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Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
PURPOSE: The anaerobic metabolism of glucose by cancer cells, even under well oxygenated conditions, has been documented by Otto Warburg as early as 1927. Micro-environmental hypoxia and intracellular pathways activating the hypoxia-related gene response, shift cancer cell metabolism to anaerobic pathways. In the current review we focus on a major enzyme involved in anaerobic transformation of pyruvate to lactate, namely lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). CONCLUSIONS: The value of LDH5 as a marker of prognosis of cancer patients, as a predictor of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and, finally, as a major target for cancer treatment and radio-sensitization is reported and discussed...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Mark Morrison, Kevin Parton, Donald W Hine
Using national Australian samples collected in 2011 (n = 1927) and 2016 (n = 2503), we identified six Australian household segments which we labelled Alarmed, Concerned, Cautious, Disengaged, Doubtful and Dismissive. Between the two periods, we found the proportion of households in the Alarmed and Concerned segments was stable; however there was a decrease (28% to 20%) in the proportion of households in the Doubtful and Dismissive segments and an increase (27% to 33%) in the Cautious and Disengaged segments...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer Phan, Vivian Ng, Alan Sheinbaum, Sam French, Gina Choi, Mohamed El Kabany, Francisco Durazo, Sammy Saab, Myron Tong, Ronald Busuttil, Steven-Huy Han
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary hepatic malignancies. With the exception of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), other etiologies of chronic liver disease require progression to cirrhosis before HCC development. Case reports have described HCC in noncirrhotic patients with hepatitis C (HCV) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. GOAL: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of patients without cirrhosis and CHB who developed HCC among a large cohort of HCC patients and to identify independent variables that are associated with no cirrhosis among patients with HCC...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jake Manuel, W John Tennent, Donald W Buden, Aubrey Moore
A single specimen of the butterfly, Doleshallia tongana  Hopkins 1927, was collected on Guam Island on October 23, 2017 (13.430478°N, 144.800419°E). This is a new species record for Guam and Micronesia, indicating a geographical range expansion for D. tongana .
2018: F1000Research
Jaume Sastre-Juan
This article analyzes the changing politics of hands-on display at the New York Museum of Science and Industry by following its urban deambulation within Midtown Manhattan, which went hand in hand with sharp shifts in promoters, narrative, and exhibition techniques. The museum was inaugurated in 1927 as the Museum of the Peaceful Arts on the 7th and 8th floors of the Scientific American Building. It changed its name in 1930 to the New York Museum of Science and Industry while on the 4th floor of the Daily News Building, and it was close to being renamed the Science Center when it finally moved in 1936 to the ground floor of the Rockefeller Center...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Amy K McLennan, M Shimonovich, S J Ulijaszek, M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Dietary surveys are frequently used as the basis for theorising nutritional change and diet-related non-communicable disease emergence (DR-NCD) in the Pacific islands. However, findings from historical survey data do not always align with ethnographic evidence. AIMS: This paper aims to examine the extent to which the two types of evidence can lead to similar conclusions, and draw out the implications for current theories of, and interventions addressing, nutritional change...
May 2018: Annals of Human Biology
Edward J Calabrese
This historical analysis indicates that it is highly unlikely that the Nobel Prize winning research of Hermann J. Muller was peer-reviewed. The published paper of Muller lacked a research methods section, cited no references, and failed to acknowledge and discuss the work of Gager and Blakeslee (PNAS 13:75-79, 1927) that claimed to have induced gene mutation via ionizing radiation six months prior to Muller's non-data Science paper (Muller, Science 66(1699):84-87, 1927a). Despite being well acclimated into the scientific world of peer-review, Muller choose to avoid the peer-review process on his most significant publication...
June 6, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
W Zheng, Y C Li
The Mogan Mt.Sanatorium for Pulmonary Tuberculosis, founded in 1927, was the first tuberculosis sanatorium in modern China, with an initial intention of "treating and caring the diseased, not seeking profits" , and its name was then changed to Mogan Mountain Sanatorium in 1931. During the early period of Anti-Japanese War, it became an asylum for refugees and carrying out charitable rehabilitation activity.In May 1939, the Sanatorium was compelled to close because of the bombardment of Japanese aircraft, andonly formally opened in 1948 until today...
September 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Xiaofei Wu, Yu Liu, Jing Luo
Creativeness has been widely recognized as the ability to generate thoughts that are both novel (new) and appropriate (useful) (Barron, 1955). In this paper, we investigated the mnemonic effects of novelty and appropriateness in chunk decomposition tasks. Studies 1 and 2 utilized classical recognition tasks (explicit memory) and ambiguous word identification tasks (implicit memory) to reveal whether novelty and appropriateness are involved in different mnemonic systems. A 2 (familiarity) × 2 (appropriateness) experimental design was utilized in our experiments, and the four conditions were familiar-appropriate, familiar-inappropriate, novel-appropriate and novel-inappropriate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Joy Tao, Amanda Champlain, Charles Weddington, Lauren Moy, Rebecca Tung
Introduction: Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). Case 1: A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes)...
