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Kristian Gaarn du Jardin, Nico Liebenberg, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Betina Elfving, Connie Sanchez, Gregers Wegener
RATIONALE: The mechanisms mediating ketamine's antidepressant effect have only been partly resolved. Recent preclinical reports implicate serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the antidepressant-like action of ketamine. Vortioxetine is a multimodal-acting antidepressant that is hypothesized to exert its therapeutic activity through 5-HT reuptake inhibition and modulation of several 5-HT receptors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic-like profiles of S-ketamine, vortioxetine, and the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine in response to manipulation of 5-HT tone...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Joseph E Igetei, Susan Liddell, Marwa El-Faham, Michael J Doenhoff
A serine protease-like enzyme found in detergent extracts of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms perfused from infected mice has been purified from mouse blood and further characterized. The enzyme is approximately 85 kDa and hydrolyses N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine β-naphthyl-ester, a chromogenic substrate for chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The enzyme from S. mansoni worms appears to be antigenically and enzymatically similar to a molecule that is present in normal mouse blood and so is seemingly host-derived. The enzyme was partially purified by depleting normal mouse serum of albumin using sodium chloride and cold ethanol, followed by repeated rounds of purification by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
April 2016: Parasitology
Tiziana Nardo, Valeria Chiono, Gianluca Ciardelli, Maryam Tabrizian
Inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for periodontal regeneration suffer from weak osteoconductive properties. In this work, a strategy for hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on PTFE films through an adhesive layer of self-polymerized 3,4-dihydroxy-DL-phenylalanine (polyDOPA) was developed to improve surface properties. Physico-chemical and morphological analysis demonstrated the deposition of polyDOPA and HAp, with an increase in surface roughness and wettability. A discontinuous coating was present after 14 days in PBS and MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation and adhesion were improved...
February 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shuang Ping Liu, Liang Zhang, Jian Mao, Zhong Yang Ding, Gui Yang Shi
Phenylpyruvate derivatives (PPD), such as phenylpropanoids, DL-phenylglycine, dl-phenylalanine, and styrene, are biosynthesized using phenylpyruvate as the precursor. They are widely used in human health and nutrition products. Recently, metabolic engineering provides effective strategies to develop PPD producers. Based on phenylpyruvate-producing chassis, genetically defined PPD producers have been successfully constructed. In this work, the most recent information on genetics and on the molecular mechanisms regulating phenylpyruvate synthesis pathways in Escherichia coli are summarized, and the engineering strategies to construct the PPD producers are also discussed...
November 2015: Metabolic Engineering
Paulina Bravo, Erna Raimann, Juan Francisco Cabello, Carolina Arias, Pilar Peredo, Gabriela Castro, Valerie Hamilton, Karen Campo, Verónica Cornejo
Hyperphenylalaninaemias are defined by a blood phenylalanine over 2mg/dl. The main cause is due to a mutation in the gene that codes the phenylalanine hydroxylase that catalyses the reaction that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. The hyperphenylalaninaemias are classified into benign or mild hyperphenylalaninaemias, or mild, moderate or classic phenylketonurias. Due to its delayed detection outside the neonatal period it causes severe mental retardation. Its detection along with congenital hypothyroidism has been part of the National Neonatal Screening Program since 1992 in Chile...
May 2015: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Zhong-Guang Li
Salicylic acid (SA), is a plant hormone with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development and the acquisition of stress tolerance. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging similar functions, but crosstalk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. Our recent study firstly reported that SA treatment enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, followed by induced endogenous H2S accumulation, which in turn improved the heat tolerance of maize seedlings...
2015: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Imran Ali, Dibya Ranjan Sahoo, Zeid A ALOthman, Abdulrahman A Alwarthan, Leonid Asnin, Bernt Larsson
Chiral resolution of dl-alanine-dl-tyrosine and dl-leucine-dl-phenylalanine dipeptides was achieved on AmyCoat-RP column. The mobile phase used for dl-alanine-dl-tyrosine was acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (10mM, pH 6.0) [50:50, v/v]. It was acetonitrile-methanol-ammonium acetate (10mM; pH adjusted to 4.5 with glacial acetic acid) [50:20:30, v/v] for dl-leucine-dl-phenylalanine. The flow rate of the mobile phases was 0.8mL/min with UV detection at 275nm. The values of retention factors for ll-, dd-, dl- and ld-stereomers of dl-alanine-dl-tyrosine were 1...
August 7, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Abhinay Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek Dutt Tripathi, Alok Jha, Amrita Poonia, Nitya Sharma
In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz...
June 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Taro Kato, Makoto Takata, Maiko Kitaichi, Momoe Kassai, Mitsuhiro Inoue, Chihiro Ishikawa, Wataru Hirose, Kozo Yoshida, Isao Shimizu
Modulation of monoaminergic systems has been the main stream of treatment for patients with mood disorders. However, recent evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. This study pharmacologically characterized a structurally novel metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor negative allosteric modulator, DSR-98776, and evaluated its effect on rodent models of depression and mania. First, DSR-98776 in vitro profile was assessed using intracellular calcium and radioligand binding assays...
June 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
Chunxiao Lv, Qing Li, Xujia Liu, Bosai He, Zhenyu Sui, Huarong Xu, Yidi Yin, Ran Liu, Kaishun Bi
In order to investigate the potential links between catecholamines (CAs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods in different ionization modes for the quantification of 14 CAs and their metabolites in rat urine without derivatization or complex sample pre-treatments were developed. After addition of the internal standard, isoproterenol, the urine samples were extracted by protein precipitation and separated on an Inertsil ODS-EP column (Shimadzu, Japan) at a flow of 1...
