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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441714/time-dependent-regional-brain-distribution-of-methadone-and-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-addiction
#1
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Hendrik G Kruger, Tricia Naicker, Nirmala D Gopal, Thavendran Govender
Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery...
February 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438716/cholinergic-tone-in-ventral-tegmental-area-functional-organization-and-behavioral-implications
#2
REVIEW
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
February 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380665/repeated-cocaine-exposure-dysregulates-bdnf-expression-and-signaling-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-pathway-of-the-adolescent-rat
#3
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Giulia Messa, Francesca Mottarlini, Fabio Fumagalli
OBJECTIVES: Long-term abstinence following cocaine exposure up-regulates BDNF expression in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Given the increased vulnerability to drug abuse typical of adolescence, we hypothesized that changes in BDNF expression may become manifest early after the end of cocaine treatment in the adolescent brain. METHODS: Rats received cocaine injections from postnatal day 28 (PND28) to PND42 and the mesocorticolimbic expression of BDNF was measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting at PND43...
January 30, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377365/neonatal-exposure-to-estradiol-increases-dopaminergic-transmission-in-nucleus-accumbens-and-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-adult-female-rats
#4
Christian Bonansco, Jonathan Martínez-Pinto, Roxana A Silva, Victoria B Velásquez, Andrés Martorell, Mónica V Selva, Pedro Espinosa, Pablo R Moya, Gonzalo Cruz, María Estela Andrés, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Steroid sex hormones produce physiological effects in reproductive tissues and also in non-reproductive tissues such as the brain, particularly in cortical, limbic and midbrain areas. Dopamine (DA) neurons involved in processes such as prolactin secretion (tuberoinfundibular system), motor circuit regulation (nigrostriatal system) and driving of motivated behavior (mesocorticolimbic system), are specially regulated by sex hormones. Indeed, sex hormones promote neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse by tuning midbrain DA neurons in adult animals...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340793/neuroimaging-findings-in-patients-with-medication-overuse-headache
#5
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary headache syndrome defined as the deterioration of the headache associated with the overuse of analgesics. The prevalence of MOH is 1-2% in the general population and even up to 50% in special clinics. Overuse of abortive medications is highly associated with chronic daily headaches and also a known risk factor for headache evolution. Possible mechanisms include neural plasticity changes such as sensitization and defective endogenous pain inhibition. Psychological studies have suggested dependence, even addiction, in patients with MOH...
January 16, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#6
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287910/ventral-tegmental-area-d2-receptor-knockdown-enhances-choice-impulsivity-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats
#7
Kimberly A Bernosky-Smith, Yan-Yan Qiu, Malte Feja, Yun Beom Lee, Brian Loughlin, Jun-Xu Li, Caroline E Bass
Impulsivity associated with abnormal dopamine (DA) function has been observed in several disorders, including addiction. Choice impulsivity is the preference for small, immediate rewards over larger rewards after a delay, caused by excessive discounting of future rewards. Addicts have abnormally high discount rates and prefer the smaller rewards sooner. While impulsivity has been inversely correlated with DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the midbrain and striatum, it is difficult to mechanistically link the two, due to the diverse neuroanatomical localization of D2Rs, which are found throughout the brain, in many types of neurons and neuronal subcompartments...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221813/neonatal-programming-with-testosterone-propionate-reduces-dopamine-transporter-expression-in-nucleus-accumbens-and-methylphenidate-induced-locomotor-activity-in-adult-female-rats
#8
Tatiana Dib, Jonathan Martínez-Pinto, Miguel Reyes-Parada, Gonzalo E Torres, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Research in programming is focused on the study of stimuli that alters sensitive periods in development, such as prenatal and neonatal stages, that can produce long-term deleterious effects. These effects can occur in various organs or tissues such as the brain, affecting brain circuits and related behaviors. Our laboratory has demonstrated that neonatal programming with sex hormones affects the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, increasing the synthesis and release of dopamine (DA) in striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
December 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172122/brain-substrates-of-early-4h-cigarette-abstinence-identification-of-treatment-targets
#9
Teresa R Franklin, Kanchana Jagannathan, Nathan Hager, Zhuo Fang, Sihua Xu, Joyce Wong, Anna Rose Childress, John A Detre, Hengyi Rao, Reagan Wetherill
INTRODUCTION: Research indicates that overnight nicotine abstinence disrupts neural activity in the mesocorticolimbic reward network; however, less is known about the time course of abstinence-induced brain changes. To examine the potential neural effects of early abstinence, we used arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI, to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in the resting brain induced by 4h of nicotine abstinence. METHODS: In a repeated measures design, 5min of resting perfusion fMRI data were acquired in awake nicotine-dependent individuals (eyes open) during 'smoking as usual' (SMK) and following 4h of monitored nicotine abstinence (ABS) conditions (N=20)...
