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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914457/tumor-necrosis-factor-and-lymphotoxin-in-regulation-of-intestinal-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
E O Gubernatorova, A V Tumanov
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. In this review, we discuss the function of key cytokines of this family - TNF and lymphotoxin (LT) - in mucosal healing, IgA production, and in control of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), novel regulators of mucosal homeostasis in the gut. TNF plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909848/tissue-resident-natural-killer-cells-in-the-livers
#2
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Nature killer (NK) cells are important lymphocytes of the innate immune system, well known for their pivotal roles in immune surveillance and defense against tumor and virus-infected cells. Current studies have revealed that NK cells are not a homogeneous population, but instead consist of distinct subsets with diverse characteristics. As an organ with predominant innate immunity, the liver is enriched with NK cells, among which two distinct NK cell subsets have recently been identified: conventional NK (cNK) cells and tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells...
November 30, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895646/manufacturing-natural-killer-cells-as-medicinal-products
#3
REVIEW
Christian Chabannon, Bechara Mfarrej, Sophie Guia, Sophie Ugolini, Raynier Devillier, Didier Blaise, Eric Vivier, Boris Calmels
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882334/crosstalk-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-other-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Fabian Flores-Borja, Sheeba Irshad, Peter Gordon, Felix Wong, Ibrahim Sheriff, Andrew Tutt, Tony Ng
Our knowledge and understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been recently expanded with the recognition of the important role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Three different groups of ILC have been described based on their ability to produce cytokines that mediate the interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells in a variety of immune responses in infection, allergy, and autoimmunity. However, recent evidence from experimental models and clinical studies has demonstrated that ILC contribute to the mechanisms that generate suppressive or tolerant environments that allow tumor regression or progression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872237/flagellin-mediated-protection-against-intestinal-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-infection-does-not-require-interleukin-22
#5
Rémi Porte, Laurye Van Maele, Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Benoit Foligné, Laure Dumoutier, Julien Tabareau, Delphine Cayet, Pierre Gosset, Nicolas Jonckheere, Isabelle Van Seuningen, A José Chabalgoity, Michel Simonet, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Jean-Claude Sirard, Christophe Carnoy
Signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs), the main receptors in innate immunity, is essential for the defense of mucosal surfaces. It was previously shown that systemic TLR5 stimulation by bacterial flagellin induces an immediate, transient interleukin-22 (IL-22)-dependent antimicrobial response to bacterial or viral infections of the mucosa. This process was dependent on the activation of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of flagellin treatment in a murine model of oral infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (an invasive, Gram-negative, enteropathogenic bacterium that targets the small intestine)...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856630/a-prospective-clinical-trial-of-18f-fluciclovine-pet-ct-neoadjuvant-therapy-response-in-invasive-ductal-and-invasive-lobular-breast-cancers
#6
Gary A Ulaner, Debra Goldman, Adriana Corben, Serge Lyashchenko, Mithat Gonen, Jason Lewis, Maura Dickler
: Fluorine-18-labeled 1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid ((18)F-Fluciclovine) is a leucine analog radiotracer that depicts amino acid transport into cells. (18)F-Fluciclovine PET/CT visualizes malignancy including prostate cancer, invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) and invasive lobular breast cancers (ILC). It has not been shown whether changes in (18)F-Fluciclovine avidity reflect changes in tumor burden resulting from treatment. This prospective clinical trial evaluates changes in (18)F-Fluciclovine-avidity compared to breast cancer therapy response, as determined by residual tumor burden on pathology...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831892/adaptive-iterative-learning-control-for-linear-systems-with-binary-valued-observations
#7
Xuhui Bu, Zhongsheng Hou
This brief presents a novel adaptive iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm for a class of single parameter systems with binary-valued observations. Using the certainty equivalence principle, the adaptive ILC algorithm is designed by employing a projection identification algorithm along the iteration axis. It is shown that, even though the available system information is very limited and the desired trajectory is iteration-varying, the proposed adaptive ILC algorithm can guarantee the convergence of parameter estimation over a finite-time interval along the iterative axis; meanwhile, the tracking error is pointwise convergence asymptotically...
