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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143330/short-term-high-fat-diet-primes-excitatory-synapses-for-long-term-depression-in-orexin-neurons
#1
Victoria Linehan, Lisa Fang, Michiru Hirasawa
Overconsumption of high-fat diets is one of the strongest contributing factors to the rise of obesity rates. Orexin neurons are known to be activated by palatable high-fat diet and mediate the activation of the mesolimbic reward pathway, resulting in further food intake. While short-term exposure to high-fat diet is known to induce synaptic plasticity within the mesolimbic pathway, it is unknown if such changes occur in orexin neurons. To investigate this, 3-week old male rats were fed a palatable high-fat western diet (WD) or control chow for 1 week and then in vitro patch clamp recording was performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135816/dopaminergic-genetic-variants-and-voluntary-externally-paced-exercise-behavior
#2
Denise J van der Mee, Iryna O Fedko, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Erik A Ehli, Matthijs D van der Zee, Lannie Ligthart, Toos C E M van Beijsterveldt, Gareth E Davies, Meike Bartels, Joseph G Landers, Eco J C de Geus
PURPOSE: Most candidate gene studies on the neurobiology of voluntary exercise behavior have focused on the dopaminergic signaling pathway and its role in the mesolimbic reward system. We hypothesized that dopaminergic candidate genes may influence exercise behavior through additional effects on executive functioning and that these effects are only detected when the types of exercise activity are taken into account. METHODS: Data on voluntary exercise behavior and at least one SNP/VNTR were available for 12,929 participants of the Netherlands Twin Registry...
November 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114204/acute-ethanol-administration-upregulates-synaptic-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-neuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-within-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-amygdala
#3
Josephine R Tarren, Henry A Lester, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
Alcohol and nicotine are two of the most frequently abused drugs, with their comorbidity well described. Previous data show that chronic exposure to nicotine upregulates high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in several brain areas. Effects of ethanol on specific brain nAChR subtypes within the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway may be a key element in the comorbidity of ethanol and nicotine. However, it is unknown how alcohol affects the abundance of these receptor proteins. In the present study, we measured the effect of acute binge ethanol on nAChR α4 subunit levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and amygdala (Amg) by western blot analysis using a knock-in mouse line, generated with a normally functioning α4 nAChR subunit tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113897/long-lasting-effects-of-chronic-win55-212-2-treatment-on-mesostriatal-dopaminergic-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-rat-brain
#4
Panagiotis Perdikaris, Martha Tsarouchi, Eleni Fanarioti, Evangelos Natsaridis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cannabinoid administration modulates dopamine transmission via an indirect, multisynaptic mechanism that includes the activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The present study evaluated in rodents, the effects of acute and chronic (20 days) WIN55,212-2 administration, a non-selective CB1R agonist, on dopamine uptake and synthesis in the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and associate them to its effects on the endocannabinoid system. The effect of spontaneous withdrawal, after different abstinence periods (7 days, 20 days), was also assessed...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109253/a-transient-dopamine-signal-encodes-subjective-value-and-causally-influences-demand-in-an-economic-context
#5
Scott A Schelp, Katherine J Pultorak, Dylan R Rakowski, Devan M Gomez, Gregory Krzystyniak, Raibatak Das, Erik B Oleson
The mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly implicated in motivational processes. Currently accepted theories suggest that transient mesolimbic dopamine release events energize reward seeking and encode reward value. During the pursuit of reward, critical associations are formed between the reward and cues that predict its availability. Conditioned by these experiences, dopamine neurons begin to fire upon the earliest presentation of a cue, and again at the receipt of reward. The resulting dopamine concentration scales proportionally to the value of the reward...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109060/cannabinoid-1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-reduces-binge-like-alcohol-consumption-and-alcohol-induced-accumbal-dopaminergic-signaling
#6
Andrea Balla, Bin Dong, Borehalli M Shilpa, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Subhash C Pandey, Henry Sershen, Raymond F Suckow, K Yaragudri Vinod
Binge alcohol (ethanol) drinking is associated with profound adverse effects on our health and society. Rimonabant (SR141716A), a CB1 receptor inverse agonist, was previously shown to be effective for nicotine cessation and obesity. However, studies using rimonabant were discontinued as it was associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety. In the present study, we examined the pharmacokinetics and effects of AM4113, a novel CB1 receptor neutral antagonist on binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice using a two-bottle choice drinking-in-dark (DID) paradigm...
