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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105985/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#1
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#2
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032295/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-alters-synaptic-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain
#3
Li-Min Mao, Henry H Wang, John Q Wang
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key transmitter in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. By interacting with muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) enriched in the circuit, ACh actively regulates various neuronal and synaptic activities. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and is subject to the regulation by dopamine receptors, although the regulation of ERKs by limbic mAChRs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo...
December 28, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993695/effects-of-orally-administered-augmentin-on-glutamate-transporter-1-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-expression-and-ethanol-intake-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#4
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are one of the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986922/cocaine-promotes-coincidence-detection-and-lowers-induction-threshold-during-hebbian-associative-synaptic-potentiation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Hongyu Ruan, Wei-Dong Yao
: Addictive drugs usurp neural plasticity mechanisms that normally serve reward-related learning and memory, primarily by evoking changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuitry. Here we show that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo does not alter synaptic strength in the mouse prefrontal cortex during an early period of withdrawal, but instead modifies a Hebbian quantitative synaptic learning rule by broadening the temporal window and lowers the induction threshold for spike timing-dependent LTP (t-LTP)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980118/role-of-taar1-within-the-subregions-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-system-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#6
Jian-Feng Liu, Justin N Siemian, Robert Seaman, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
: A novel G-protein coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), has been shown to be a promising target to prevent stimulant relapse. Our recent studies showed that systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists decreased abuse-related behaviors of cocaine. However, the role of TAAR1 in specific subregions of the reward system in drug addiction is unknown. Here, using a local pharmacological activation method, we assessed the role of TAAR1 within the subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system, i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975173/acetyl-l-carnitine-via-upegulating-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-attenuating-microglial-activation-prevents-neuronal-loss-and-improves-memory-functions-in-parkinsonian-rats
#7
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Rakesh Shukla, Shubha Shukla
Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926436/to-work-or-not-to-work-neural-representation-of-cost-and-benefit-of-instrumental-action
#8
N B Kroemer, C Burrasch, L Hellrung
By definition, instrumental actions are performed in order to obtain certain goals. Nevertheless, the attainment of goals typically implies obstacles, and response vigor is known to reflect an integration of subjective benefit and cost. Whereas several brain regions have been associated with cost/benefit ratio decision-making, trial-by-trial fluctuations in motivation are not well understood. We review recent evidence supporting the motivational implications of signal fluctuations in the mesocorticolimbic system...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894806/genetic-divergence-in-the-transcriptional-engram-of-chronic-alcohol-abuse-a-laser-capture-rna-seq-study-of-the-mouse-mesocorticolimbic-system
#10
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Ashutosh K Pandey, Maren L Smith, Suzhen Gong, Jesse Ingels, Michael F Miles, Marcelo F Lopez, Lu Lu, Robert W Williams
Genetic factors that influence the transition from initial drinking to dependence remain enigmatic. Recent studies have leveraged chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigms to measure changes in brain gene expression in a single strain at 0, 8, 72 h, and even 7 days following CIE. We extend these findings using LCM RNA-seq to profile expression in 11 brain regions in two inbred strains - C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) - 72 h following multiple cycles of ethanol self-administration and CIE. Linear models identified differential expression based on treatment, region, strain, or interactions with treatment...
October 15, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890744/gene-expression-of-pro-opiomelanocortin-and-melanocortin-receptors-is-regulated-in-the-hypothalamus-and-mesocorticolimbic-system-following-nicotine-administration
#11
Damla E Tapinc, Rabia Ilgin, Egemen Kaya, Oguz Gozen, Muzeyyen Ugur, Ersin O Koylu, Lutfiye Kanit, Aysegul Keser, Burcu Balkan
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Reward process may involve the regulation of POMC gene expression and the gene expression of POMC-derived peptide receptors. The present study investigated the alterations observed in the transcript levels of POMC, melanocortin 3 (MC3R), melanocortin 4 (MC4R) and mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in the hypothalamus and mesocorticolimbic system during nicotine exposure...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881959/effective-connectivity-within-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users
#12
Suchismita Ray, Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Objective: Although effective connectivity between brain regions has been examined in cocaine users during tasks, no effective connectivity study has been conducted on cocaine users during resting-state. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined effective connectivity in resting-brain, between the brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, implicated in reward and motivated behavior, while the chronic cocaine users and controls took part in a resting-state scan by using a spectral Dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) approach...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870780/the-activation-of-metabotropic-glutamate-5-receptors-in-the-rat-ventral-tegmental-area-increases-dopamine-extracellular-levels
#13
Carla Ferrada, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Jorge Abarca, Katia Gysling
The mesocorticolimbic circuit projects to the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, among others, and it originates in the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA receives glutamatergic inputs from the prefrontal cortex and several subcortical regions. The glutamate released activates dopaminergic neurons and its action depends on the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. VTA dopaminergic neurons release dopamine (DA) from axon terminals in the innervated regions and somatodendritically in the VTA itself...
