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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231603/the-effect-of-birth-order-on-neonatal-morbidity-and-mortality-in-very-preterm-twins
#1
Elad Mei-Dan, Jyotsna Shah, Shoo Lee, Prakesh S Shah, Kellie E Murphy
Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 (0/7) and 32 (6/7) weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221717/cerebral-and-lung-effects-of-a-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-with-sp-b-and-sp-c-analogs-in-preterm-lambs
#2
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Xabier Murgia, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Federico Bianco, Nicola Pelizzi, Begoña Loureiro, Jon López de Heredia Y Goya
BACKGROUND: Though natural surfactants (SF) are clinically superior to protein-free synthetic preparations, CHF-5633, a synthetic SF containing SP-B and SP-C analog peptides is a potential alternative to natural SF for treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding the safety of this new treatment for the neonatal brain. We sought to compare the cerebral and pulmonary effects of this new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633) with those of natural porcine surfactant (Cursosurf) in premature lambs with RDS...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207899/human-cortical-neural-correlates-of-visual-fatigue-during-binocular-depth-perception-an-fnirs-study
#3
Tingting Cai, Huilin Zhu, Jie Xu, Shijing Wu, Xinge Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°). By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO) responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS) were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206700/determining-the-origin-of-rate-independent-chemoselectivity-in-cuaac-reactions-an-alkyne-specific-shift-in-rate-determining-step
#4
Ciaran P Seath, Glenn A Burley, Allan J B Watson
We report a kinetic and spectroscopic analysis of alkyne-dependent chemoselectivity in the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction. Studies of six alkyne subtypes reveal that the rate-determining step (RDS) of an aromatic ynamine class is shifted from acetylide formation to the azide ligation/migratory insertion event allowing chemoselectivity independent of overall rate.
February 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203337/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-three-natural-surfactants-curosurf-survanta-and-alveofact-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-among-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Mirhadi Mussavi, Keyvan Mirnia, Khairollah Asadollahi
BACKGROUND: Although several different types of natural surfactants are available, including Alveofact, Curosurf, and Survanta, the preferred type and the magnitude of their effects are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effects of these three surfactants on the gas exchange and clinical outcomes of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: This triple-blind randomized clinical trial studied all preterm neonates ≤ 37 weeks with RDS who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Taleghani hospital (Tabriz, Iran) between 2012 and 2013...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#6
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194131/needs-and-requirements-of-modern-biobanks-on-the-example-of-dystonia-syndromes
#7
Ebba Lohmann, Thomas Gasser, Kathrin Grundmann
Dystonia belongs to a group of rare diseases (RDs) characterized by etiologic heterogeneity, affection often in childhood, severe and variable clinical manifestation. The burden of this disease is aggravated by the lack of effective and specific treatment. In the field of dystonia as in other RDs the number of available biospecimens is, in general, limited. Here, we report a new approach to collect clinical and genetic data in biospecimens maintained collaboratively by researchers and their associated institutions in a decentralized system...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188800/complexation-of-rice-starch-flour-and-maize-oil-through-heat-moisture-treatment-structural-in-vitro-digestion-and-physicochemical-properties
#8
Xu Chen, Xiaowei He, Xiong Fu, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang
This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182668/cross-sectional-study-of-mode-of-delivery-and-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-mainland-china
#9
Lei Hou, Susan Hellerstein, Allison Vitonis, Liying Zou, Yan Ruan, Xin Wang, Weiyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates have risen globally with nearly 50% of the non-indicated CDs worldwide in China and Brazil. In China's One Child Policy era (1979-2015) most deliveries were women having their only child. Family size is a major determinant of the safety of medically non-indicated CD or CD on maternal request. The goal of this study is to document CD rates, indications, and analyze the relative safety of non-indicated CD compared to SVD and intrapartum CD. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between mode of delivery and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes were performed on a cross-section of all deliveries at 39 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in 2011, presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 99% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180985/crossover-study-of-assist-control-ventilation-and-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist
#10
Sandeep Shetty, Katie Hunt, Janet Peacock, Kamal Ali, Anne Greenough
: Some studies of infants with acute respiratory distress have demonstrated that neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) had better short-term results compared to non-triggered or other triggered models. We determined if very prematurely born infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had a lower oxygenation index (OI) on NAVA compared to assist control ventilation (ACV). Infants were studied for 1 h each on each mode. At the end of each hour, blood gas analysis was performed and the OI calculated...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169873/physical-and-sexual-violence-affecting-female-sex-workers-in-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-prevalence-and-the-relationship-between-violence-the-work-environment-hiv-and-access-to-health-services
#11
Carrie Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Fatou Drame, Ashley Grosso, Daouda Diouf, Ibrahima Ba, Kate Shannon, Rebecca Ezouatchi, Amara Bamba, Abo Kouame, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. METHODS: FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167860/the-effect-of-the-treatment-with-heated-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-on-neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-china-a-single-center-experience
#12
Ge Zheng, Xiao-Qiu Huang, Hui-Hui Zhao, Guo-Xing Jin, Bin Wang
Background. Noninvasive respiratory support is considered the optimal method of providing assistance to preterm babies with breathing problems, including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC). The evidence of the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC used as the primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is insufficient in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To investigate the effect of heated humidified high flow nasal cannula on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167767/full-atomistic-reaction-mechanism-with-kinetics-for-co-reduction-on-cu-100-from-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-free-energy-calculations-at-298-k
#13
Tao Cheng, Hai Xiao, William A Goddard
A critical step toward the rational design of new catalysts that achieve selective and efficient reduction of CO2 to specific hydrocarbons and oxygenates is to determine the detailed reaction mechanism including kinetics and product selectivity as a function of pH and applied potential for known systems. To accomplish this, we apply ab initio molecular metadynamics simulations (AIMμD) for the water/Cu(100) system with five layers of the explicit solvent under a potential of -0.59 V [reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)] at pH 7 and compare with experiment...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166816/the-achru-cpp-versus-usual-care-for-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-and-multiple-chronic-conditions-and-their-family-caregivers-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Maureen Markle-Reid, Jenny Ploeg, Kimberly D Fraser, Kathryn Ann Fisher, Noori Akhtar-Danesh, Amy Bartholomew, Amiram Gafni, Andrea Gruneir, Sandra P Hirst, Sharon Kaasalainen, Caralyn Kelly Stradiotto, John Miklavcic, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Cheryl A Sadowski, Lehana Thabane, Jean A C Triscott, Ross Upshur
BACKGROUND: Many community-based self-management programs have been developed for older adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), bolstered by evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that T2DM can be prevented and managed through lifestyle modifications. However, the evidence for their effectiveness is contradictory and weakened by reliance on single-group designs and/or small samples. Additionally, older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are often excluded because of recruiting and retention challenges...
