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Pulmonary tuberculosis

Sankar Neelakantan, Rakesh Anandarajan, Anil Kumar Swamy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Kartik Ramakrishna, Kalpana Premkumar, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, K R John
BACKGROUND & AIM: Innate immune responses are important in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In order to test the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 function would be abnormal in patients with active pulmonary TB we compared the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to innate immune ligands in a case-control study. METHODS: PBMC from 19 untreated pulmonary TB patients, 17 healthy controls, and 11 treated pulmonary TB patients, were cultured for 24h with TLR 2 ligand (PAM-CSK) and other TLR ligands (muramyl dipeptide, flagellin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN))...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
A K Singh, Varun Gupta, Bindu Rani, Manish Kumar, Saurabh Kaushik
Angiographic findings in tuberculosis patients presenting with hemoptysis include hypervascularity, hypertrophy of systemic arteries, aneurysm, systemic to pulmonary anastomosis, and rarely, contrast extravasation. Bronchial arteries are the source of hemorrhage in majority of cases with non-bronchial systemic or pulmonary arteries being less common as the source. Rasmussen's Aneurysm is a very rare sequalae of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. We present one such case of Rasmussen's aneurysm and review of the relevant literature...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Reeta James, S Avudaiappan, A Assistant Professor, Kumar Natarajan, S Chandrasekaran
Multifocal Tuberculosis represents the many faces of an age old disease. It is characterized by the presence of large multifocal tuberculous areas in same or different organs. A 50 year old male patient, presented with features suggestive of renal failure, low grade fever and cough with mucoid expectoration. He was found to have pulmonary TB, genitourinary TB and tuberculous lymphadenitis. He was started on antituberculous treatment to which he showed good response.
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yong Suk Jo, Ju-Hee Park, Jung Kyu Lee, Eun Young Heo, Hee Soon Chung, Deog Kyeom Kim
The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied...
2016: PloS One
Takashi Koide, Takeshi Saraya, Yayoi Tsukahara, Francesco Bonella, Eda Börner, Manabu Ishida, Yukari Ogawa, Ichiro Hirukawa, Miku Oda, Masafumi Shimoda, Kosuke Ohkuma, Masachika Fujiwara, Saori Takata, Takuma Yokoyama, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Goto, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: The galaxy sign is an irregularly marginated pulmonary nodule formed by a confluence of multiple small nodules, and it is a diagnostic radiological finding for pulmonary sarcoidosis. However, the clinical significance of the galaxy sign for sarcoidosis has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and detailed radiological features of the galaxy sign in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 87 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis and 108 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Stevens M B Kisaka, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Simon Kasasa, Francis Ocen, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis (TB) case management guidelines emphasize microbiological cure as treatment goal without highlighting quality of life outcomes. This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and related factors in the pre-treatment, intensive and continuation phases of anti-TB therapy among sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Maritza Samayoa-Peláez, Nancy Ayala, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Zully M Puyén, Joshi Acosta, George Obregon, Edson Pacheco, Hada Ramirez, Alberto Mendoza, Diana Marín, Anthony D Harries
Objective To determine the use and performance of a line probe assay (LPA) compared with conventional culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in patients registered with tuberculosis (TB) under routine program conditions in Peru in 2011-2013. Methods This was a descriptive, operational research, cross-sectional study of sputum specimens from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB and mycobacterial cultures from patients with smear-negative or positive TB. Drug resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid detected by LPA was compared to CDST...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Patricia Bartholomay, Daniele Maria Pelissari, Wildo Navegantes de Araujo, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess 1) the burden and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and 2) the quality of TB care provided to patients who entered and remained within each health care service level (primary, secondary, or tertiary) and those who moved from one level to another, using process and results indicators. Methods This cross-sectional operational research study assessed new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases diagnosed in Brazilian state capitals in 2013 using TB program records and the TB surveillance system...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Ivonne Orejel, Martin Castellanos, Diana Marín, Alberto Mendoza, Anthony D Harries
This study documented the number and results of mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) in Mexico from 2009-2013 and assessed whether states with a higher risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) performed more CDST and had more cultures showing MDR-TB. Data for this longitudinal, descriptive, operational research study came from the electronic records of 31 state public health laboratories in Mexico. The total number of CDSTs was 6 470, increasing from 2 143 in the first 2 years to 4 327 in the latter 3 years...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
David A Rodríguez, Kristien Verdonck, Karen Bissell, Juan José Victoria, Mohammed Khogali, Diana Marín, Ernesto Moreno
Objective To measure time between onset of tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and start of treatment, and to identify factors associated with delay in eight Colombian cities. Methods Operational research with a retrospective analytical cohort design was conducted in 2014 using routinely collected data about new smear-positive pulmonary TB patients from eight cities in Colombia (Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cúcuta, Medellín, Pereira, and Villavicencio). Date of symptom onset was sourced from TB surveillance databases...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Begoña Santiago-García, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Jesús Ruíz-Contreras, Jose M Bellón, Maria A Muñoz-Fernández, María J Mellado-Peña
BACKGROUND: Children are at higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) dissemination and extrapulmonary disease, contributing greatly to TB-associated morbidity and long-term sequelae. However, there are very few studies that assess the impact and clinical spectrum of pediatric extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in low-prevalence regions. METHODS: Children <18 years of age diagnosed with TB in Madrid region (2005-2013) were reviewed. We compared the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and the performance of diagnostic tests in childhood extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Katharina D Hauck, Shaolin Wang, Charles Vincent, Peter C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Hee-Jeong Yang, Yunfeng Cheng, Madeleine S Durkee, Hexin Xie, Jianghong Rao, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Kristen C Maitland
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary disease with an especially high mortality rate in immuno-compromised populations, specifically children and HIV positive individuals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a very slow growing and difficult organism to work with, making both diagnosis and development of effective treatments cumbersome. We utilize a fiber-optic fluorescence microendoscope integrated with a whole-body imaging system for in vivo Mtb detection. The system exploits an endogenous enzyme of Mtb (β-lactamase, or BlaC) using a BlaC-specific NIR fluorogenic substrate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Amin S I Banaga, Nihad K Siddiq, Randa T Alsayed, Rasha Babiker, Khalifa Elmusharaf
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in the developing countries. There are limited data about the prevalence of TB patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in Sudan. The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence and presentation of TB among Sudanese maintenance HD patients. This is a hospital-based descriptive study. The participants of the study are all HD patients distributed in 13 HD centers in Khartoum and Khartoum North Provinces in Sudan. All patients attended the HD centers from November 1, 2014 to February 1, 2015, were interviewed by a questionnaire focused on personal and clinical data...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Himanshu Pandey, Sarita Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Dinesh K Tripathi, Mrigank Srivastava, Surya Kant, Kishore K Srivastava, Ashish Arora
BACKGROUND: We have characterized two immunogenic proteins, Rv1197 and Rv1198, of the Esx-5 system of the ESAT-6 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. METHODS: The complex formation between Rv1197 and Rv1198 was characterized by biophysical techniques. The reactivity of serum from TB patients towards these proteins was characterized by ELISA. Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine induction were followed in restimulated splenocytes from immunized mice by using MTT assay and CBA flowcytometry, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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