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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#1
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511259/impulse-control-disorders-and-related-complications-of-parkinson-s-disease-therapy
#2
Alexander M Lopez, Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are most often attributed to dopamine agonist therapy; dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic system accounts for this behavioral phenotype. The clinical presentation is commonly termed impulse control disorder (ICD): Behaviors include hypersexuality, compulsive eating, shopping, pathological gambling, and compulsive hobby participation. However, not all PD individuals taking dopamine agonists develop these behavioral changes. In this review, the authors focus on the similarities between the phenotypic presentation of ICDs with that of other reward-based behavioral disorders, including binge eating disorder, pathological gambling, and substance use disorders...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509375/chronic-nicotine-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-of-delta-and-kappa-opioid-receptors-and-their-endogenous-ligands-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-the-rat
#3
Muzeyyen Ugur, Egemen Kaya, Oguz Gozen, Ersin O Koylu, Lutfiye Kanit, Aysegul Keser, Burcu Balkan
Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. The present study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 mg/kg/day for six days. Rats were decapitated one hour after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system...
May 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#4
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469002/neuropeptide-y-alters-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-through-both-pre-and-post-synaptic-mechanisms
#5
Katherine Stuhrman West, Aaron G Roseberry
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the brain's reward system, regulates many different behaviors including food intake, food reward, and feeding related behaviors, and there is increasing evidence that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides alter dopamine neuron activity to affect feeding. For example, neuropeptide-Y (NPY), a strong orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, increases motivation for food when injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). How NPY affects the activity of VTA dopamine neurons to regulate feeding behavior is unknown, however...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467994/making-the-case-for-power-abuse-disorder-as-a-nosologic-entity
#6
Gerald Zernig, Christoph Hiemke
The development of societies and cultures arguably is based on the ability of human primates to form hierarchies in which some individuals acquire and wield power, that is, control resources and influence and control the behavior of their conspecifics. In the following, we focus on the type of human primate power wielding that (a) harms and (b) produces excessive negative emotions in (1) the victim(s) of the power wielder and (2) the power wielder her/himself. If such a harmful behavior of the power wielder is not accompanied by an ethically justifiable benefit for the involved human primate groups, it can be considered "power abuse...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442364/effects-of-repeated-cocaine-exposure-and-withdrawal-on-voluntary-ethanol-drinking-and-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-p-rats
#7
Alaa M Hammad, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Sujan C Das, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic neurotransmission within the brain's reward circuits plays a major role in the reinforcing properties of both ethanol and cocaine. Glutamate homeostasis is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1), cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). Cocaine exposure has been shown to induce a dysregulation in glutamate homeostasis and a decrease in the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In this study, alcohol preferring (P) rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) and/or water for five weeks...
April 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#8
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#9
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397390/effects-of-city-living-on-the-mesolimbic-reward-system-an-fmri-study
#10
Bernd Krämer, Esther K Diekhof, Oliver Gruber
Based on higher prevalence rates of several mental disorders for city dwellers, psychosocial stress effects of urban living have been proposed as an environmental risk factor contributing to the development of mental disorders. Recently, it was shown that amygdala activation differs between city dwellers and rural residents in response to a cognitive-social stressor. Besides its influence on the amygdala, chronic stress also affects mesocorticolimbic brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress-related dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is thought to contribute to onset and manifestation of psychiatric disorders...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392265/norepinephrine-regulates-cocaine-primed-reinstatement-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Karl T Schmidt, Jason P Schroeder, Stephanie L Foster, Katherine Squires, Brilee M Smith, Elizabeth G Pitts, Michael P Epstein, David Weinshenker
Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats is thought to reflect relapse-like behavior and is mediated by the integration of signals from mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and corticostriatal glutamatergic innervation. Cocaine-primed reinstatement can also be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors, which prevent norepinephrine (NE) synthesis, or by α1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) antagonists, indicating functional modulation by the noradrenergic system...
