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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894806/genetic-divergence-in-the-transcriptional-engram-of-chronic-alcohol-abuse-a-laser-capture-rna-seq-study-of-the-mouse-mesocorticolimbic-system
#1
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Ashutosh K Pandey, Maren L Smith, Suzhen Gong, Jesse Ingels, Michael F Miles, Marcelo F Lopez, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams
Genetic factors that influence the transition from initial drinking to dependence remain enigmatic. Recent studies have leveraged chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigms to measure changes in brain gene expression in a single strain at 0, 8, 72 h, and even 7 days following CIE. We extend these findings using LCM RNA-seq to profile expression in 11 brain regions in two inbred strains - C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) - 72 h following multiple cycles of ethanol self-administration and CIE. Linear models identified differential expression based on treatment, region, strain, or interactions with treatment...
October 15, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890744/gene-expression-of-pro-opiomelanocortin-and-melanocortin-receptors-is-regulated-in-the-hypothalamus-and-mesocorticolimbic-system-following-nicotine-administration
#2
Damla E Tapinc, Rabia Ilgin, Egemen Kaya, Oguz Gozen, Muzeyyen Ugur, Ersin O Koylu, Lutfiye Kanit, Aysegul Keser, Burcu Balkan
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Reward process may involve the regulation of POMC gene expression and the gene expression of POMC-derived peptide receptors. The present study investigated the alterations observed in the transcript levels of POMC, melanocortin 3 (MC3R), melanocortin 4 (MC4R) and mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in the hypothalamus and mesocorticolimbic system during nicotine exposure...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881959/effective-connectivity-within-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users
#3
Suchismita Ray, Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870780/the-activation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-5-receptors-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-increases-dopamine-extracellular-levels
#4
Carla Ferrada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Jorge Abarca, Katia Gysling
The mesocorticolimbic circuit projects to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, among others, and it originates in the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA receives glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex and several subcortical regions. The glutamate released activates dopaminergic neurons and its action depends on the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. VTA dopaminergic neurons release dopamine (DA) from axon terminals in the innervated regions and somatodendritically in the VTA itself...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861553/activity-based-anorexia-alters-the-expression-of-bdnf-transcripts-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-reward-circuit
#5
Emily V Ho, Stephanie J Klenotich, Matthew S McMurray, Stephanie C Dulawa
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832596/cocaine-sensitization-increases-sub-threshold-activity-in-dopamine-neurons-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#6
Francisco Arencibia-Albite, Rafael Vazquez-Torres, Carlos A Jimenez-Rivera
The progressive escalation of psychomotor responses that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed sensitization. This phenomenon alters the intrinsic properties of dopamine (DA) neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic network. The mechanisms underlying this augmented excitation are nonetheless poorly understood. DA neurons display the hyperpolarization-activated non-selective cation current dubbed Ih. We recently demonstrated that Ih and membrane capacitance are substantially reduced in VTA DA cells from cocaine sensitized rats...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826069/the-impact-of-chronic-stress-during-adolescence-on-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-rodents
#7
REVIEW
Jorim J Tielbeek, Zeineb Al-Itejawi, Josjan Zijlmans, Tinca Jc Polderman, Joshua W Buckholtz, Arne Popma
Pathological aggression, frequently observed in psychiatric patients and criminal subjects, poses a major burden on the health care and criminal justice system, necessitating better aetiological models to inform targets for prevention and intervention. Emerging evidence suggests that adverse experiences during development can cause long-lasting brain alterations associated with maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression. The present review discusses, mainly based on studies in rodents, whether disruption of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system through chronic stress-exposure during adolescence predisposes to adult aggression...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814639/dopamine-homeostasis-brain-functional-connectivity-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#8
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Luis M Colon-Perez, Zsolt Demortrovics, Mark S Gold
Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798131/cocaine-exposure-enhances-the-activity-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-via-calcium-impermeable-nmdars
#9
Meaghan Creed, Jennifer Kaufling, Giulia R Fois, Marion Jalabert, Tifei Yuan, Christian Lüscher, Francois Georges, Camilla Bellone
: Potentiation of excitatory inputs onto dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) induced by cocaine exposure allows remodeling of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, which ultimately drives drug-adaptive behavior. This potentiation is mediated by changes in NMDAR and AMPAR subunit composition. It remains unknown how this synaptic plasticity affects the activity of dopamine neurons. Here, using rodents, we demonstrate that a single cocaine injection increases the firing rate and bursting activity of VTA dopamine neurons, and that these increases persist for 7 d...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778246/unravelling-the-link-between-prenatal-stress-dopamine-and-substance-use-disorder
#10
Verónica Pastor, Marta Cristina Antonelli, María Eugenia Pallarés
Substance use disorder (SUD) refers to the detrimental use of psychoactive substances and it is related to a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and physiological dysfunctions indicating that the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. Although it is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases affecting society worldwide, the mechanism underlying the vulnerability of certain individuals is not well understood yet. It is now widely accepted that, in addition to genetic factors, environmental adversities during critical stages of development of an organism could also be considered as risk factors that contribute to SUD...
