitransparent coating itself, although it is deposited on a substrate...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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