February 2015: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Zhong-Guang Li, Lin-Run Xie, Xiao-Juan Li
Salicylic acid (SA), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, is a small phenolic compound with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to have similar functions, but cross talk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. In this study, pretreatment of maize seedlings with SA improved the survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress, indicating that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jiovanna Contreras, Elsa Alonso, Lisset E Fuentes
INTRODUCTION: Hyperphenylalaninemias are inborn errors of phenylalanine metabolism caused by deficiency of L-phenylalanine hydroxylase (the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine), resulting in increased serum phenylalanine (>4 mg/dL or 240 µmol/L). Phenylketonuria, or PKU, is the most common form. Untreated PKU is associated with progressive neurodevelopmental delay, evolving towards intellectual impairment. Cuba introduced a national newborn screening program for PKU in 1986...
January 2015: MEDICC Review
Franziska Stefanie Ihlefeldt, Fredrik Bjarte Pettersen, Aidan von Bonin, Malgorzata Zawadzka, Carl Henrik Görbitz
The solid-state structure of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) offers a potential key to understanding the behavior of a large class of important aromatic compounds. Obtaining good single crystals is, however, notoriously difficult. The structure of the common polymorph of Phe, form I, was first reported by Weissbuch et al. (as D-Phe) in 1990, but the correctness of the published C2 unit cell with two disordered molecules in the asymmetric unit was later questioned and other space groups suggested. The identity of form I of L-Phe is here established to be P21 with Z'=4, based on data from a well-diffracting single crystal grown from an acetic acid solution of the amino acid...
December 1, 2014: Angewandte Chemie
Longbao Zhu, Li Zhou, Nan Huang, Wenjing Cui, Zhongmei Liu, Ke Xiao, Zhemin Zhou
An efficient enzymatic process was developed to produce optically pure D-phenylalanine through asymmetric resolution of the racemic DL-phenylalanine using immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (RgPAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis JN-1. RgPAL was immobilized on a modified mesoporous silica support (MCM-41-NH-GA). The resulting MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL showed high activity and stability. The resolution efficiency using MCM-41-NH-GA-RgPAL in a recirculating packed-bed reactor (RPBR) was higher than that in a stirred-tank reactor...
2014: PloS One
Jae-Ho Shin, Jeong Han Choi, Samjin Choi, Gyeong Bok Jung, Hun-Kuk Park, Sang Woong Moon
PURPOSE: This study used five clinical assessments and Raman spectroscopy to investigate the age- and hyperglycemia-related properties of the murine retina over an eight-week experimental period. METHOD: Acute hyperglycemia and chronic hyperglycemia were assessed with blood glucose (BG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, respectively. Changes in the retinal thickness and neovascularization were evaluated with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography (FAG)...
December 2014: Microscopy Research and Technique
Dong-Hoon Lee, Seong-Ryul Lim, Chang-Six Ra, Jeong-Dae Kim
A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE) on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with (0.5%) or without (control) GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks...
October 2012: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Mami Akabane, Atsushi Yamamoto, Sen-ichi Aizawa, Atsushi Taga, Shuji Kodama
Three reducing monosaccharides (glucose; Glc, galactose; Gal, and mannose; Man) were derivatized with L-tryptophan (L-Trp) under alkaline conditions. The DL-Gal and DL-Man derivatives were chirally resolved by HPLC with an acidic mobile phase, but the DL-Glc derivative was not. All of the three DL-monosaccharide derivatives were simultaneously enantioseparated using HPLC with a SunShell RP-AQUA column (C28) and a basic mobile phase. The optimum mobile phase conditions consisted of 5 mM phosphate and 25 mM tetraborate buffer (pH 9...
2014: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
K Govindarasu, E Kavitha
The Fourier transform infrared (4000-400cm(-1)) and Fourier transform Raman (3500-50cm(-1)) spectra of 4-Chloro-dl-phenylalanine (4CLPA) were recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were investigated with the help of density functional theory (DFT) method using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The observed vibrational wavenumbers were compared with the calculated results. Natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction...
December 10, 2014: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Aili Fan, Huizhi Chen, Rui Wu, Hui Xu, Shu-Ming Li
A putative prenyltransferase gene of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) family, An13g01840, was identified in the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger. The deduced polypeptide CAK41583 consists of 465 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 52.7 kDa. To evaluate gene function, the coding sequence was cloned into pET28a and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The soluble His6-fusion protein was purified to near homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose and used for enzyme assays with diverse aromatic substrates in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate...
December 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Suguru Yamauchi, Takeshi Fujinami, Naohide Matsumoto, Naotaka Mochida, Takayuki Ishida, Yukinari Sunatsuki, Masayuki Watanabe, Masanobu Tsuchimoto, Cecilia Coletti, Nazzareno Re
Two Tb(III) complexes with the same N6O3 donor atoms but different coordination geometries, "fac"-[Tb(III)(HL(DL-ala))3]·7H2O (1) and "mer"-[Tb(III)(HL(DL-phe))3]·7H2O (2), were synthesized, where H2L(DL-ala) and H2L(DL-phe) are N-[(imidazol-4-yl)methylidene]-DL-alanine and -DL-phenylalanine, respectively. Each Tb(III) ion is coordinated by three electronically mononegative NNO tridentate ligands to form a coordination geometry of a tricapped trigonal prism. Compound 1 consists of enantiomers "fac"-[Tb(III)(HL(D-ala))3] and "fac"-[Tb(III)(HL(L-ala))3], while 2 consists of "mer"-[Tb(III)(HL(D-phe))2(HL(L-phe))] and "mer"-[Tb(III)(HL(D-phe))(HL(L-phe))2]...
June 16, 2014: Inorganic Chemistry
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