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prediction error

Jonathan Martens, Giel Berden, Herman Bentlage, Karlien L M Coene, Udo F Engelke, David Wishart, Monique van Scherpenzeel, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ron A Wevers, Jos Oomens
The identification of molecular biomarkers is critical for diagnosing and treating patients and for establishing a fundamental understanding of the pathophysiology and underlying biochemistry of inborn errors of metabolism. Currently, liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principle methods used for biomarker research and for structural elucidation of small molecules in patient body fluids. While both are powerful techniques, several limitations exist that often make the identification of unknown compounds challenging...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Liam Brown, Jennifer Summersgill, Piotr Talarczyk, Michael Bonnici-Mallia, Sook C Chin, Faisel Khan, Allan D Struthers, Frank Sullivan, Helen M Colhoun, Angela C Shore, Kunihiko Aizawa, Leif Groop, Jan Nilsson, John R Cockcroft, Carmel M McEniery, Ian B Wilkinson, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, J Graeme Houston
Current distance measurement techniques for pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation are susceptible to intercenter variability. The aim of this study was to derive and validate a formula for this distance measurement. Based on carotid femoral distance in 1183 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms, a formula was derived for calculating distance. This was compared with distance measurements in 128 whole-body magnetic resonance angiograms from a second study. The effects of recalculation of PWV using the new formula on association with risk factors, disease discrimination, and prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events were examined within 1242 participants from the multicenter SUMMIT study (Surrogate Markers of Micro- and Macrovascular Hard End-Points for Innovative Diabetes Tools) and 825 participants from the Caerphilly Prospective Study...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
Jose C Jara-Aguirre, Steven W Smeets, Amy M Wockenfus, Brad S Karon
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. DESIGN AND METHODS: Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Nina Rouhani, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Reward-prediction errors track the extent to which rewards deviate from expectations, and aid in learning. How do such errors in prediction interact with memory for the rewarding episode? Existing findings point to both cooperative and competitive interactions between learning and memory mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether learning about rewards in a high-risk context, with frequent, large prediction errors, would give rise to higher fidelity memory traces for rewarding events than learning in a low-risk context...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Grant M Walker, Gregory Hickok, Julius Fridriksson
Picture naming impairments are a typical feature of stroke-induced aphasia. Overall accuracy and rates of different error types are used to make inferences about the severity and nature of damage to the brain's language network. Currently available assessment tools for picture naming accuracy treat it as a unidimensional measure, while assessment tools for error types treat items homogenously, contrary to findings from psycholinguistic investigations of word production. We created and tested a new cognitive psychometric model for assessment of picture naming responses, using cognitive theory to specify latent processing decisions during the production of a naming attempt, and using item response theory to separate the effects of item difficulty and participant ability on these internal processing decisions...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Lito M Amit, Young-Woong Song
Body surface area (BSA) is an important parameter in the conduct of human exposure studies and in clinical processes in children. The aim of this paper was to compare seven BSA formulas and to find out which of these formulas is appropriate for use with Korean children. Body surface area was calculated according to age, age-group and BMI-group using the height and weight data of Korean children (n = 4899) ages 1 to 18 from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012-2014). We used the formulas of Banerjee and Bhattacharya (1961), Fujimoto and Watanabe (1969), US EPA (1985), Gehan and George (1970), Boyd (1935), Haycock et al (1978) and Mosteller (1987)...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Cameron D Hassall, Patrick C Connor, Thomas P Trappenberg, John J McDonald, Olave E Krigolson
The visual environment is filled with complex, multi-dimensional objects that vary in their value to an observer's current goals. When faced with multi-dimensional stimuli, humans may rely on biases to learn to select those objects that are most valuable to the task at hand. Here, we show that decision making in a complex task is guided by the sparsity bias: the focusing of attention on a subset of available features. Participants completed a gambling task in which they selected complex stimuli that varied randomly along three dimensions: shape, color, and texture...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ifaz T Haider, John Goldak, Hanspeter Frei
Nonlinear finite element (FE) modeling can be a powerful tool for studying femoral fracture. However, there remains little consensus in the literature regarding the choice of material model and failure criterion. Quasi-brittle models recently have been used with some success, but spurious mesh sensitivity remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a new model using a custom finite element designed to mitigate mesh sensitivity problems. Six specimen-specific FE models of the proximal femur were generated from quantitative tomographic (qCT) scans of cadaveric specimens...
March 15, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Sophie Pils, Stephanie Springer, Rudolf Seemann, Verena Wehrmann, Christof Worda, Johannes Ott
PURPOSE: To review our experience in ultrasound fetal weight estimation in our large population of triplet pregnancies. METHODS: Ninety-seven triplet pregnancies were retrospectively included between January 2003 and January 2017. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using Hadlock's and Schild's formulas was compared to actual birth weight in a tertiary-care center in Vienna, Austria. Statistical analyses were performed using a stepwise linear regression model and crosstabs...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Sun-Kyung Lee, Young-Sun Park, Kyung-Joon Cha
Fetal heart rate (FHR) data obtained from a non-stress test (NST) can be presented in a type of time series, which is accompanied by signal loss due to physical and biological causes. To recover or estimate FHR data, which is subjected to a high rate of signal loss, time series models [second-order autoregressive (AR(2)), first-order autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH(1)) and empirical mode decomposition and vector autoregressive (EMD-VAR)] and the residual bootstrap method were applied. The ARCH(1) model with the residual bootstrap technique was the most accurate [root mean square error (RMSE), 2...