November 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115193/personality-modulates-amygdala-and-insula-connectivity-during-humor-appreciation-an-event-related-fmri-study
#10
Philipp Berger, Florian Bitsch, Arne Nagels, Benjamin Straube, Irina Falkenberg
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075568/divergent-anomaly-in-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-circuits-might-be-associated-with-different-depressive-behaviors-an-animal-study
#11
Mei Bai, Xiongzhao Zhu, Li Zhang, Yi Zhang, Liang Xue, Yuting Wang, Mingtian Zhong, Xiuwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which originates from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects primarily to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), olfactory tubercle (OT), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (ST), and the amygdala (AMy), plays a pivotal role in determining individual motivation and sensitivity to rewards, namely, anhedonia. Not all depressive individuals exhibited anhedonia, thus, it is natural to speculate that the heterogenous manifestations of depression might be related to the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071465/toward-whole-brain-dopamine-movies-a-critical-review-of-pet-imaging-of-dopamine-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-cortex
#12
Heather Liu, Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) circuit, comprising the mesolimbic and mesocortical DA pathways, plays a crucial role in reward, cognitive control, and motivation. The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, [C-11]raclopride, has been used widely to image DA receptors and DA changes in the mesolimbic pathway before and after pharmacological and behavioral challenges. In certain circumstances, properties of traditional kinetic models-used to analyze dynamic PET data-are not well-suited to describing the effects of stimulus-induced DA release...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069423/testosterone-and-corticosterone-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-of-male-rats-effects-of-gonadectomy-and-caloric-restriction
#13
Daniel J Tobiansky, Anastasia M Korol, Chunqi Ma, Jordan E Hamden, Cecilia Jalabert, Ryan J Tomm, Kiran K Soma
Steroid hormones can modulate motivated behaviors through the mesocorticolimbic system. Gonadectomy (GDX) is a common method to determine how steroids influence the mesocorticolimbic system and caloric restriction (CR) is often used to invigorate motivated behaviors. The assumption is that the effect of these manipulations on brain steroid levels reflects circulating steroid levels. We now know that the brain regulates local steroid levels in a region-specific manner; however, previous studies have low spatial resolution...
October 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038792/neuroanatomical-relationships-between-orexin-hypocretin-containing-neurons-nerve-fibers-and-nicotine-induced-c-fos-activated-cells-of-the-reward-addiction-neurocircuitry
#14
Ozra Dehkordi, Jed E Rose, Martha I Dávila-García, Richard M Millis, Samar Ali Mirzaei, Kebreten F Manaye, Annapurni Jayam-Trouth
Orexin/hypocretin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamus (LH) are implicated in the neurobiology of nicotine addiction. However, the neuroanatomical relationships between orexin-neurons/nerve fibers and nicotine-activated cells within the reward-addiction neurocircuitry is not known. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by an acute single injection of nicotine (NIC, 2 mg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to identify the location of orexin-containing neurons and nerve fibers with respect to NIC-induced c-Fos activated cells and/or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) cells of the mesocorticolimbic reward-addiction pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034263/modeling-causal-relationships-among-brain-areas-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users-utilizing-a-graph-theoretic-approach
#15
Suchismita Ray, Bharat B Biswal, Ashley Aya, Suril Gohel, Aradhana Srinagesh, Catherine Hanson, Stephen J Hanson
OBJECTIVE: While effective connectivity (EC, causal interaction) between brain areas has been investigated in chronic users of cocaine as they view cocaine pictures cues, no study has examined EC while they take part in a resting-state scan. This resting-state fMRI study aims to investigate the causal interaction among brain areas in the mesocorticolimbic system (MCLS), which is involved in reward and motivation, in cocaine users (vs. controls). METHOD: Twenty cocaine users and 17 healthy controls finished a structural and a resting-state scan...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027032/cocaine-increases-dopaminergic-connectivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Marc Dos Santos, Emma N Cahill, Gregory Dal Bo, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Bruno Giros, Nicolas Heck
The development of addictive behavior is associated with functional and structural plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Increased connectivity upon cocaine administration has been inferred from increases in dendritic spine density, but without observations of presynaptic elements. Recently, we established a method that enables analyses of both dendritic spines and glutamatergic boutons and presented evidence that cocaine induces changes in striatal connectivity. As the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cocaine directly implicate dopaminergic neurons and their afferents, a remaining question is whether dopaminergic striatal innervations also undergo structural plasticity...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993741/executive-control-and-striatal-resting-state-network-interact-with-risk-factors-to-influence-treatment-outcomes-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
Milky Kohno, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943891/the-affective-core-of-emotion-linking-pleasure-subjective-well-being-and-optimal-metastability-in-the-brain
#18
Morten L Kringelbach, Kent C Berridge
Arguably, emotion is always valenced-either pleasant or unpleasant-and dependent on the pleasure system. This system serves adaptive evolutionary functions; relying on separable wanting, liking, and learning neural mechanisms mediated by mesocorticolimbic networks driving pleasure cycles with appetitive, consummatory, and satiation phases. Liking is generated in a small set of discrete hedonic hotspots and coldspots, while wanting is linked to dopamine and to larger distributed brain networks. Breakdown of the pleasure system can lead to anhedonia and other features of affective disorders...
July 2017: Emotion Review: Journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933212/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#19
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine (DA) physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884874/cerebral-dopaminergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-relate-to-different-subjective-responses-of-acute-alcohol-intake-an-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-study
#20
Gil Leurquin-Sterk, Jenny Ceccarini, Cleo Lina Crunelle, Akila Weerasekera, Bart de Laat, Uwe Himmelreich, Guy Bormans, Koen Van Laere
Converging preclinical evidence links extrastriatal dopamine release and glutamatergic transmission via the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) to the rewarding properties of alcohol. To date, human evidence is lacking on how and where in the brain these processes occur. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine release upon intravenous alcohol administration and mGluR5 availability were measured in 11 moderate social drinkers by single-session [(18) F]fallypride and [(18) F]FPEB positron emission tomography, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
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