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M L Reinke, M Han, G Liu, G G van Eden, R Evenblij, M Haverdings, B C Stratton
Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Andrew Rivera, Hongmei Nan, Tricia Li, Abrar Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of numerous cancers, but existing evidence for an association with melanoma is equivocal. No study has evaluated the association with different anatomic locations of melanoma. METHODS: We used data from three large prospective cohort studies to investigate whether alcohol intake was associated with risk of melanoma. Alcohol intake was assessed repeatedly by food-frequency questionnaires. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Monireh Moayedi Pour Fard, Glenn Cowan, Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur
This paper experimentally demonstrates a design optimization of an evanescently-coupled waveguide germanium-on-silicon photodetector (PD) towards high-speed (> 30 Gb/s) applications. The resulting PD provides a responsivity of 1.09 A/W at 1550 nm, a dark current of 3.5 µA and bandwidth of 42.5 GHz at 2 V reverse-bias voltage. To optimize the PD, the impact of various design parameters on performance is investigated. A novel optimization methodology for the PD's responsivity based on the required bandwidth is developed...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Jun Liao, Liheng Bian, Zichao Bian, Zibang Zhang, Charmi Patel, Kazunori Hoshino, Yonina C Eldar, Guoan Zheng
A critical consideration for whole slide imaging (WSI) platform is to perform accurate autofocusing at high speed. Typical WSI systems acquire a z-stack of sample images and determine the best focal position by maximizing a figure of merit. This strategy, however, has suffered from several limitations, including low speed due to multiple image acquisitions, relatively low accuracy of focal plane estimation, short axial range for autofocusing, and difficulties in handling transparent samples. By exploring the autocorrelation property of the tissue sections, we report a novel single-frame autofocusing scheme to address the above challenges...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Muhammad Umar Khan, Brian Corbett
Resonant propagating waves created on the surface of a dielectric multilayer stack, called Bloch surface waves (BSW), can be designed for high sensitivity monitoring of the adjacent refractive index as an alternative platform to the metal-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. The resonant wavelength and polarization can be designed by engineering of the dielectric layers unlike the fixed resonance of SPR, while the wide bandwidth low loss of dielectrics permits sharper resonances, longer propagation lengths and thus their use in waveguiding devices...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
S A Kavouras, D Bougatsas, E C Johnson, G Arnaoutis, S Tsipouridi, D B Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were as follows: (1) examine fluid intake and urinary hydration markers of children in Greece, (2) determine the calculated relative risk of hypohydration in children who did not meet the recommendations for daily water intake provided by the Institute of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority compared with those who did and (3) analyze the efficacy of the recommendations as a method to achieve euhydration in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and fifty Greek boys and girls (age 9-13) recorded their fluid intake for 2 consecutive days...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Q Li, M Chambonneau, M Chanal, D Grojo
Laser-induced permanent modification inside silicon has been recently demonstrated by using tightly focused nanosecond sources at a 1550 nm wavelength. We have developed a quantitative-phase microscope operating in the near-infrared domain to characterize the laser-induced modifications deep into silicon. By varying the number of applied laser pulses and the energy, we observe porous and densified regions in the focal region. The observed changes are associated with refractive index variations |Δn| exceeding 10<sup>-3</sup>, enough to envision the laser writing of optical functionalities inside silicon...
November 20, 2016: Applied Optics
D Jain, R Sidharthan, P M Moselund, S Yoo, D Ho, O Bang
We demonstrate highly germania doped fibers for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. Experiments ensure a highest output power of 1.44 W for a broadest spectrum from 700 nm to 3200 nm and 6.4 W for 800 nm to 2700 nm from these fibers, while being pumped by a broadband Erbium-Ytterbium doped fiber based master oscillator power amplifier. The effect of repetition frequency of pump source and length of germania-doped fiber has also been investigated. Further, germania doped fiber has been pumped by conventional supercontinuum source based on silica photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Philippe Rigaud, Aymeric Van de Walle, Marc Hanna, Nicolas Forget, Florent Guichard, Yoann Zaouter, Khmaies Guesmi, Frédéric Druon, Patrick Georges
We propose and demonstrate an OPCPA architecture emitting few-cycle pulses at 3070 nm and 1550 nm based on a high-energy femtosecond ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier pump. The short pump pulse duration allows direct seeding by a supercontinuum in the 1.4 - 1.7 µm signal range, generated in bulk YAG. It also allows a simplified dispersion management along the system and broad optical gain bandwidth. The dual output system delivers 20 µJ, 49 fs signal pulses at 1550 nm and 10 µJ, 72 fs idler pulses at 3070 nm...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
Arash Sheikhaleh, Kambiz Abedi, Kian Jafari, Reza Gholamzadeh
In this paper, we propose what we believe is a novel sensitive micro-optoelectromechanical systems (MOEMS) accelerometer based on intensity modulation by using a one-dimensional photonic crystal. The optical sensing system of the proposed structure includes an air-dielectric multilayer photonic bandgap material, a laser diode (LD) light source, a typical photodiode (1550 nm) and a set of integrated optical waveguides. The proposed sensor provides several advantages, such as a relatively wide measurement range, good linearity in the whole measurement range, integration capability, negligible cross-axis sensitivity, high reliability, and low air-damping coefficient, which results in a wider frequency bandwidth for a fixed resonance frequency...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Nikolaos Nikolaou, Maaret Castren, Koenraad G Monsieurs, Diana Cimpoesu, Marios Georgiou, Violetta Raffay, Rudolph Koster, Silvija Hunyadi-Antičević, Anatolij Truhlar, Leo Bossaert
AIM: In out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) a single rescuer should start with Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) immediately after calling the Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC). The start of CPR may be delayed considerably if the total time to connect to the dispatcher at the EMCC (TT-EMCC) is prolonged. EUROCALL aimed to investigate the TT-EMCC and its components in several European regions using different calling procedures. METHODS: EUROCALL is a prospective, multicentre randomised study that was performed in April 2013...
