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Naveen K C Gowda, Jayasankar M Kaimal, Roman Kityk, Chammiran Daniel, Jobst Liebau, Marie Öhman, Matthias P Mayer, Claes Andréasson
Protein quality control depends on the tight regulation of interactions between molecular chaperones and polypeptide substrates. Substrate release from the chaperone Hsp70 is triggered by nucleotide-exchange factors (NEFs) that control folding and degradation fates via poorly understood mechanisms. We found that the armadillo-type NEFs budding yeast Fes1 and its human homolog HspBP1 employ flexible N-terminal release domains (RDs) with substrate-mimicking properties to ensure the efficient release of persistent substrates from Hsp70...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Hilal Demirkesen-Bicak, Zeynep Tacer-Caba, Dilara Nilufer-Erdil
This study aimed to increase resistant starch (RS) content of black chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) by using pullulanase enzyme. Physicochemical and functional properties of enzyme treated starch (NE) was compared with that of enzyme-treated and gelatinized starch (GE) and the retrograded control starch (RC). RS contents for native black chickpea starch (NS) and black chickpea flour (NF) were measured as 15.2% and 5.0%, respectively. While for NE and GE, were found as 16.4% and 12.3%, respectively. Treatments made on the NS, increased the amount of RDS and reduced the amount of SDS significantly (p < ...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maria Sofia Falzarano, Cristina Flesia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot, Alessandra Ferlini
Background Genetic alterations cause hereditary diseases (HDs) with a wide range of incidences. Some, like cystic fibrosi, occur frequently (1/1,000 newborns), whilst others, such as Pompe disease and other metabolic disorders are very rare (1/100,000 newborns). They are well under the threshold of 1/3,000, denoted by the European Community as rare diseases (RDs). Genetic alterations are also associated with multifactorial disorders like diabetes, and underline both somatic and germline mutations in cancer...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Donna M Winham, Andrea M Hutchins, Sharon V Thompson, Mariah K Dougherty
Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans...
January 8, 2018: Nutrients
Yang Jiang, Ying Xue, Yi Zeng
Using the microsolvated model that involves explicit water molecules and implicit solvent in the optimization, two proposed dissociative hydrolysis mechanisms of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (d4G) have been firstly investigated by means of M062X(CPCM, water)/6-31++G(d,p) method. The glycosidic bond dissociation for the generation of oxacarbenium ion intermediate is the rate-determining step (RDS). The subsequent nucleophilic water attack from different side of the oxacarbenium ion intermediate gives either the α-product [(2S,5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ol] or β-product [(2R,5S)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ol], and is thus referred to as α-path (inversion) and β-path (retention)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Seamus J Martin
Seamus Martin holds the Smurfit Chair of Medical Genetics at the Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. He works on all aspects of cell death control and is especially interested in the links between cell death, cell stress and inflammation. He received the GlaxoSmithKline Award of The Biochemical Society (2006) and The RDS-Irish Times Boyle Medal (2015) for his work on the role of caspases in apoptosis and was elected to the Royal Irish Academy in 2006 and EMBO in 2009. He is the Editor-in-Chief of The FEBS Journal since 2014...
January 2018: FEBS Journal
Eiichi Mitsukura, Shunji Satoh
We propose a computational model that is consistent with human perception of depth in "ambiguous regions," in which no binocular disparity exists. Results obtained from our model reveal a new characteristic of depth perception. Random dot stereograms (RDS) are often used as examples because RDS provides sufficient disparity for depth calculation. A simple question confronts us: "How can we estimate the depth of a no-texture image region, such as one on white paper?" In such ambiguous regions, mathematical solutions related to binocular disparities are not unique or indefinite...
December 12, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Mariko Nomura, Daniel Mantuani, Arun Nagdev
Vision loss in young adults is relatively rare. In patients with suspected HIV or syphilis, the risk of developing vision loss is increased, and should alert the emergency physician of specific retinal pathologies. We present a case of a 33-year-old man with recently identified syphilis and HIV, who was diagnosed with bilateral retinal detachments (RDs) with the help of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in the setting of panuveitis (preventing visualization with direct fundoscopy).
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Qian Wang, Qionghua Zhang, Mawuli Dzakpasu, Bin Lian, Yaketon Wu, Xiaochang C Wang
Stormwater particles washed from road-deposited sediments (RDS) are traditionally characterized as either turbidity or total suspended solids (TSS). Although these parameters are influenced by particle sizes, neither of them characterizes the particle size distribution (PSD), which is of great importance in pollutant entrainment and treatment performance. Therefore, the ratio of turbidity to TSS (Tur/TSS) is proposed and validated as a potential surrogate for the bulk PSD and quality of stormwater runoff. The results show an increasing trend of Tur/TSS with finer sizes of both RDS and stormwater runoff...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Magdalena Rutkowska, Roman Hożejowski, Ewa Helwich, Maria K Borszewska-Kornacka, Janusz Gadzinowski
BACKGROUND: Severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major complication of prematurity and can have significant impact on long-term pulmonary sequelae and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and evaluate the predictive factors for severe BPD in very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: Of the 846 premature infants born at ≤ 32-week gestation who developed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 707 infants with known oxygen dependency at 36 weeks gestational age were included in the analysis of BPD incidence...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sen Wang, Qian He, Zongwen Shuai
The objective of the study is to quantitatively assess the risk of serious infections in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) treated by biologics enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic literature searches of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and abstracts archives of the annual scientific meetings of both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was conducted through October 2015...
