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Fractionated laser

David Harris-Birtill, Mohan Singh, Yu Zhou, Anant Shah, Pakatip Ruenraroengsak, Maria Elena Gallina, George B Hanna, Anthony E G Cass, Alexandra E Porter, Jeffrey Bamber, Daniel S Elson
Gold nanorods (GNRs) are increasingly being investigated for cancer theranostics as they possess features which lend themselves in equal measures as contrast agents and catalysts for photothermal therapy. Their optical absorption spectral peak wavelength is determined by their size and shape. Photothermal therapy using GNRs is typically established using near infrared light as this allows sufficient penetration into the tumour matrix. Continuous wave (CW) lasers are the most commonly applied source of near infrared irradiation on GNRs for tumour photothermal therapy...
2017: PloS One
Bhupendera Prashanth Ramakrishnan, Qian Lei, Amit Misra, Jyoti Mazumder
Bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) exhibit a good combination of strength and plasticity owing to a dual-hierarchy in eutectic length-scales in the microstructure. The present study investigates the variation of phase, morphology, feature length-scales and modality of microstructures obtained in a Al81Cu13Si6 (at. %) ternary alloy after laser surface remelting. A novel approach of varying component bimodal eutectic volume fractions by controlling the cooling rate of the laser solidification process has been presented...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
J C Tung, T Omatsu, H C Liang, K F Huang, Y F Chen
An end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser under selective pumping is used to excite lasing modes with transverse patterns performed to exhibit the characteristics of multiple spots arranged on elliptical features near degenerate cavities. The spatial distribution of elliptical lasing modes is clearly revealed to be localized on the nonplanar ray orbits, so-called nonplanar elliptical modes, which possess large fractional orbital angular momentum. Moreover, temporal dynamics for the output emission of nonplanar elliptical modes are verified to obtain self-mode-locked operation...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Albert S Reyna, Emeric Bergmann, Pierre-François Brevet, Cid B de Araújo
We report a study of the nonlinear birefringence induced in a metal-dielectric nanocomposite due to the contributions of third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities. A theoretical model describing the evolution of the light polarization state of a confined laser beam propagating through the nonlinear medium is developed with basis on a pair of coupled dissipative cubic-quintic nonlinear differential equations related to the two orthogonal polarizations of the optical field. As a proof-of-principle experiment we demonstrate the control of the light beam polarization in a silver-nanocolloid by changing the silver nanoparticles volume fraction, f, and the light intensity...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Kang Lin, Junyang Ma, Xiaochun Gong, Qiying Song, Qinying Ji, Wenbin Zhang, Hanxiao Li, Peifen Lu, Hui Li, Heping Zeng, Jian Wu, Jean-Michel Hartmann, Olivier Faucher, Erez Gershnabel, Yehiam Prior, Ilya Sh Averbukh
We report experimental observations of rotated echoes of alignment induced by a pair of time-delayed and polarization-skewed femtosecond laser pulses interacting with an ensemble of molecular rotors. Rotated fractional echoes, rotated high order echoes and rotated imaginary echoes are directly visualized by using the technique of coincident Coulomb explosion imaging. We show that the echo phenomenon not only exhibits temporal recurrences but also spatial rotations determined by the polarization of the time-delayed second pulse...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Rafi Weill, Alexander Bekker, Boris Levit, Michael Zhurahov, Baruch Fischer
We demonstrate thermalization and Bose-Einstein (BE) distribution of photons in standard erbium-doped fibers (edf) in a broad spectral range up to ~200nm at the 1550nm wavelength regime. Our measurements were done at a room temperature ~300K and 77K. It is a special demonstration of thermalization of photons in fiber cavities and even in open fibers. They are one-dimensional (1D), meters-long, with low finesse, high loss and small capture fraction of the spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find in the edf cavities coexistence of thermal-equilibrium (TE) and thermal lasing without an overall inversion (T-LWI)...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
David D Grimes, Timothy J Barnum, Yan Zhou, Anthony P Colombo, Robert W Field
We demonstrate coherent two-photon population transfer to Rydberg states of barium atoms using a combination of a pulsed dye laser and a chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectrometer. Numerical calculations, using a density matrix formalism, reproduce our experimental results and explain the factors responsible for the observed fractional population transferred, optimal experimental conditions, and possibilities for future improvements. The long coherence times associated with the millimeter-wave radiation aid in creating coherence between the ground state and Rydberg states, but higher-coherence laser sources are required to achieve stimulated Raman adiabatic passage and for applications to molecules...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Michael H Gold
<p>Non-invasive rejuvenation of the skin is performed regularly in many cosmetic offices. Using evidence-based medicine, we will review the various technologies being used for non-invasive rejuvenation. This includes the use of intense pulsed light (IPL), which has been thoroughly studied and shown to be quite useful for this type of rejuvenation in removing the red and brown pigments, as well as affecting collagen. Fractional lasers, both non-ablative and ablative in nature, also can show dramatic improvements in the skin and associated clinical studies are reviewed here...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Le Zhang, Zhong-Yuan Ren, Ya-Dong Wu, Nan Li
RATIONALE: In-situ Sr isotope analysis of geological samples by laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) provides useful information about magma mixing, crustal contamination and crystal residence time. Without chemical separation, during Sr isotope analysis with laser ablation, many kinds of interference ions (such as Rb(+) and Kr(+) ) are on the Sr isotope spectrum. Most previous in-situ Sr isotope studies only focused on Sr-enriched minerals (e...