November 14, 2016: Resuscitation
Ella Ekholm, Lars Hansen, Eva Johnsson, Nayyar Iqbal, Björn Carlsson, Hungta Chen, Boaz Hirshberg
OBJECTIVE: To determine if reduction in serum insulin with dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin or dapagliflozin add-on to metformin contributed to increased insulin clearance and to assess the effects of these treatments on β-cell function. METHODS: Patients (A1C 8.0%-12.0%) were randomized to 24-week, double-blind treatment with saxagliptin 5 mg/d plus dapagliflozin 10 mg/d (n=179), saxagliptin 5 mg/d plus placebo (n=176), or dapagliflozin 10 mg/d plus placebo (n=179) added to metformin...
November 16, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Y Mehta, J Shetye, R Nanavati, A Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes on various physiological cardio-respiratory parameters with a single chest physiotherapy session in mechanically ventilated and extubated preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study in neonatal intensive care unit setting. Sixty preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, thirty mechanically ventilated and thirty extubated preterm neonates requiring chest physiotherapy were enrolled in the study...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Jinman Lv, Xiaotao Hao, Feng Chen
We report on the green up-conversion and near-infrared (NIR) emission in Er<sup>3+</sup>, MgO co-doped nearly stoichiometric LiNbO<sub>3</sub> waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser writing. The waveguides with so-called Type I geometry by laser writing support nearly single-mode propagation of light at NIR wavelength of 1.55 μm. In addition, it has been found that the guidance is only along the vertical (i.e., TM) polarization, which is due to the laser-induced positive changes of extraordinary index in the guiding core...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
J Nuño, M Gilles, M Guasoni, C Finot, J Fatome
We theoretically and experimentally investigate the design of an all-optical magnification and sampling function free from any active gain medium or additional amplified spontaneous noise emission. The proposed technique is based on the co-propagation of an arbitrary shaped signal together with an orthogonally polarized intense fast sinusoidal beating within a normally dispersive optical fiber. This process allows us to experimentally demonstrate a 40-GHz sampling operation as well as an 8-dB magnification of an arbitrary shaped nanosecond signal around 1550 nm in a 5-km long optical fiber...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
Kunlun Yan, Khu Vu, Rongping Wang, Steve Madden
We report Er-doped Ge-Ga-Se films and waveguides deposited using co-thermal evaporation and patterned with plasma etching. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 µm with intrinsic lifetime of 1 ms was obtained from deposited films with 1490 nm excitation. Erbium population inversion up to 50% was achieved, with a maximum of ~55% possible at saturation for the first time to the author's knowledge, approaching the theoretical maximum of 65%. Whilst gain was not achieved due to the presence of upconversion pumped photoinduced absorption, this nonetheless represents a further important step towards the realization of future chalcogenide Erbium doped waveguide amplifiers at 1550 nm and in the Mid-infrared...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
Mohammad Alavirad, Anthony Olivieri, Langis Roy, Pierre Berini
In this paper we present a sub-bandgap photodetector consisting of a metal grating on a thin metal patch on silicon, which makes use of the enhancement produced by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the metal-silicon interface. The grating is defined via e-beam lithography and Au lift-off on a Au patch defined beforehand by optical lithography on doped p-type silicon. The surface plasmon polaritons are absorbed by the metal, leading to the creation of hot holes that can cross into the silicon where they are collected as the photocurrent...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
Shiyu Xie, Xinxin Zhou, Shiyong Zhang, David J Thomson, Xia Chen, Graham T Reed, Jo Shien Ng, Chee Hing Tan
: Increasing reliance on the Internet places greater and greater demands for high-speed optical communication systems. Increasing their data transfer rate allows more data to be transferred over existing links. With optical receivers being essential to all optical links, bandwidth performance of key components in receivers, such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs), must be improved. The APDs rely on In<sub>0.53</sub>Ga<sub>0.47</sub>As (grown lattice-matched to InP substrates) to efficiently absorb and detect the optical signals with 1310 or 1550 nm wavelength, the optimal wavelengths of operation for these optical links...
October 17, 2016: Optics Express
Stefan Ast, Melanie Ast, Moritz Mehmet, Roman Schnabel
The distribution of entanglement with Gaussian statistic can be used to generate a mathematically proven secure key for quantum cryptography. The distributed secret key rate is limited by the entanglement strength, the entanglement bandwidth, and the bandwidth of the photoelectric detectors. The development of a source for strongly bipartite entangled light with high bandwidth promises an increased measurement speed and a linear boost in the secure data rate. Here, we present the experimental realization of a Gaussian entanglement source with a bandwidth of more than 1...
November 1, 2016: Optics Letters
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