November 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817797/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-and-nonallergic-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Hideaki Morita, Kazuyo Moro, Shigeo Koyasu
In the last decade, the full picture of the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been gradually revealed. ILCs are classified into 3 groups based on their transcription factors and cytokine production patterns, which mirror helper T-cell subsets. Unlike T cells and B cells, ILCs do not have antigen receptors. They promptly respond to multiple tissue-derived factors, such as cytokines and alarmins, and produce multiple proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. It has been reported that ILC-derived cytokines are important for the induction and regulation of inflammation...
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817796/immune-modules-shared-by-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-t%C3%A2-cells
#9
REVIEW
Michelle L Robinette, Marco Colonna
In recent years, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as innate correlates to T cells. The similarities between ILCs and T cells indicate that lymphocytes of fundamentally distinct lineages can share core "immune modules" that encompass transcriptional circuitry and effector functions while using nonredundant complementary mechanisms of pattern recognition to enact these functions. We review modules currently recognized to be shared between ILCs and T cells.
November 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814413/investigator-reported-efficacy-of-azelaic-acid-foam-15-in-patients-with-papulopustular-rosacea-secondary-efficacy-outcomes-from-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#10
James A Solomon, Stephen Tyring, Gerald Staedtler, Meike Sand, Richard Nkulikiyinka, Kaweh Shakery
Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is characterized by centrofacial papules and pustules commonly associated with erythema. To compare investigator-reported efficacy outcomes for azelaic acid (AzA) foam 15% versus vehicle foam in PPR, a randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-blind phase 3 clinical trial was conducted at 48 US sites. Participants received AzA foam or vehicle foam for 12 weeks. Secondary efficacy outcomes included change in inflammatory lesion count (ILC), therapeutic response rate according to investigator global assessment (IGA), and change in erythema rating...
September 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811364/erbb2-mutation-is-associated-with-a-worse-prognosis-in-patients-with-cdh1-altered-invasive-lobular-cancer-of-the-breast
#11
Zheng Ping, Gene P Siegal, Shuko Harada, Isam-Eldin Eltoum, Mariam Youssef, Tiansheng Shen, Jianbo He, Yingjie Huang, Dongquan Chen, Yiping Li, Kirby I Bland, Helena R Chang, Dejun Shen
E-cadherin (CDH1) is a glycoprotein that mediates adhesion between epithelial cells and also suppresses cancer invasion. Mutation or deletion of the CDH1 gene has been reported in 30-60% cases of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). However, little is known about genomic differences between ILC with and without a CDH1 alteration. Therefore, we analyzed whole genome sequencing data of 169 ILC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to address this deficiency. Our study shows that CDH1 gene was altered in 59.2% (100/169) of ILC...
November 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811053/emerging-concepts-and-future-challenges-in-innate-lymphoid-cell-biology
#12
REVIEW
Elia D Tait Wojno, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810463/friend-or-foe-the-ambiguous-role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-cancer-development
#13
REVIEW
Jochen Mattner, Stefan Wirtz
The development of immunotherapies represents a major advance towards the effective eradication of malignant tumors. So far, therapeutic approaches have largely focused on T lymphocytes, but the innate arm of the immune system might be similarly important. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are rapidly-responding cells that are functionally analogous to diverse T cell subsets. In recent years these cells have attracted enormous attention owing to their pleiotropic effects in early host defense to infection and organ pathologies...