April 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390892/opposite-control-of-mesocortical-and-mesoaccumbal-dopamine-pathways-by-serotonin2b-receptor-blockade-involvement-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-serotonin1a-receptors
#12
Céline Devroye, Nasser Haddjeri, Adeline Cathala, Renaud Rovera, Filippo Drago, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Francesc Artigas, Umberto Spampinato
Recent studies have shown that serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) antagonists exert opposite facilitatory and inhibitory effects on dopamine (DA) release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), respectively, thereby leading to the proposal that these compounds could provide an interesting pharmacological tool for treating schizophrenia. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown, several data in the literature suggest that 5-HT1ARs located into the mPFC could participate in this interaction...
April 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365279/preliminary-evidence-of-sex-differences-in-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-palatable-food-reward-in-rats
#13
Elaine B Sinclair, Britny A Hildebrandt, Kristen M Culbert, Kelly L Klump, Cheryl L Sisk
The female bias in eating disorder prevalence is the largest in all of psychiatry. Binge eating on palatable food (PF) is a core, maladaptive symptom that cuts across all major types of eating disorders and can be studied via animal models. Using an individual differences rat model of binge eating that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) phenotypes, we previously showed that, compared with males, females consume more PF and are more likely to be classified as BEP. One potential explanation for this sex difference is that PF is inherently more rewarding to females, leading to higher rates of binge eating...
March 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347687/effects-of-chronic-inhalation-of-electronic-cigarettes-containing-nicotine-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-and-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-female-cd-1-mice
#14
Fawaz Alasmari, Laura E Crotty Alexander, Jessica A Nelson, Isaac T Schiefer, Ellen Breen, Christopher A Drummond, Youssef Sari
Alteration in glutamate neurotransmission has been found to mediate the development of drug dependence, including nicotine. We and others, through using western blotting, have reported that exposure to drugs of abuse reduced the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), which consequently increased extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic area. However, our previous studies did not reveal any changes in glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) following exposure to drugs of abuse...
March 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283562/effort-based-reinforcement-processing-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-amotivation-in-medicated-patients-with-depression-and-schizophrenia
#16
Il Ho Park, Boung Chul Lee, Jae-Jin Kim, Joong Il Kim, Min-Seung Koo
Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238767/evaluation-of-the-cart-peptide-expression-in-morphine-sensitization-in-male-rats
#17
Atefeh Bakhtazad, Nasim Vousooghi, Behzad Garmabi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The importance of Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in reinforcing effects of addictive drugs specially alcohol and psychostimulants has been stablished. Involvement of CART peptide in rewarding effects of opioids in brain has recently been reported. Here we have studied the expression of CART mRNA and peptide in the reward pathway in morphine-induced sensitization phenomenon and also evaluated the peptide level fluctuations in CSF and plasma. Male Wistar rats received 7-day morphine injection (20mg/kg) and then after a 7-day washout period, a challenge dose of 10mg/kg morphine was administered and locomotor activity and oral stereotypical behaviors were recorded...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188587/circadian-rhythms-and-substance-abuse-chronobiological-considerations-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Ian C Webb
Reward-related learning, including that associated with drugs of abuse, is largely mediated by the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. Mesolimbic neurophysiology and motivated behavior, in turn, are modulated by the circadian timing system which generates ∼24-h rhythms in cellular activity. Both drug taking and seeking and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission can vary widely over the day. Moreover, circadian clock genes are expressed in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic cells and in mesolimbic target regions where they can directly modulate reward-related neurophysiology and behavior...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#19
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
May 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131769/suppression-of-inhibitory-g-protein-signaling-in-forebrain-pyramidal-neurons-triggers-plasticity-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#20
Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Nicholas Carlblom, Zhilian Xia, Kevin Wickman
Cocaine and other drugs of abuse trigger long-lasting adaptations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system, and this plasticity has been implicated in several key facets of drug addiction. For example, glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPAR) is strengthened in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc core and shell during withdrawal following repeated in vivo cocaine administration. Repeated cocaine administration also suppresses inhibitory signaling mediated by G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels in pyramidal neurons of the prelimbic cortex, an important source of glutamatergic input to the NAc core that has been implicated in cocaine-seeking and behavioral sensitization...
May 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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