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Bulk heating

Aneta M Białkowska
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising bulk chemical with a potentially wide range of applications e.g., in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, synthetic rubber, fumigants, antifreeze agents, fuel additives, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. Its high heating value and ability to increase the octane number of fuels make 2,3-BD a promising drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), which is considered an effective liquid fuel additive. After combination with MEK and hydrogenation reaction, 2,3-BD can be converted to octane, which is used to produce high-quality aviation fuel...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Alberto Lagazzo, Fabrizio Barberis, Cristina Carbone, Gianguido Ramis, Elisabetta Finocchio
The interaction of aminoacids (Glycine, Proline, Lysine) with brushite based bone cements has been investigated by several techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry-TG, Scanning Electron Microscopy-SEM, mechanical properties studies), with the aim to elucidate the properties of the resulting composite materials and the interaction occurring at molecular level between the inorganic matrix and the organic moieties. Brushite phase is predominantly obtained also in the presence of aminoacids added during preparation of the bone cement...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Francesca Bomboi, Flavio Romano, Manuela Leo, Javier Fernandez-Castanon, Roberto Cerbino, Tommaso Bellini, Federico Bordi, Patrizia Filetici, Francesco Sciortino
DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Kunsu Park, Kyunghan Ahn, Joonil Cha, Sanghwa Lee, Sue In Chae, Sung-Pyo Cho, Siheon Ryee, Jino Im, Jaeki Lee, Su-Dong Park, Myung Joon Han, In Chung, Taeghwan Hyeon
Thermoelectrics directly converts waste heat into electricity and is considered a promising means of sustainable energy generation. While most of the recent advances in the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) resulted from a decrease in lattice thermal conductivity by nanostructuring, there have been very few attempts to enhance electrical transport properties, i.e., the power factor. Here we use nanochemistry to stabilize bulk bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) that violates phase equilibrium, namely, phase-pure n-type K0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Donato Belmonte, Carlo Gatti, Giulio Armando Ottonello, Pascal Richet, Marino Vetuschi Zuccolini
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na2SiO3 in the Cmc21 structural state are computed ab-initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies viz, heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Junxue An, Xiaoyan Liu, Andra Dedinaite, Evgeniya Korchagina, Francoise M Winnik, Per M Claesson
Equilibration in adsorbing polymer systems can be very slow, leading to different physical properties at a given condition depending on the pathway that was used to reach this state. Here we explore this phenomenon using a diblock copolymer consisting of a cationic anchor block and a thermoresponsive block of poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline), PIPOZ. We find that at a given temperature different polymer chain densities at the silica surface are achieved depending on the previous temperature history. We explore how this affects surface and friction forces between such layers using the atomic force microscope colloidal probe technique...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
A P Lee, D M Barbano, M A Drake
The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1 h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Qingyu Peng, Hongqiu Wei, Yuyang Qin, Zaishan Lin, Xu Zhao, Fan Xu, Jinsong Leng, Xiaodong He, Anyuan Cao, Yibin Li
Electrical stimulation of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) has many advantages over thermal methods; creating an efficient conductive path through the bulk polymers is essential for developing high performance electroactive systems. Here, we show that a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon nanotube sponge can serve as a built-in integral conductive network to provide internal, homogeneous, in situ Joule heating for shape-memory polymers, thus significantly improving the mechanical and thermal behavior of SMPs. As a result, the 3D nanocomposites show a fast response and produce large exerting forces (with a maximum flexural stress of 14...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Yonggang Yao, Kun Fu, Shuze Zhu, Jiaqi Dai, Yanbin Wang, Glenn Pastel, Yanan Chen, Tian Li, Chengwei Wang, Teng Li, Liangbing Hu
Carbon nanomaterials exhibit outstanding electrical and mechanical properties for a range of applications but these superior properties are often compromised as nanomaterials are assembled into bulk structures. This issue of scaling limits the use of carbon nanostructures and can be attributed to poor physical contacts between nanostructures. To address this challenge, we propose a novel technique to build a 3D carbon matrix by forming covalent bonds between carbon nanostructures. In our work, a Joule heating method was developed to bring the carbon nanofiber (CNF) film to temperatures greater than 2500 K at a heating rate of 200 K/minute to fuse together adjacent carbon nanofibers, forming a 3D interconnected carbon network...