March 19, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Nils Gessert, Matthias Schlüter, Alexander Schlaefer
Tracking the pose of instruments is a central problem in image-guided surgery. For microscopic scenarios, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an imaging modality. OCT is suitable for accurate pose estimation due to its micrometer range resolution and volumetric field of view. However, OCT image processing is challenging due to speckle noise and reflection artifacts in addition to the images' 3D nature. We address pose estimation from OCT volume data with a new deep learning-based tracking framework...
March 10, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
S van Gastelen, H Mollenhorst, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, G G van Burgsteden, J Dijkstra, J L W Rademaker
The objective of the present study was to compare the prediction potential of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for CH4 emissions of dairy cows with that of gas chromatography (GC)-based milk fatty acids (MFA). Data from 9 experiments with lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, with a total of 30 dietary treatments and 218 observations, were used. Methane emissions were measured for 3 consecutive days in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g/d), yield (g/kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gary Tse, Mengqi Gong, Lei Meng, Cheuk Wai Wong, Stamatis Georgopoulos, George Bazoukis, Martin C S Wong, Konstantinos P Letsas, Vassilios S Vassiliou, Yunlong Xia, Adrian M Baranchuk, Gan-Xin Yan, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) predisposes affected individuals to ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VF/VF), potentially resulting in sudden cardiac death. The Tpeak -Tend interval and the Tpeak -Tend /QT ratio, electrocardiographic markers of dispersion of ventricular repolarization, were proposed for risk stratification but their predictive values in LQTS have been controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the value of Tpeak -Tend intervals and Tpeak -Tend /QT ratios in predicting arrhythmic and mortality outcomes in congenital LQTS...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Onder Tutsoy, Duygun Erol Barkana, Harun Tugal
In this paper, an adaptive controller is developed for discrete time linear systems that takes into account parametric uncertainty, internal-external non-parametric random uncertainties, and time varying control signal delay. Additionally, the proposed adaptive control is designed in such a way that it is utterly model free. Even though these properties are studied separately in the literature, they are not taken into account all together in adaptive control literature. The Q-function is used to estimate long-term performance of the proposed adaptive controller...
March 14, 2018: ISA Transactions
Giovanni Raffa, Maria C Quattropani, Antonino Scibilia, Alfredo Conti, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Felice Esposito, Carmela Sindorio, Salvatore Massimiliano Cardali, Antonino Germanò, Francesco Tomasello
OBJECTIVES: Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network...
March 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Marko Barjaktarović, Milica M Janković, Marija Jeremić, Milovan Matović
Radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is used in clinical practice for the ablation of thyroid residues and/or destruction of tumour tissue. Whole-body scintigraphy for visualization of the spatial 131I distribution performed by a gamma camera (GC) is a standard procedure in DTC patients after application of radioiodine therapy. A common problem is the precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated even in SPECT imaging. SPECT/CT can provide precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated, but it is often unavailable, especially in developing countries because of the high price of the equipment...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Megan Zirnstein, Janet G van Hell, Judith F Kroll
In this study, we examined the role that cognitive control and language regulation ability play in mediating readers' susceptibility to prediction error costs when reading in the native language (L1) or a second language (L2). Twenty-four English monolinguals (Experiment 1) and 28 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) read sentences in English while their EEG was recorded. The sentences varied in the predictability of an upcoming expected word and in whether that prediction was confirmed. Monolinguals showed sensitivity to sentence contexts in which expectations were not met (i...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
K Annette Mizuguchi, Chuan-Chin Huang, Ian Shempp, Justin Wang, Prem Shekar, Gyorgy Frendl
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to identify patients who are likely to develop progressive kidney dysfunction (acute kidney disease) before their hospital discharge after cardiac surgery, allowing targeted monitoring of kidney function in this at-risk group with periodic serum creatinine measurements. METHODS: Risks of progression to acute kidney disease (a state in between acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease) were modeled from acute kidney injury stages (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Carolina Sheng Whei Miaw, Camila Assis, Alessandro Rangel Carolino Sales Silva, Maria Luísa Cunha, Marcelo Martins Sena, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de Souza
Grape, orange, peach and passion fruit nectars were formulated and adulterated by dilution with syrup, apple and cashew juices at 10 levels for each adulterant. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform mid infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra were obtained. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models allied to different variable selection methods, such as interval partial least squares (iPLS), ordered predictors selection (OPS) and genetic algorithm (GA), were used to quantify the main fruits. PLS improved by iPLS-OPS variable selection showed the highest predictive capacity to quantify the main fruit contents...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Tatsuro Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki Kabashima
We conduct a comparative analysis on various estimates of the number of clusters in community detection. An exhaustive comparison requires testing of all possible combinations of frameworks, algorithms, and assessment criteria. In this paper we focus on the framework based on a stochastic block model, and investigate the performance of greedy algorithms, statistical inference, and spectral methods. For the assessment criteria, we consider modularity, map equation, Bethe free energy, prediction errors, and isolated eigenvalues...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
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