October 24, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729852/reward-vs-retaliation-the-role-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-salience-network-in-human-reactive-aggression
#11
Gabriela Gan, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Joel L Steinberg, Scott D Lane, Thomas Maloney, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718159/reward-induced-eating-therapeutic-approaches-to-addressing-food-cravings
#12
REVIEW
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need...
November 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711047/the-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonist-ro5256390-blocks-compulsive-binge-like-eating-in-rats
#13
Antonio Ferragud, Adam D Howell, Catherine F Moore, Tina L Ta, Marius C Hoener, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive, binge eating of highly palatable food constitutes a core feature of some forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as of the recently proposed disorder of food addiction. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a highly conserved G-protein-coupled receptor bound by endogenous trace amines. TAAR1 agonists have been shown to reduce multiple behavioral effects of drugs of abuse through their actions on the mesocorticolimbic system. In this study, we hypothesized that TAAR1 may have a role in compulsive, binge-like eating; we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of a TAAR1 agonist, RO5256390, in multiple excessive feeding-related behaviors induced by limiting access to a highly palatable diet in rats...
November 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709495/evidence-for-a-link-between-fkbp5-fkbp5-early-life-social-relations-and-alcohol-drinking-in-young-adult-rats-and-humans
#14
Ingrid Nylander, Aniruddha Todkar, Linnea Granholm, Maria Vrettou, Megha Bendre, Wout Boon, Henrik Andershed, Catherine Tuvblad, Kent W Nilsson, Erika Comasco
Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694969/neural-correlates-of-deficits-in-humor-appreciation-in-gelotophobics
#15
Yu-Chen Chan
Gelotophobics have social deficits in the form of relative humorlessness and heightened sensitivity to aggressive humor; however, little is known about the neural reward mechanisms for this group. The present study attempted to identify the neural substrates of responses to hostile and non-hostile jokes in gelotophobics and non-gelotophobics. Gelotophobics showed greater activation than did non-gelotophobics in the dorsal corticostriatal system, which comprises the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, suggesting a higher degree of voluntary top-down cognitive control of emotion...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666382/suboptimal-maternal-diets-alter-mu-opioid-receptor-and-dopamine-type-1-receptor-binding-but-exert-no-effect-on-dopamine-transporters-in-the-offspring-brain
#16
Panayotis K Thanos, Jianmin Zhuo, Lisa Robison, Ronald Kim, Mala Ananth, Ilon Choai, Adam Grunseich, Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Foteini Delis, Teresa M Reyes
Birthweight is a marker for suboptimal fetal growth and development in utero. Offspring can be born large for gestational age (LGA), which is linked to maternal obesity or excessive gestational weight gain, as well as small for gestational age (SGA), arising from nutrient or calorie deficiency, placental dysfunction, or other maternal conditions (hypertension, infection). In humans, LGA and SGA babies are at an increased risk for certain neurodevelopmental disorders, including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, schizophrenia, and social and mood disorders...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594829/aversive-counterconditioning-attenuates-reward-signaling-in-the-ventral-striatum
#17
Anne Marije Kaag, Renée S Schluter, Peter Karel, Judith Homberg, Wim van den Brink, Liesbeth Reneman, Guido A van Wingen
Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient reward such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593624/response-contingency-directs-long-term-cocaine-induced-neuroplasticity-in-prefrontal-and-striatal-dopamine-terminals
#18
Joost Wiskerke, Anton N M Schoffelmeer, Taco J De Vries
Exposure to addictive substances such as cocaine is well-known to alter brain organisation. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations depend on several factors, including drug administration paradigm. To date, studies addressing the consequences of cocaine exposure on dopamine transmission have either not been designed to investigate the role of response contingency or focused only on short-term neuroplasticity. We demonstrate a key role of response contingency in directing long-term cocaine-induced neuroplasticity throughout projection areas of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system...
October 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575491/alterations-in-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-and-possible-association-with-impulsivity
#19
Junkai Wang, Yunli Fan, Yue Dong, Mengying Ma, Yi Ma, Yuru Dong, Yajuan Niu, Yin Jiang, Hong Wang, Zhiyan Wang, Liuzhen Wu, Hongqiang Sun, Cailian Cui
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. METHODS: Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525025/electroacupuncture-alleviates-depressive-like-symptoms-and-modulates-bdnf-signaling-in-6-hydroxydopamine-rats
#20
Min Sun, Ke Wang, Yan Yu, Wen-Ting Su, Xin-Xin Jiang, Jian Yang, Jun Jia, Xiao-Min Wang
Previous studies have identified the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role and potential mechanisms of EA in PD-associated depression remain unclear. In the present study, a rat model of PD with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the medial forebrain bundle was treated using EA for 4 weeks. We found that 100 Hz EA improved several motor phenotypes. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical analysis showed that EA had a minimal impact on the TH-positive profiles of the ipsilateral ventral tegmental area...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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