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Bulk heating

Krupaliben Patel, Bhushan Munjal, Arvind K Bansal
Mannitol is a commonly used bulking agent in lyophilized formulations. It can crystallize into multiple solid forms during lyophilization thereby exhibiting phase heterogeneity and variability in product performance. In this manuscript, we studied the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on the solid form of mannitol during lyophilization from aqueous solutions. Freeze-concentration studies were performed in the DSC while lyophilization was performed in a lab scale freeze dryer. DSC experiments revealed two-stage crystallization of mannitol (1...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gert Brabants, Maxim Hubin, Erwin Konrad Reichel, Bernhard Jakoby, Eric Breynaert, Francis Taulelle, Johan A Martens, Christine E A Kirschhock
EIS was used to detect and investigate nucleation in silicalite-1 clear solutions. Whereas zeolite nucleation was previously assumed to be a step event, inducing a sharp discontinuity around a Si/OH ratio of 1, complex bulk conductivity measurements at elevated temperatures reveal a gradual decay of the conductivity with increased silicon concentrations. Inverse Laplace transformation of the complex conductivity allows to observe the chemical exchange phenomena governing nano-aggregate formation. At low temperatures, the fast exchange between dissociated ions and ion pairs leads to a gradual decay of the conductivity with increasing silicon content...
February 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chinna Bathula, Kezia Buruga, Youngjong Kang, Imtiyaz Ahmed M Khazi
This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel donor-acceptor conjugated polymers, P1 and P2 by solvent free eutectic melt polymerization reaction. Triisopropylsilylethynyl(TIPS) substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene(BDT) is used as donor, thienithiophene(TT) and thienopyrroledione(TPD) are utilized as acceptors for demonstrating eutectic polymerization. The most important fact in the solvent-free reaction between solid reactants actually proceeds through bulk liquid phases. Such liquid phases are possible due to the formation of eutectics between the reactants and product(s) and any evolution of heat...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
Ilya A Bryukhanov, Andrey A Rybakov, Alexander V Larin, Dmitry N Trubnikov, Daniel P Vercauteren
The bulk and Young moduli and heats of hydration have been calculated at the DFT level for fully optimized models of all-siliceous and cationic zeolites with and without water, and then compared to the corresponding experimental data. Upon the addition of water, the monovalent alkali ion and divalent alkaline earth ion exchanged zeolites presented opposite trends in the elastic modulus. The main contribution to the decrease in the elastic modulus of the alkali ion exchanged zeolites appeared to be a shift of cations from the framework oxygen atoms upon water addition, with the coordination number often remaining the same...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Mingjie Li, Saikat Bhaumik, Teck Wee Goh, Muduli Subas Kumar, Natalia Yantara, Michael Grätzel, Subodh Mhaisalkar, Nripan Mathews, Tze Chien Sum
Hot-carrier solar cells can overcome the Schottky-Queisser limit by harvesting excess energy from hot carriers. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are considered prime candidates. However, hot-carrier harvesting is compromised by competitive relaxation pathways (for example, intraband Auger process and defects) that overwhelm their phonon bottlenecks. Here we show colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals transcend these limitations and exhibit around two orders slower hot-carrier cooling times and around four times larger hot-carrier temperatures than their bulk-film counterparts...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Zhi-Cheng Wang, Chao-Yang He, Si-Qi Wu, Zhang-Tu Tang, Yi Liu, Abduweli Ablimit, Qian Tao, Chun-Mu Feng, Zhu-An Xu, Guang-Han Cao
We report synthesis, crystal structure and physical properties of a novel quinary compound RbGd2Fe4As4O2. The new iron oxyarsenide is isostructural to the fluo-arsenide KCa2Fe4As4F2, both of which contain separate double Fe2As2 layers that are self hole-doped in the stoichiometric composition. Bulk superconductivity at [Formula: see text] K is demonstrated by the measurements of electrical resistivity, dc magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity. An exceptionally high value of the initial slope of the upper critical field ([Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] T K(-1)) is measured for the polycrystalline sample...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Koichiro Uto, Takao Aoyagi, Cole A DeForest, Allan S Hoffman, Mitsuhiro Ebara
A novel shape-memory cell culture platform has been designed that is capable of simultaneously tuning surface topography and dimensionality to manipulate cell alignment. By crosslinking poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) macromonomers of precisely designed nanoarchitectures, a shape-memory PCL with switching temperature near body temperature is successfully prepared. The temporary strain-fixed PCLs are prepared by processing through heating, stretching, and cooling about the switching temperature. Temporary nanowrinkles are also formed spontaneously during the strain-fixing process with magnitudes that are dependent on the applied strain...
