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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#1
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403383/neural-signatures-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-reward-sensitivity-following-nicotinic-receptor-stimulation-in-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-trial
#2
Elise Lesage, Sarah E Aronson, Matthew T Sutherland, Thomas J Ross, Betty Jo Salmeron, Elliot A Stein
Importance: Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. Objective: To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397390/effects-of-city-living-on-the-mesolimbic-reward-system-an-fmri-study
#3
Bernd Krämer, Esther K Diekhof, Oliver Gruber
Based on higher prevalence rates of several mental disorders for city dwellers, psychosocial stress effects of urban living have been proposed as an environmental risk factor contributing to the development of mental disorders. Recently, it was shown that amygdala activation differs between city dwellers and rural residents in response to a cognitive-social stressor. Besides its influence on the amygdala, chronic stress also affects mesocorticolimbic brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress-related dysregulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system is thought to contribute to onset and manifestation of psychiatric disorders...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392265/norepinephrine-regulates-cocaine-primed-reinstatement-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Karl T Schmidt, Jason P Schroeder, Stephanie L Foster, Katherine Squires, Brilee M Smith, Elizabeth G Pitts, Michael P Epstein, David Weinshenker
Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats is thought to reflect relapse-like behavior and is mediated by the integration of signals from mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and corticostriatal glutamatergic innervation. Cocaine-primed reinstatement can also be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors, which prevent norepinephrine (NE) synthesis, or by α1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) antagonists, indicating functional modulation by the noradrenergic system...
April 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390892/opposite-control-of-mesocortical-and-mesoaccumbal-dopamine-pathways-by-serotonin2b-receptor-blockade-involvement-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-serotonin1a-receptors
#5
Céline Devroye, Nasser Haddjeri, Adeline Cathala, Renaud Rovera, Filippo Drago, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Francesc Artigas, Umberto Spampinato
Recent studies have shown that serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) antagonists exert opposite facilitatory and inhibitory effects on dopamine (DA) release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), respectively, thereby leading to the proposal that these compounds could provide an interesting pharmacological tool for treating schizophrenia. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown, several data in the literature suggest that 5-HT1ARs located into the mPFC could participate in this interaction...
April 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365279/preliminary-evidence-of-sex-differences-in-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-palatable-food-reward-in-rats
#6
Elaine B Sinclair, Britny A Hildebrandt, Kristen M Culbert, Kelly L Klump, Cheryl L Sisk
The female bias in eating disorder prevalence is the largest in all of psychiatry. Binge eating on palatable food (PF) is a core, maladaptive symptom that cuts across all major types of eating disorders and can be studied via animal models. Using an individual differences rat model of binge eating that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) phenotypes, we previously showed that, compared with males, females consume more PF and are more likely to be classified as BEP. One potential explanation for this sex difference is that PF is inherently more rewarding to females, leading to higher rates of binge eating...
March 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347687/effects-of-chronic-inhalation-of-electronic-cigarettes-containing-nicotine-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-and-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-female-cd-1-mice
#7
Fawaz Alasmari, Laura E Crotty Alexander, Jessica A Nelson, Isaac T Schiefer, Ellen Breen, Christopher A Drummond, Youssef Sari
Alteration in glutamate neurotransmission has been found to mediate the development of drug dependence, including nicotine. We and others, through using western blotting, have reported that exposure to drugs of abuse reduced the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT), which consequently increased extracellular glutamate concentrations in the mesocorticolimbic area. However, our previous studies did not reveal any changes in glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) following exposure to drugs of abuse...
March 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283562/effort-based-reinforcement-processing-and-functional-connectivity-underlying-amotivation-in-medicated-patients-with-depression-and-schizophrenia
#9
Il Ho Park, Boung Chul Lee, Jae-Jin Kim, Joong Il Kim, Min-Seung Koo
Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238767/evaluation-of-the-cart-peptide-expression-in-morphine-sensitization-in-male-rats
#10
Atefeh Bakhtazad, Nasim Vousooghi, Behzad Garmabi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The importance of Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in reinforcing effects of addictive drugs specially alcohol and psychostimulants has been stablished. Involvement of CART peptide in rewarding effects of opioids in brain has recently been reported. Here we have studied the expression of CART mRNA and peptide in the reward pathway in morphine-induced sensitization phenomenon and also evaluated the peptide level fluctuations in CSF and plasma. Male Wistar rats received 7-day morphine injection (20mg/kg) and then after a 7-day washout period, a challenge dose of 10mg/kg morphine was administered and locomotor activity and oral stereotypical behaviors were recorded...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188587/circadian-rhythms-and-substance-abuse-chronobiological-considerations-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Ian C Webb
Reward-related learning, including that associated with drugs of abuse, is largely mediated by the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. Mesolimbic neurophysiology and motivated behavior, in turn, are modulated by the circadian timing system which generates ∼24-h rhythms in cellular activity. Both drug taking and seeking and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission can vary widely over the day. Moreover, circadian clock genes are expressed in ventral tegmental area dopaminergic cells and in mesolimbic target regions where they can directly modulate reward-related neurophysiology and behavior...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185645/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-forebrain-neurons-moderate-motivation-for-heroin-and-palatable-food
#12
Pauline Charbogne, Olivier Gardon, Elena Martín-García, Helen L Keyworth, Aya Matsui, Anna E Mechling, Thomas Bienert, Taufiq Nasseef, Anne Robé, Luc Moquin, Emmanuel Darcq, Sami Ben Hamida, Patricia Robledo, Audrey Matifas, Katia Befort, Claire Gavériaux-Ruff, Laura-Adela Harsan, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jurgen Hennig, Alain Gratton, Ian Kitchen, Alexis Bailey, Veronica A Alvarez, Rafael Maldonado, Brigitte L Kieffer
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are central to pain control, drug reward, and addictive behaviors, but underlying circuit mechanisms have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we investigate the contribution of MORs expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons to major biological effects of opiates, and also challenge the canonical disinhibition model of opiate reward. METHODS: We used Dlx5/6-mediated recombination to create conditional Oprm1 mice in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic forebrain neurons...