October 13, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Henri-Arthur Leroy, Maximilien Vermandel, Bertrand Leroux, Alain Duhamel, Jean-Paul Lejeune, Serge Mordon, Nicolas Reyns
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas are primary brain tumors that have shown increasing incidence and unfavorable outcomes. Local control is crucial to the management of this pathology. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on the light-induced activation of a photosensitizer (PS), achieves local treatment by inducing selective lesions in tumor tissue. OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported the outcomes of PDT for glioblastoma via immunohistological data. Our study aimed to evaluate MRI findings, including diffusion, and perfusion sequences, compared with immunohistological data from the same population to address the efficiency of light fractionation...
October 11, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Thep Chalermchai, Paisal Rummaneethorn
BACKGROUND: Picosecond laser is a novel modality for pigmented skin disorders with extremely short pulse duration. Little is known about the effects of picosecond laser in melasma. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fractional picosecond 1,064 nm laser in melasma treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, assessor-blinded, intra-individual split face comparative study. METHODS: Female subjects with melasma were enrolled and received fractional picosecond 1,064 nm laser plus 4% hydroquinone cream on one randomly-assigned side of the face; results were compared to use of hydroquinone cream only on the contralateral side...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Reza M Robati, Elmira Asadi, Anoosh Shafiee, Nastaran Namazi, Atefeh Talebi
There are different modalities for hand rejuvenation. Fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser were introduced for treating hand wrinkles. We plan to compare fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser in a randomized controlled double-blind design with multiple sessions and larger sample size in comparison with previous studies. Thirty-three participants with hand wrinkles entered this study. They were randomly allocated to undergo three monthly laser treatments on each hand, one with a fractional Er:YAG laser and the other with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser...
October 8, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Takamitsu Miyayama, Kota Fujiki, Masato Matsuoka
Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary damage is unclear. AgNPs are incorporated into cells and processed via the autophagy pathway. We examined the effects of AgNP exposure on autophagic flux and expression of transcription factor EB (TFEB) in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. In cells exposed to citrate-coated 60-nm AgNPs, confocal laser microscopic examination showed a decrease in the LysoTracker fluorescence signal and an increase in that of Cyto-ID, indicating lysosomal pH alkalization and autophagosome formation, respectively...
October 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Masayuki Taniguchi, Junya Kawabe, Ryu Toyoda, Toshiki Namae, Akihito Ochiai, Eiichi Saitoh, Takaaki Tanaka
In this study, we hydrolyzed rice endosperm protein (REP) with pepsin and generated 20 fractions containing multifunctional cationic peptides with varying isoelectric point (pI) values using ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Subsequently, we determined antimicrobial activities of each fraction against the pathogens Prophyromonas gingivalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptocossus mutans, and Candida albicans. Fractions 18, 19, and 20 had pI values greater than 12 and exhibited antimicrobial activity against P...
October 4, 2017: Peptides
Masayoshi Kawakubo, Trevor J Cunningham, Shadmehr Demehri, Dieter Manstein
Currently ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP) with CO2 laser is used for a wide variety of dermatological indications. This study presents and discusses the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications. We used a fractional CO2 laser and anti-PD-1 inhibitor to treat a tumor established unilaterally by the CT26 wild type (CT26WT) colon carcinoma cell line. Inoculated tumors grew significantly slower in aFP-treated groups (aFP and aFP + anti-PD-1 groups) and complete remission was observed in the aFP-treated groups...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Stefania Guida, M G Galimberti, M Bencini, G Pellacani, P L Bencini
The efficacy of NAFL in the treatment of striae distensae (SD) has been demonstrated. Nevertheless, the base for this improvement has not been clarified yet. The aim of this study is to describe in vivo variations occurring in the skin after the treatment, using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Ten patients asking for the treatment of SD were enrolled. Clinical and RCM images were acquired before the treatment, immediately after 1 and 6 months after the first treatment. One thousand five hundred forty-nanometer laser treatments were performed every 4 weeks for 6 sessions...
October 4, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Brian Tian
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel, effective, and safe way to utilize the Erb:YAG laser to clear freckles in Type III/IV Asian skin. DESIGN: This was a prospective study. SETTING: The setting was a Singapore-based clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included five women, aged 25 to 38 years, three with Skin Type III and two with Skin Type IV. All of them had freckles. MEASUREMENTS: Photographs were taken pretreatment and one month after laser treatment. Three independent physicians evaluated the photographs using a grading system...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Shivani B Kaushik, Andrew F Alexis
Background: Nonablative laser resurfacing represents one of the major advances in procedural dermatology over the past decade. However, its use in darker skin types is limited by safety concerns and a relative lack of available data. Aim: To provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of fractional lasers in darker skin types. Evidence review: A broad literature search of PubMed/Medline database was conducted in April 2016 using the term fractional lasers. A free text search of keywords including fractional resurfacing, nonablative lasers, skin type, skin of color, ethnic skin, Fitzpatrick skin type, Asian skin, African Americans, Afro-Caribbean, and Hispanics was also executed...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Andrew C Krakowski, David M Ozog, David Ginsberg, Carol Cheng, Marsha L Chaffins
Importance: Current models of Goltz syndrome cannot estimate the overall neocollagenesis and marked shift in collagen types after ablative fractional laser resurfacing (AFR) within treated areas of focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH). Objectives: To clinically improve FDH by using AFR to characterize the specific ratio of collagen types associated with observed clinical changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case report of a girl with Goltz syndrome used extensive laboratory evaluation and multiple observers blinded to the patient's clinical status...
September 20, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Qi Wang, Sipian Guan, Dekui Shen
Microwave-assisted depolymerization of black-liquor lignin in formic acid was studied, concentrating on the yield of liquid fractions as bio-oil 1 (mainly aromatic monomers) and bio-oil 2 (mainly aromatic oligomers) and the distribution of the specific compositions. Bio-oil 1 (9.69%) and bio-oil 2 (54.39%) achieved their maximum yields under 160 °C with the reaction time of 30 min. The chemical compositions of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2 were respectively identified by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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