December 30, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Klaus Englyst, Aurelie Goux, Alexandra Meynier, Michael Quigley, Hans Englyst, Olivier Brack, Sophie Vinoy
The digestibility of starch in foods, which is influenced by the ingredients, formulation and preparation conditions, is a major determinant of glycaemic response. The terms rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) along with the associated analytical methodology were developed by Englyst to characterise this nutritionally relevant food attribute. The measurement uncertainty of this starch digestibility method is evaluated here with an inter-laboratory trial. Six laboratories took part in the study testing ten cereal products with mean (range) contents of RDS: 48...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Stephanie J Weiss, Melissa C Blackwell, Kirk M Griffith, Leslie S Jordan, Vincent P Culotta
Effort testing is a standard element in adult neuropsychological assessment. Research examining performance validity tests (PVTs) has focused on adults. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine direct and embedded PVTs in children and adolescents. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a stand-alone PVT, was compared to two embedded measures of effort: California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version/Second Edition (CVLT-C/II) Recognition Discriminability and Reliable Digit Span (RDS). The sample consisted of 119 children and adolescents referred for outpatient assessment...
December 29, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Tianyi Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Zehao Wu, Ying Zhang, Guoshuang Feng, Siyu Cai, Yaqi Lv, Xiaoxia Peng
BACKGROUND: Different confounder adjustment strategies were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) in case-control study, i.e. how many confounders original studies adjusted and what the variables are. This secondary data analysis is aimed to detect whether there are potential biases caused by difference of confounding factor adjustment strategies in case-control study, and whether such bias would impact the summary effect size of meta-analysis. METHODS: We included all meta-analyses that focused on the association between breast cancer and passive smoking among non-smoking women, as well as each original case-control studies included in these meta-analyses...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Michael A Rotondi, Patricia O'Campo, Kristen O'Brien, Michelle Firestone, Sara H Wolfe, Cheryllee Bourgeois, Janet K Smylie
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence of the magnitude of census undercounts of 'hard-to-reach' subpopulations and to improve estimation of the size of the urban indigenous population in Toronto, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). DESIGN: Respondent-driven sampling. SETTING: The study took place in the urban indigenous community in Toronto, Canada. Three locations within the city were used to recruit study participants. PARTICIPANTS: 908 adult participants (15+) who self-identified as indigenous (First Nation, Inuit or Métis) and lived in the city of Toronto...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
Antonio Di Mauro, Manuela Capozza, Sergio Cotugno, Silvio Tafuri, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federico Schettini, Raffaella Panza, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary disorders and respiratory failure represent one of the most common morbidities of preterm newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The use of nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) has been more recently introduced into the NICUs as a non-invasive respiratory (NIV) support. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate safety and effectiveness of nHFT as primary support for infants born < 29 weeks of gestation and/or VLBW presenting with mild Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)...
December 28, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Xi Luo, Hongtao Zhao, Yunjie Liao, Xuyong Li
Quantifying road-deposited sediment (RDS) wash-off is critical in estimating pollutant load and for supporting the designs of urban storm water low-impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs). The objective of this study was to identify a simple and effective small-scale wash-off load estimation and prediction method suitable for BMP engineering. The reliabilities, complexities, and applicabilities of four prediction methods (i.e., the event mean concentration (EMC) equation method, the exponential equation method, and the RDS mass difference before and after rainfall event method, and the RDS index model) were tested for three sites (i...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Katarzyna Borszewska-Kornacka, Roman Hożejowski, Magdalena Rutkowska, Ryszard Lauterbach
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that supports the benefits of early use of caffeine in preterm neonates with RDS; however, no formal recommendations specifying the exact timing of therapy initiation have been provided. OBJECTIVES: We compared neonatal outcomes in infants receiving early (initial dose on the 1st day of life) and late (initial dose on day 2+ of life) caffeine therapy. METHODS: Using data from a prospective, cohort study, we identified 986 infants ≤32 weeks' gestation with RDS and assessed the timing of caffeine therapy initiation, need for ventilatory support, mortality and incidence of typical complications of prematurity...
2017: PloS One
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Paulo E Brandão, Antônio F de Souza Filho, Robson F de Souza, Cássia Y Ikuta, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Naila C Soler Camargo, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Ana M S Guimarães
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and is the main organism responsible for zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. We performed the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a Brazilian strain of M. bovis named SP38, and performed comparative genomics of M. bovis genomes deposited in GenBank. M. bovis SP38 has a traditional tuberculous mycobacterium genome of 4,347,648 bp, with 65.5% GC, and 4,216 genes. The majority of CDSs (2,805, 69.3%) have predictive function, while 1,206 (30.07%) are hypothetical. For comparative analysis, 31 M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jenny Coetzee, Gillian Hunt, Maya Jaffer, Kennedy Otwombe, Lesley Scott, Asiashu Bongwe, Johanna Ledwaba, Sephonono Molema, Rachel Jewkes, Glenda E Gray
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa...
2017: PloS One
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