October 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Jessica K Bristow, Jonathan M Skelton, Katrine L Svane, Aron Walsh, Julian D Gale
We report the development of a forcefield capable of reproducing accurate lattice dynamics of metal-organic frameworks. Phonon spectra, thermodynamic and mechanical properties, such as free energies, heat capacities and bulk moduli, are calculated using the quasi-harmonic approximation to account for anharmonic behaviour due to thermal expansion. Comparison to density functional theory calculations of properties such as Grüneisen parameters, bulk moduli and thermal expansion supports the accuracy of the derived forcefield model...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Parthiban Ramasamy, Attila Szabo, Stefan Borzel, Jürgen Eckert, Mihai Stoica, András Bárdos
Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
V Ozhukil Kollath, K Karan
Ultrathin films of Nafion® have attracted significant attention in recent years owing to their application in a variety of electrochemical devices. For improved mechanical integrity, the films are often subjected to a thermal treatment step. In this paper, we report a variable-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of ultra-thin (14 to 660 nm) Nafion films on SiO2/Si substrates in the attenuated total reflection mode. A key finding is the dramatic increase in the intensity of the 636-624 cm(-1) doublet band, generally associated with CF2 wagging or helix-reversal defect, observed at around 110 °C during in situ heating...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yong Seok Hwang, Valery I Levitas
The external surface of metallic particles is usually covered by a thin and strong oxide shell, which significantly affects superheating and melting of particles. The effects of geometric parameters and heating rate on characteristic melting and superheating temperatures and melting behavior of aluminum nanoparticles covered by an oxide shell were studied numerically. For this purpose, the multiphysics model that includes the phase field model for surface melting, a dynamic equation of motion, a mechanical model for stress and strain simulations, interface and surface stresses, and the thermal conduction model including thermoelastic and thermo-phase transformation coupling as well as transformation dissipation rate was formulated...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Blanpain-Avet, C André, M Khaldi, L Bouvier, J Petit, T Six, R Jeantet, T Croguennec, G Delaplace
Fouling of plate heat exchangers (PHE) is a severe problem in the dairy industry, notably because the relationship between the build-up of protein fouling deposits and the chemical reactions taking place in the fouling solution has not yet been fully elucidated. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale in a corrugated PHE, and fouling deposits were generated using a model β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) fouling solution for which the β-LG thermal denaturation reaction constants had been previously determined experimentally...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ting-Yu Ko, Muthaiah Shellaiah, Kien Wen Sun
In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10(-4) S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vitaly V Chaban, Eudes Eterno Fileti
A nanofluid (NF) is composed of a base liquid and suspended nanoparticles (NPs). High-performance NFs exhibit significantly better heat conductivities, as compared to their base liquids. In the present work, we applied all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize diffusive and ballistic energy transfer mechanisms within nanodiamonds (NDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid (IL). We showed that heat transfer within both NDs and CNTs is orders of magnitude faster than that in the surrounding IL, whereas diffusion of all particles in the considered NF is similar...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Matthias Grünbacher, Eva-Maria Köck, Michaela Kogler, Bernhard Klötzer, Simon Penner
Two mixed ionic-electronic conducting, Fe-containing perovskites were investigated regarding their reducibility in dry H2, namely lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF4, La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ) and strontium titanium ferrite (STF3, SrTi0.7Fe0.3O3-δ). Upon treatment under comparable reduction conditions, LSF4 is by far more affected by reduction and is reduced more deeply than STF3. Thermal treatments of fully oxidized or slightly reduced LSF4/STF3 at decreased O2 partial pressure lead to spontaneous desorption of O2...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
An Zou, Dhirendra P Singh, Shalabh C Maroo
For over five decades, enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer has been achieved by altering the surface wetting, wickability, roughness, nucleation site density and providing separate liquid/vapor pathways. In this work, a new enhancement mechanism based on the early-evaporation of the microlayer is discovered and validated. The microlayer is a thin liquid film present at the base of a vapor bubble. Presence of micro-ridges on the silicon-dioxide surface partitions the microlayer and disconnects it from bulk liquid causing it to evaporate sooner, thus leading to increase in bubble growth rate, heat transfer, departure frequency and critical heat flux (CHF)...
October 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Beom Seok Kim, Geehong Choi, Sangwoo Shin, Thomas Gemming, Hyung Hee Cho
The enhancement of boiling heat transfer, the most powerful energy-transferring technology, will lead to milestones in the development of high-efficiency, next-generation energy systems. Perceiving nano-inspired interface functionalities from their rough morphologies, we demonstrate interface-induced liquid refreshing is essential to improve heat transfer by intrinsically avoiding Leidenfrost phenomenon. High liquid accessibility of hemi-wicking and catalytic nucleation, triggered by the morphological and hydrodynamic peculiarities of nano-inspired interfaces, contribute to the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC)...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naveen Shamsudhin, Ye Tao, Jordi Sort, Bumjin Jang, Christian L Degen, Bradley J Nelson, Salvador Pané
Ferromagnetic nanowires are finding use as untethered sensors and actuators for probing micro- and nanoscale biophysical phenomena, such as for localized sensing and application of forces and torques on biological samples, for tissue heating through magnetic hyperthermia, and for microrheology. Quantifying the magnetic properties of individual isolated nanowires is crucial for such applications. Dynamic cantilever magnetometry is used to measure the magnetic properties of individual sub-500 nm diameter polycrystalline nanowires of Ni and Ni80 Co20 fabricated by template-assisted electrochemical deposition...
September 30, 2016: Small
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