February 7, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hannes J Brauckmann, Bruno Eckhardt, Jörg Schumacher
Rayleigh-Bénard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=10(7) and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number ReS=2×10(4) for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers...
March 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Sugata P Tan, Mohammad Piri
Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) coupled with the Young-Laplace equation is a recently developed equation of state (EOS) that successfully presents not only the capillary condensation but also the pore critical phenomena. The development of this new EOS allows further investigation of the heats involved in condensation. Compared to the conventional approaches, the EOS calculations present the temperature-dependent behavior of the heat of capillary condensation as well as that of the contributing effects...
February 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mohammad A Obeid, Ayman M Gebril, Rothwelle J Tate, Alexander B Mullen, Valerie A Ferroa
Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV) are synthetic membrane vesicles formed by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant, often in a mixture with cholesterol and a charged chemical species. Different methods can be used to manufacture NISV, with the majority of these requiring bulk mixing of two phases. This mixing process is time-consuming and leads to the preparation of large and highly dispersed vesicles, which affects the consistency of the final product and could hinder subsequent regulatory approval. In this study, we have compared the physical characteristics of NISV prepared using two conventional methods (thin-film hydration method and heating method) with a recently introduced microfluidic method...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
A Diebold, Z Jia, I J Graumann, Y Yin, F Emaury, C J Saraceno, X Tao, U Keller
We present the first demonstration of a thin-disk laser based on the gain material Yb:GGG. This material has many desirable properties for the thin-disk geometry: a high thermal conductivity, which is nearly independent of the doping concentration, a low quantum defect, low-temperature growth, and a broadband absorption spectrum, making it a promising contender to the well-established Yb:YAG for high-power applications. In continuous wave laser operation, we demonstrate output powers above 50 W, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously achieved with this material in the bulk geometry...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
Keng-Ku Liu, Qisheng Jiang, Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Ramesh Raliya, Pratim Biswas, Rajesh R Naik, Srikanth Singamaneni
Solar steam generation is a highly promising technology for harvesting solar energy, desalination and water purification. We introduce a novel bilayered structure comprised of wood and graphene oxide (GO) for highly efficient solar steam generation. The GO layer deposited on the microporous wood provides broad optical absorption and high photothermal conversion resulting in rapid increase in the temperature at the liquid surface. On the other hand, wood serves as a thermal insulator to confine the photothermal heat to the evaporative surface and to facilitate the efficient transport of water from the bulk to the photothermally-active space...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David Rodin, Shannon K Yee
Transient thermoreflectance (TTR) techniques are ubiquitous methods for measuring thermal conductivity of bulk materials and thin-films. Both through-plane thermal conductivity k⊥ and in-plane thermal conductivity k∥ should be independently measured in transversely anisotropic materials. When these properties are measured using conventional TTR techniques, the accuracy of the k∥ measurement is dependent on the accuracy of measuring k⊥ and vice versa. This is especially problematic for thin-films measurements as uncertainty in k⊥ (∼5%) can propagate and grow for uncertainty in k∥...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yanguang Zhou, Xiaoliang Zhang, Ming Hu
By carefully and systematically performing Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the thermal conductivity (κ) of Si nanowires (NWs) does not diverge but converges and increases steeply when NW diameter (D) becomes extremely small (dκ/dD < 0), a long debate of one-dimensional heat conduction in history. The κ of the thinnest possible Si NWs reaches a superhigh level that is as large as more than 1 order of magnitude higher than its bulk counterpart. The abnormality is explained in terms of the dominant normal (N) process (energy and momentum conservation) of low frequency acoustic phonons that induces hydrodynamic phonon flow in the Si NWs without being scattered...