January 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861553/activity-based-anorexia-alters-the-expression-of-bdnf-transcripts-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-reward-circuit
#14
Emily V Ho, Stephanie J Klenotich, Matthew S McMurray, Stephanie C Dulawa
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832596/cocaine-sensitization-increases-sub-threshold-activity-in-dopamine-neurons-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#15
Francisco Arencibia-Albite, Rafael Vazquez-Torres, Carlos A Jimenez-Rivera
The progressive escalation of psychomotor responses that results from repeated cocaine administration is termed sensitization. This phenomenon alters the intrinsic properties of dopamine (DA) neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic network. The mechanisms underlying this augmented excitation are nonetheless poorly understood. DA neurons display the hyperpolarization-activated non-selective cation current dubbed Ih. We recently demonstrated that Ih and membrane capacitance are substantially reduced in VTA DA cells from cocaine sensitized rats...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826069/the-impact-of-chronic-stress-during-adolescence-on-the-development-of-aggressive-behavior-a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-rodents
#16
REVIEW
Jorim J Tielbeek, Zeineb Al-Itejawi, Josjan Zijlmans, Tinca Jc Polderman, Joshua W Buckholtz, Arne Popma
Pathological aggression, frequently observed in psychiatric patients and criminal subjects, poses a major burden on the health care and criminal justice system, necessitating better aetiological models to inform targets for prevention and intervention. Emerging evidence suggests that adverse experiences during development can cause long-lasting brain alterations associated with maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression. The present review discusses, mainly based on studies in rodents, whether disruption of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system through chronic stress-exposure during adolescence predisposes to adult aggression...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814639/dopamine-homeostasis-brain-functional-connectivity-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome
#17
Marcelo Febo, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Luis M Colon-Perez, Zsolt Demortrovics, Mark S Gold
Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) was first proposed by Kenneth Blum in 1995 to provide a clinically relevant and predictive term for conditions involving deficits in mesocorticolimbic dopamine function. Genetic, molecular, and neuronal alterations in key components of this circuitry contribute to a reward deficit state that can drive drug-seeking, consumption, and relapse. Among the dysfunctions observed in RDS are dysregulated resting state networks, which recently have been assessed in detail in chronic drug users by, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity analysis...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798131/cocaine-exposure-enhances-the-activity-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons-via-calcium-impermeable-nmdars
#18
Meaghan Creed, Jennifer Kaufling, Giulia R Fois, Marion Jalabert, Tifei Yuan, Christian Lüscher, Francois Georges, Camilla Bellone
: Potentiation of excitatory inputs onto dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) induced by cocaine exposure allows remodeling of the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, which ultimately drives drug-adaptive behavior. This potentiation is mediated by changes in NMDAR and AMPAR subunit composition. It remains unknown how this synaptic plasticity affects the activity of dopamine neurons. Here, using rodents, we demonstrate that a single cocaine injection increases the firing rate and bursting activity of VTA dopamine neurons, and that these increases persist for 7 d...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778246/unravelling-the-link-between-prenatal-stress-dopamine-and-substance-use-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Verónica Pastor, Marta Cristina Antonelli, María Eugenia Pallarés
Substance use disorder (SUD) refers to the detrimental use of psychoactive substances and it is related to a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and physiological dysfunctions indicating that the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. Although it is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases affecting society worldwide, the mechanism underlying the vulnerability of certain individuals is not well understood yet. It is now widely accepted that, in addition to genetic factors, environmental adversities during critical stages of development of an organism could also be considered as risk factors that contribute to SUD...
January 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729852/reward-vs-retaliation-the-role-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-salience-network-in-human-reactive-aggression
#20
Gabriela Gan, Rebecca N Preston-Campbell, Scott J Moeller, Joel L Steinberg, Scott D Lane, Thomas Maloney, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
The propensity for reactive aggression (RA) which occurs in response to provocation has been linked to hyperresponsivity of the mesocorticolimbic reward network in healthy adults. Here, we aim to elucidate the role of the mesocorticolimbic network in clinically significant RA for two competing motivated behaviors, reward-seeking vs. retaliation. 18 male participants performed a variant of the Point-Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examined whether RA participants compared with non-aggressive controls would choose to obtain a monetary reward over the opportunity to retaliate against a fictitious opponent, who provoked the participant by randomly stealing money from his earnings...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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