November 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108963/influences-of-social-reward-experience-on-behavioral-responses-to-drugs-of-abuse-review-of-shared-and-divergent-neural-plasticity-mechanisms-for-sexual-reward-and-drugs-of-abuse
#7
REVIEW
Lauren N Beloate, Lique M Coolen
Different factors influence the development of drug addiction in humans, including social reward experiences. In animals, experience with social rewards, such as sexual behavior, pair bonding, social and environmental enrichment, can be protective. However, loss or lack of social rewards can lead to a vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior. The effects of social reward experience on drug-seeking behavior are associated with changes in the neural pathways that control drug-related behavior. This review will provide an introduction and overview of the mesolimbic pathway and the influence of social reward experience on drug-seeking behavior in rodents...
November 3, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107444/dopamine-d2l-receptor-interacting-proteins-regulate-dopaminergic-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Norifumi Shioda
Dopamine receptor family proteins include seven transmembrane and trimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Among them, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is most extensively studied. All clinically used antipsychotic drugs serve as D2R antagonists in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and their ability to block D2R signaling is positively correlated with antipsychotic efficiency. Human genetic studies also show a significant association of DRD2 polymorphisms with disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104856/intramuscular-route-of-administration-increases-potency-in-eliciting-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization
#9
Beth Ann Rice, Raza Tariq, Chana K Akins
Background: Cocaine is the number one abused psychostimulant drug that reaches addiction criterion in the US. In animals, repeated administration of cocaine results in behavioral sensitization which is thought to represent adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine neural circuitry, the reward pathway. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is evident in rodents and quail when cocaine is administered intraperitoneally (IP). Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to investigate dose-dependent and temporal effects of acute and chronic intramuscular (IM) administration of cocaine in male quail...
2017: Current Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100151/aripiprazole-relieves-motivational-anhedonia-in-rats
#10
Simona Scheggi, Teresa Pelliccia, Carla Gambarana, Maria Graziella De Montis
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is considered a relevant feature in depression and psychosis, characterized by poor treatment outcome, and associated with deficits in mesolimbic dopaminergic responsiveness. Clinical studies suggest the potential utility of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy for resistant depression. Since aripiprazole can stabilize the dopaminergic system, in search of tailored therapeutic strategies for reward dysfunctions, we investigated whether the drug restored motivation toward positive stimuli in a rat model...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082320/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-experience-influences-%C3%AE-fosb-and-downstream-gene-expression-in-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Matthew F Lazenka, Minho Kang, Dipanjana Datta De, Dana E Selley, Laura J Sim-Selley
Introduction: Repeated administration of abused drugs, including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), induces the stable transcription factor ΔFosB in dopaminergic terminal field regions of the mesolimbic system. These studies investigated the effect of prior repeated THC treatment on THC-induced ΔFosB expression and regulation of downstream targets in the forebrain. Methods: Mice received THC (10 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily for 13 days, and then half of each group received a single injection of THC or vehicle 45 min before brain collection...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076919/bdnf-mediated-projection-specific-regulation-of-depressive-like-and-nociceptive-behaviors-in-mesolimbic-reward-circuitry
#12
Di Liu, Qian-Qian Tang, Cui Yin, Yu Song, Yan Liu, Jun-Xia Yang, He Liu, Yue- Man Zhang, Si-Yin Wu, Ying Song, Barbara Juarez, Hai-Lei Ding, Ming-Hu Han, Hongxing Zhang, Jun-Li Cao
Increasing evidence suggests that mesolimbic reward system plays critical roles in the regulation of depression and nociception; however, its circuitry and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the output-specific regulatory roles of dopaminergic (DA) neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in depressive-like and nociceptive behaviors in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS), using the projection-specific electrophysiological recording, pharmacological manipulation, behavioral test, and molecular biology technologies...