February 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160735/differential-access-to-syringe-exchange-and-other-prevention-activities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-rural-and-urban-areas-of-puerto-rico
#15
Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Patrick Habecker, Kirk Dombrowski, Angelica Rivera Villegas, Carmen Ana Davila, Yadira Rolón Colón, Sandra Miranda De León
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use and its associated blood-borne infections has become a rapidly increasing problem in rural areas of the US recently. Syringe exchange programs have been shown to be effective for reducing transmission of blood borne infections, however access to these prevention efforts may be limited in rural areas. METHODS: This paper utilizes two separate community samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Puerto Rico to achieve the following research objectives: (1) compare rural and urban access to syringe exchange programs, free sterile syringes and other HIV/HCV prevention activities, and (2) examine whether utilization of prevention activities is associated with lower injection risk behaviors...
February 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152026/hiv-prevalence-and-gender-differences-among-new-injection-drug-users-in-tallinn-estonia-a-persisting-problem-in-a-stable-high-prevalence-epidemic
#16
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Kristina Marsh, Ave Talu, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
INTRODUCTION: New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified "new injectors" as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151493/surfactant-reduced-the-mortality-of-neonates-with-birth-weight-%C3%A2-1500%C3%A2-g-and-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-a-survey-from-an-emerging-nicu-network
#17
H Wang, X Gao, C Liu, C Yan, X Lin, Y Dong, B Sun
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of surfactant therapy and assisted ventilation on morbidity and mortality of neonates with birth weight (BW) ⩾1500 g and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 5650 patients with BW ⩾1500 g for incidence, management and outcome of HRF, defined as acute hypoxemia requiring mechanical ventilation and/or nasal continuous positive airway pressure ⩾24 h. The patients were allocated into groups of moderate preterm (1735, 30...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146355/5d-metal-iv-imide-complexes-the-impact-or-lack-thereof-of-d-orbital-occupation-on-methane-activation-and-functionalization
#18
Catherine A Moulder, Thomas R Cundari
This research evaluates 5d metal imide complexes, (OH)2M═NMe (M = W, Re, or Os), and their reactions with methane to form dimethylamine. Each is calculated to follow a consistent reaction pathway regardless of the metal's d-orbital occupation, whereby the methane C-H bond undergoes oxidative addition (OA) to the metal and then the methyl migrates from the metal to the nitrogen to form an amide. Finally, hydrogen migrates to the nitrogen before dissociating to form amine products. While homolytic M-imide, M-amide M-H, and M-CH3 bond dissociation free energies (BDFEs) were analyzed, the BDFEs of neither hexavalent nor tetravalent metal moieties reflect the oxidative addition kinetics...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141899/intravenous-midazolam-infusion-for-sedation-of-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#19
REVIEW
Eugene Ng, Anna Taddio, Arne Ohlsson
BACKGROUND: Proper sedation for neonates undergoing uncomfortable procedures may reduce stress and avoid complications. Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is used increasingly in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). However, its effectiveness as a sedative in neonates has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVES: Primary objeciveTo assess the effectiveness of intravenous midazolam infusion for sedation, as evaluated by behavioural and/or physiological measurements of sedation levels, in critically ill neonates in the NICU...
January 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139544/a-single-weighting-approach-to-analyze-respondent-driven-sampling-data
#20
Vadivoo Selvaraj, Kangusamy Boopathi, Ramesh Paranjape, Sanjay Mehendale
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely used to sample hidden populations and RDS data are analyzed using specially designed RDS analysis tool (RDSAT). RDSAT estimates parameters such as proportions. Analysis with RDSAT requires separate weight assignment for individual variables even in a single individual; hence, regression analysis is a problem. RDS-analyst is another advanced software that can perform three methods of estimates, namely, successive sampling method, RDS I and RDS II...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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