January 27, 2017: Nano Letters
Brandon Hong, Felipe Vallini, Cheng-Yi Fang, Amr Ghalib Alasaad, Yeshaiahu Fainman
We experimentally demonstrate the uncooled detection of long wavelength-infrared (LWIR) radiation by thermal surface plasmon sensing, using an all optical read-out format. Thermal infrared radiation absorbed by an IR-sensitive material with high thermo-optic coefficient coated on a metal grating creates a refractive index change detectable by the shift of the supported surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measured optically in the visible spectrum. The interface localization of SPR modes and optical readout allow for submicron thin film transducers and eliminate complex readout integrated circuits, respectively, reducing form factor, leveraging robust visible detectors and enabling low-cost imaging cameras...
January 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Danni Lei, Jim Benson, Alexandre Magasinski, Gene Berdichevsky, Gleb Yushin
One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air...
January 20, 2017: Science
Raman Sankar, G Narsinga Rao, I Panneer Muthuselvam, Tay-Rong Chang, H T Jeng, G Senthil Murugan, Wei-Li Lee, F C Chou
The anisotropic superconducting properties of PbTaSe2 single crystal is reported. Superconductivity with T c  =  3.83  ±  0.02 K has been characterized fully with electrical resistivity ρ(T), magnetic susceptibility χ(T), and specific heat C p (T) measurements using single crystal samples. The superconductivity is type-II with lower critical field H c1 and upper critical field H c2 of 65 and 450 Oe (H⊥  to the ab-plane), 140 and 1500 Oe (H|| to the ab-plane), respectively. These results indicate that the superconductivity of PbTaSe2 is anisotropic...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Zhao Ya-Ru, Zhang Hai-Rong, Zhang Gang-Tai, Wei Qun, Yuan Yu-Quan
The elastic anisotropy and thermodynamic properties of the recently synthesized Pnnm-CN have been investigated using first-principles calculations under high temperature and high pressure. The calculated equilibrium crystal parameters and normalized volume dependence of the resulting pressure agree with available experimental and theoretical results. Within the considered pressure range of 0-90 GPa, the dependences of the bulk modulus, Young's modulus, and shear modulus on the crystal orientation for Pnnm-CN have been systematically studied...
December 2016: AIP Advances
Brian F Thomas, Timothy W Lefever, Ricardo A Cortes, Alexander L Kovach, Anderson O Cox, Purvi R Patel, Gerald T Pollard, Julie A Marusich, Richard A Kevin, Thomas F Gamage, Jenny L Wiley
Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured clandestinely with little quality control and are distributed as herbal "Spice" for smoking or as bulk compound for mixing with a solvent and inhalation via electronic vaporizers. Intoxication with synthetic cannabinoids has been associated with seizure, excited delirium, coma, kidney damage, and other disorders. The chemical alterations produced by heating these structurally novel compounds for consumption are largely unknown. Here we show that heating synthetic cannabinoids containing tetramethylcyclopropyl-ring substituents produced thermal degradants with pharmacological activity that varied considerably from their parent compounds...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Zonglin Gu, Phil De Luna, Zaixing Yang, Ruhong Zhou
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently emerged as a promising nanomaterial in a wide range of applications due to its unique and impressive properties. For example, MoS2 has gained attention in the biomedical field because of its ability to act as an antibacterial and anticancer agent. However, the potential influence of this exciting nanomaterial on biomolecules is yet to be extensively studied. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are invaluable tools in the examination of protein interactions with nanomaterials such as MoS2...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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