October 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071465/toward-whole-brain-dopamine-movies-a-critical-review-of-pet-imaging-of-dopamine-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-cortex
#13
Heather Liu, Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) circuit, comprising the mesolimbic and mesocortical DA pathways, plays a crucial role in reward, cognitive control, and motivation. The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [C-11]raclopride, has been used widely to image DA receptors and DA changes in the mesolimbic pathway before and after pharmacological and behavioral challenges. In certain circumstances, properties of traditional kinetic models-used to analyze dynamic PET data-are not well-suited to describing the effects of stimulus-induced DA release...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069228/different-levels-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-cortisol-in-healthy-heavy-smokers
#14
C D C Neves, A C R Lacerda, L P Lima, V K S Lage, C H Balthazar, H R Leite, V A Mendonça
Studies suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulate dopaminergic activity in response to nicotine and that the concentrations of BDNF and cortisol seem to be dependent on the amount and duration of smoking. Therefore, we investigated BDNF and cortisol levels in smokers ranked by daily cigarette consumption. Twenty-seven adult males (13 non-smokers and 14 smokers) participated in the study. The smokers were divided in two groups: light (n=7) and heavy smokers (n=7)...
October 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068793/use-of-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-to-assess-phasic-dopamine-release-in-rat-models-of-early-postpartum-maternal-behavior-and-neglect
#15
Tatiana A Shnitko, Kyla D Mace, Kaitlin M Sullivan, W Kyle Martin, Elizabeth H Andersen, Sarah K Williams Avram, Josephine M Johns, Donita L Robinson
Maternal behavior (MB) is a complex response to infant cues, orchestrated by postpartum neurophysiology. Although mesolimbic dopamine contributes toward MB, little is known about real-time dopamine fluctuations during the postpartum period. Thus, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure individual dopamine transients in the nucleus accumbens of early postpartum rats and compared them with dopamine transients in virgins and in postpartum females exposed to cocaine during pregnancy, which is known to disrupt MB...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063964/phytocannabinoids-modulate-emotional-memory-processing-through-interactions-with-the-ventral-hippocampus-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Roger Hudson, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Growing clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a potential role for the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) as a pharmacotherapy for various neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component in cannabis, is associated with acute and neurodevelopmental propsychotic side effects through its interaction with central cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs). CB1R stimulation in the ventral hippocampus (VHipp) potentiates affective memory formation through inputs to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, thereby altering emotional salience attribution...
October 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059451/nicotine-increases-activation-to-anticipatory-valence-cues-in-anterior-insula-and-striatum
#17
Lauren V Moran, Luke E Stoeckel, Kristina Wang, Carolyn E Caine, Rosemond Villafuerte, Vanessa Calderon, Justin T Baker, Dost Ongur, Amy C Janes, Diego A Pizzagalli, A Eden Evins
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the neurobiology of the rewarding effects of nicotine promises to aid treatment development for nicotine dependence. Through its actions on mesolimbic dopaminergic systems, nicotine engenders enhanced responses to drug-related cues signaling rewards, a mechanism hypothesized to underlie the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of acute nicotine on neural responses to anticipatory cues signaling (non-drug) monetary reward or loss among 11 non-smokers who had no prior history of tobacco smoking...
September 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056156/dynorphin-kappa-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-preclinical-models-of-alcohol-drug-and-food-addiction
#18
Anushree Karkhanis, Katherine M Holleran, Sara R Jones
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system is implicated in the "dark side" of addiction, in which stress exacerbates maladaptive responses to drug and alcohol exposure. For example, acute stress and acute ethanol exposure result in an elevation in dynorphin, the KOR endogenous ligand. Activation of KORs results in modulation of several neurotransmitters; however, this chapter will focus on its regulatory effects on dopamine in mesolimbic areas. Specifically, KOR activation has an inhibitory effect on dopamine release, thereby influencing reward processing...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050951/microinjection-of-baclofen-and-cgp7930-into-the-ventral-tegmental-area-suppresses-alcohol-self-administration-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#19
REVIEW
Paola Maccioni, Irene Lorrai, Andrea Contini, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Giancarlo Colombo
Systemic administration of the orthosteric agonist, baclofen, and several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor has repeatedly been reported to decrease operant oral alcohol self-administration in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system to the reducing effect of baclofen and GABAB PAMs on the reinforcing properties of alcohol. To this end, baclofen or the GABAB PAM CGP7930 were microinjected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats trained to self-administer alcohol...
October 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046989/epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-drug-selection
#20
REVIEW
Marco Mula
Purpose of review The pharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities may sometimes represent a therapeutic challenge. This review is focused on the pharmacological management of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric problems in terms of rationalization of the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and the pharmacological management of the most clinically relevant psychiatric comorbidities, namely mood and anxiety disorders, psychoses, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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