January 2018: Scars, burns & healing
Tomáš Scholz, Sareh Tavakol, Lucie Uhrová, Jan Brabec, Iva Přikrylová, Šárka Mašová, Andrea Šimková, Ali Halajian, Wilmien J Luus-Powell
An annotated list of larvae (metacestodes) of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from freshwater fishes in Africa is provided with numerous new host and geographical records. Newly collected materials from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan and Zimbabwe practically double the total number of species reported from African fish so far. We confirm the occurrence of 16 species (five unidentified to the species level and most likely representing new taxa) belonging to the genera Amirthalingamia Bray, 1974 (1 species), Cyclustera Fuhrmann, 1901 (2 species), Dendrouterina Fuhrmann, 1912 (1 species), Neogryporhynchus Baer & Bona, 1960 (1 species), Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (4 species), Parvitaenia Burt, 1940 (5 species), and Valipora Linton, 1927 (2 species)...
May 16, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Bruce Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Bryan Killingsworth, Huiming Bao, Issaku Kohl
Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4 2- ) sulfur and oxygen isotope variations reflect their controls such as SO4 2- reduction and re-oxidation, and source mixing. However, unconstrained temporal variability of riverine SO4 2- isotope compositions due to short sampling durations may lead to mischaracterization of SO4 2- sources, particularly for the pyrite-derived sulfate load. We measured the sulfur and triple-oxygen isotopes (δ34 S, δ18 O, and ∆'17 O) of Mississippi River SO4 2- with biweekly sampling between 2009-2013 to test isotopic variability and constrain sources...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Robert J Agnew, Todd Halihan
The mechanisms leading to the formation of bubbles in springs and wells have received minimal attention beyond causation. Free phase gas quantification provides insight into a range of topics, from hazards that need to be managed to the economic value of soda waters. The presence of free-phase gas or vapor bubbles in groundwater may provide valuable information about the subsurface flow system. Additionally, free-phase gas or vapor bubbles may strip dissolved gasses from solution and introduce error into the assessment of gasses in springs, affecting analyses such as groundwater dating techniques...
May 8, 2018: Ground Water
Ania Zylbersztejn, Ruth Gilbert, Anders Hjern, Linda Wijlaars, Pia Hardelid
BACKGROUND: Child mortality is almost twice as high in England compared with Sweden. We aimed to establish the extent to which adverse birth characteristics and socioeconomic factors explain this difference. METHODS: We developed nationally representative cohorts of singleton livebirths between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, using the Hospital Episode Statistics in England, and the Swedish Medical Birth Register in Sweden, with longitudinal follow-up from linked hospital admissions and mortality records...
May 3, 2018: Lancet
Gerry Lander, Colin Carlile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances
M Persico, A Aglitti, A Aghemo, M Rendina, A Lleo, A Ciancio, V Di Marco, P Lampertico, M R Brunetto, M Zuin, P Andreone, E Villa, G Troshina, V Calvaruso, E Degasperi, B Coco, A Giorgini, F Conti, A Di Leo, L Marzi, V Boccaccio, S Bollani, P Maisonneuve, S Bruno
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) therapy in patients with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. AIM: We prospectively evaluated whether previously treated HCC affects DAA efficacy in a large real-life cohort of cirrhotic patients. METHODS: From January to December 2015 all consecutive HCV mono-infected patients with cirrhosis and/or history of HCC attending 10 Italian tertiary liver centres were enrolled...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
I Wells, K Crotty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Knut Rognes
The mainly Oriental Bengalia torosa Wiedemann species-group is revised on the basis of males. Species concepts are based on male terminalia. Monophyly of the species-group is established on the basis of two unique synapomorphies of the distiphallus. Eleven species are recognized as valid, viz. Bengalia chekiangensis Fan, 1965, Bengalia chiangmaiensis Kurahashi Tumrasvin, 1979, Bengalia concava Malloch, 1927, Bengalia escheri Bezzi, 1913, Bengalia fuscipennis Bezzi, 1913, Bengalia jejuna (Fabricius, 1787), Bengalia kanoi Kurahashi Magpayo, 2000, Bengalia martinleakei Senior-White, 1930, Bengalia recurva Malloch, 1927, Bengalia torosa (Wiedemann, 1819), Bengalia xanthopyga Senior-White, 1924, and their geographical distributions are updated...
March 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Fernando Henrique Carnimeo, Fernando Barbosa Noll
The Neotropical thynnine genus Scotaena is revised and a cladistic analysis is presented. The analysis, conducted from 75 morphological characters of 31 terminal taxa, returned a single tree under equal weighting. The monophyly of Scotaena was not recovered. Three new genera and five new species are described: Kaysara gen. nov., Pseudoscotaena gen. nov. and Pampathynnus gen. nov., Scotaena reversa sp. nov., Kaysara laterolata sp. nov., Kaysara apiciconcava sp. nov., Kaysara marginoplicata sp. nov. and Kaysara levicrenata sp...
March 22, 2018: Zootaxa
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