May 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131769/suppression-of-inhibitory-g-protein-signaling-in-forebrain-pyramidal-neurons-triggers-plasticity-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#13
Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Nicholas Carlblom, Zhilian Xia, Kevin Wickman
Cocaine and other drugs of abuse trigger long-lasting adaptations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic system, and this plasticity has been implicated in several key facets of drug addiction. For example, glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by AMPA receptors (AMPAR) is strengthened in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc core and shell during withdrawal following repeated in vivo cocaine administration. Repeated cocaine administration also suppresses inhibitory signaling mediated by G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels in pyramidal neurons of the prelimbic cortex, an important source of glutamatergic input to the NAc core that has been implicated in cocaine-seeking and behavioral sensitization...
May 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131626/alcohol-vapor-exposure-differentially-impacts-mesocorticolimbic-cytokine-expression-in-a-sex-region-and-duration-specific-manner
#14
Lydia N Baxter-Potter, Angela M Henricks, Anthony L Berger, Kennedy V Bieniasz, Janelle M Lugo, Ryan J McLaughlin
Alcohol exposure elicits the production of cytokines that regulate the host response to infection, immunity, inflammation, and trauma. Although increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been linked to symptoms of alcoholism, few studies have evaluated whether cytokine expression changes across the development of alcohol dependence, or whether these changes are region and/or sex specific. In the present study, we subjected adult male and female rats to different regimens of alcohol vapor exposure (acute, subchronic, or chronic) and measured relative mRNA expression for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in reward-related brain regions...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123030/cocaine-promotes-coincidence-detection-and-lowers-induction-threshold-during-hebbian-associative-synaptic-potentiation-in-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Hongyu Ruan, Wei-Dong Yao
Addictive drugs usurp neural plasticity mechanisms that normally serve reward-related learning and memory, primarily by evoking changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuitry. Here, we show that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo does not alter synaptic strength in the mouse prefrontal cortex during an early period of withdrawal, but instead modifies a Hebbian quantitative synaptic learning rule by broadening the temporal window and lowers the induction threshold for spike-timing-dependent LTP (t-LTP)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123023/role-of-taar1-within-the-subregions-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-system-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#16
Jian-Feng Liu, Justin N Siemian, Robert Seaman, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
A novel G-protein coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), has been shown to be a promising target to prevent stimulant relapse. Our recent studies showed that systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists decreased abuse-related behaviors of cocaine. However, the role of TAAR1 in specific subregions of the reward system in drug addiction is unknown. Here, using a local pharmacological activation method, we assessed the role of TAAR1 within the subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system: that is, the VTA, the prelimbic cortex (PrL), and infralimbic cortex of medial prefrontal cortex, the core and shell of NAc, BLA, and CeA, on cue- and drug-induced cocaine-seeking in the rat cocaine reinstatement model...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105985/impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-dopaminergic-transmission
#17
Yuan-Hao Chen, Eagle Yi-Kung Huang, Tung-Tai Kuo, Jonathan Miller, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Barry J Hoffer
Brain trauma is often associated with severe morbidity and is a major public health concern. Even when injury is mild and no obvious anatomic disruption is seen, many individuals suffer disabling neuropsychological impairments such as memory loss, mood dysfunction, substance abuse, and adjustment disorder. These changes may be related to subtle disruption of neural circuits as well as functional changes at the neurotransmitter level. In particular, there is considerable evidence that dopamine physiology in the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways might be impaired after TBI...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#18
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032295/antagonism-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-alters-synaptic-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-rat-forebrain
#19
Li-Min Mao, Henry H Wang, John Q Wang
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key transmitter in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. By interacting with muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) enriched in the circuit, ACh actively regulates various neuronal and synaptic activities. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and is subject to the regulation by dopamine receptors, although the regulation of ERKs by limbic mAChRs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo...
April 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993695/effects-of-orally-administered-augmentin-on-glutamate-transporter-1-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-expression-and-ethanol-intake-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#20
Alqassem Y Hakami, Fahad S Alshehri, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are one of the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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