October 31, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810232/potential-role-of-il-17-producing-cd4-cd8-double-negative-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-psoriatic-skin-inflammation-in-a-tpa-induced-stat3c-transgenic-mouse-model
#14
Azumi Ueyama, Chihiro Imura, Yasuyuki Fusamae, Kenichiro Tsujii, Yoko Furue, Miwa Aoki, Minoru Suzuki, Tomohiko Okuda, Itsuki Oshima, Kiyoshi Yasui, Michitaka Shichijo, Mina Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is one of the most common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disorders and is accompanied by erythematous scaly plaques. There is growing evidence that the IL-23/Th17 axis plays a critical role in development of the disease. It was recently shown that in addition to CD4(+) Th17 cells, various IL-17-producing cell subsets such as CD8(+) Tc17 cells, dermal γδ T cells, and innate lymphoid cells are also involved in the development of psoriatic inflammation in humans...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806080/predicting-the-mortality-benefit-of-ct-screening-for-second-lung-cancer-in-a-high-risk-population
#15
C Matthew Kinsey, Katharine L Hamlington, Jacqueline O'Toole, Renee Stapleton, Jason H T Bates
Patients who survive an index lung cancer (ILC) after surgical resection continue to be at significant risk for a metachronous lung cancer (MLC). Indeed, this risk is much higher than the risk of developing an ILC in heavy smokers. There is currently little evidence upon which to base guidelines for screening at-risk patients for MLC, and the risk-reward tradeoffs for screening this patient population are unknown. The goal of this investigation was to estimate the maximum mortality benefit of CT screening for MLC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799287/cd1d-mediated-activation-of-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-drives-il-22-production
#16
Julia Saez de Guinoa, Rebeca Jimeno, Nazanin Farhadi, Peter J Jervis, Liam R Cox, Gurdyal S Besra, Patricia Barral
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous family of immune cells that play a critical role in a variety of immune processes including host defence against infection, wound healing and tissue repair. Whether these cells are involved in lipid-dependent immunity remains unexplored. Here we show that murine ILCs from a variety of tissues express the lipid-presenting molecule CD1d, with group 3 ILCs (ILC3s) showing the highest level of expression. Within the ILC3 family, natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor (NCR)(-)CCR6(+) cells displayed the highest levels of CD1d...
October 31, 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798919/clinical-significance-of-18f-fdg-pet-in-invasive-lobular-carcinoma
#17
Takaaki Fujii, Reina Yajima, Sasagu Kurozumi, Toru Higuchi, Sayaka Obayashi, Hideaki Tokiniwa, Rin Nagaoka, Daisuke Takata, Jun Horiguchi, Hiroyuki Kuwano
The diagnostic utility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) for breast cancer is controversial. The histological type or tumor size of breast cancer has been reported to be associated with a greater likelihood of positive FDG uptake. Compared to invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) have a lower level of FDG uptake and are detected at a significantly lower sensitivity. The role of preoperative FDG-PET for ILCs may, thus, be limited. Few data evaluating the significance of FDG-PET in ILCs are available...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798617/fibroblastic-reticular-cells-regulate-intestinal-inflammation-via-il-15-mediated-control-of-group-1-ilcs
#18
Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Lucas Onder, Qian Chai, Jovana Cupovic, Hung-Wei Cheng, Mario Novkovic, Philipp A Lang, Markus B Geuking, Kathy D McCoy, Shinya Abe, Guangwei Cui, Koichi Ikuta, Elke Scandella, Burkhard Ludewig
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) of secondary lymphoid organs form distinct niches for interaction with hematopoietic cells. We found here that production of the cytokine IL-15 by FRCs was essential for the maintenance of group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, FRC-specific ablation of the innate immunological sensing adaptor MyD88 unleashed IL-15 production by FRCs during infection with an enteropathogenic virus, which led to hyperactivation of group 1 ILCs and substantially altered the differentiation of helper T cells...
December 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797262/impact-of-using-intra-operative-ultrasound-guided-breast-conserving-surgery-on-positive-margin-and-re-excision-rates-in-breast-cancer-cases-with-current-sso-astro-guidelines
#19
Somchai Thanasitthichai, Arkom Chaiwerawattana, Oradee Phadhana-Anake
PURPOSE: To review the impact of using intra-operative ultrasound guided breast conserving surgery with frozen sections on nal pathological margin outcome with the current guidelines set forth by the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) and the American Society of Surgical Oncology (ASTRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review including all cases of intra-operative ultrasound guided breast conserving surgery was performed at the National Cancer Institute Thailand between 2013 and 2016...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795766/-role-of-oral-antiviral-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-necrosis
#20
Samia El Haouzi, Amina Jait, Omar Lezrek, Tachfouti Samira, Laghmari Amina, Ouafa Cherkaoui, Karman Abdellouahed, Rajae Daoudi
: Acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARNS) is a rare but devastating uveitic syndrome with devastating visual outcome (visual prognosis ++). It should be diagnosed as early as possible because of its severity and its risk of bilateralization. This is a rare entity caused by the group of herpes viruses. In immunocompromised patients the complications of RNA syndrome often lead to loss of visual acuity. After the discovery of this disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immune load coefficient (ILC) usually by puncturing the cornea to evacuate the aqueous humour, the confirmation of this diagnosis allows for faster optimization of disease management decreasing the time required to confirm the diagnosis...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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