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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731476/exact-sequence-variants-should-replace-operational-taxonomic-units-in-marker-gene-data-analysis
#1
Benjamin J Callahan, Paul J McMurdie, Susan P Holmes
Recent advances have made it possible to analyze high-throughput marker-gene sequencing data without resorting to the customary construction of molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs): clusters of sequencing reads that differ by less than a fixed dissimilarity threshold. New methods control errors sufficiently such that amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) can be resolved exactly, down to the level of single-nucleotide differences over the sequenced gene region. The benefits of finer resolution are immediately apparent, and arguments for ASV methods have focused on their improved resolution...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730949/eric-acute-stroke-recanalization-a-study-using-predictive-analytics-to-assess-a-new-device-for-mechanical-thrombectomy
#2
Susanne Siemonsen, Nils D Forkert, Martina Bernhardt, Götz Thomalla, Martin Bendszus, Jens Fiehler
Aim and hypothesis Using a new study design, we investigate whether next-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices improve clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We hypothesize that this new methodology is superior to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy alone. Methods and design ERic Acute StrokE Recanalization is an investigator-initiated prospective single-arm, multicenter, controlled, open label study to compare the safety and effectiveness of a new recanalization device and distal access catheter in acute ischemic stroke patients with symptoms attributable to acute ischemic stroke and vessel occlusion of the internal cerebral artery or middle cerebral artery...
August 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730501/the-pseudo-sah-sign-an-imaging-pitfall-in-postmortem-computed-tomography
#3
Go Shirota, Wataru Gonoi, Masako Ikemura, Masanori Ishida, Yukako Shintani, Hiroyuki Abe, Masashi Fukayama, Tomohiko Higashida, Hidemi Okuma, Osamu Abe
Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) of the brain has an important role in detection of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which has a high mortality rate. However, a phenomenon known as "pseudo-SAH," or high-attenuation areas along the cisterns mimicking SAH, may be seen on CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of brain PMCT for SAH and to identify the characteristics of pseudo-SAH. Findings on PMCT (sulcal effacement, asymmetry, maximum thickness of SAH signs, presence of acute/subacute intraventricular/intraparenchymal hemorrhage) and clinical history (left ventricular assist device [LVAD] implantation, anticoagulation therapy/coagulation disorder, global ischemia) were compared between subjects with true SAH and those with pseudo-SAH...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729610/mean-bias-in-seasonal-forecast-model-and-enso-prediction-error
#4
Seon Tae Kim, Hye-In Jeong, Fei-Fei Jin
This study uses retrospective forecasts made using an APEC Climate Center seasonal forecast model to investigate the cause of errors in predicting the amplitude of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven sea surface temperature variability. When utilizing Bjerknes coupled stability (BJ) index analysis, enhanced errors in ENSO amplitude with forecast lead times are found to be well represented by those in the growth rate estimated by the BJ index. ENSO amplitude forecast errors are most strongly associated with the errors in both the thermocline slope response and surface wind response to forcing over the tropical Pacific, leading to errors in thermocline feedback...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729179/global-regression-model-for-moisture-content-determination-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
Matthieu Clavaud, Yves Roggo, Klara Degardin, Pierre-Yves Sacré, Philippe Hubert, Eric Ziemons
Near-infrared (NIR) global quantitative models were evaluated for the moisture content (MC) determination of three different freeze-dried drug products. The quantitative models were based on 3822 spectra measured on two identical spectrometers to include variability. The MC, measured with the reference Karl Fischer (KF) method, were ranged from 0.05% to 4.96%. Linear and non-linear regression models using Partial Least Square (PLS), Decision Tree (DT), Bayesian Ridge Regression (Bayes-RR), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) algorithms were created and evaluated...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729049/quantification-of-metastatic-load-in-a-syngeneic-murine-model-of-metastasis
#6
Luke J Taus, Roberto E Flores, Thomas N Seyfried
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is an established method for evaluating metastatic load in preclinical cancer models; however, BLI can produce observational error due to differences in substrate concentration and signal depth. In our syngeneic murine model of metastasis (VM-M3), we used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method of DNA quantification to bypass these limitations. Liver, spleen, and brain from VM/Dk (VM) mice bearing VM-M3 tumor cells were first imaged ex vivo with BLI. qPCR quantification of tumor cell DNA was then performed on DNA extracted from these organs...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728577/integrating-data-from-randomized-controlled-trials-and-observational-studies-to-predict-the-response-to-pregabalin-in-patients-with-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#7
Joe Alexander, Roger A Edwards, Alberto Savoldelli, Luigi Manca, Roberto Grugni, Birol Emir, Ed Whalen, Stephen Watt, Marina Brodsky, Bruce Parsons
BACKGROUND: More patient-specific medical care is expected as more is learned about variations in patient responses to medical treatments. Analytical tools enable insights by linking treatment responses from different types of studies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Given the importance of evidence from both types of studies, our goal was to integrate these types of data into a single predictive platform to help predict response to pregabalin in individual patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN)...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727991/how-accurate-are-self-reported-height-and-weight-in-the-seriously-mentally-ill
#8
Elton K Zhou, Urska Kosir, Suat Kucukgoncu, Erin L Reutenauer Sullivan, Cenk Tek
(1) Determine the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) calculated from those values in a population suffering from both serious mental illness (SMI) and overweight/obesity; (2) identify any associations that may predict error in self-reported measurements. Data were collected from screening appointments for two clinical trials for adult patients with SMI and overweight/obesity (BMI > 28) who gained weight while on antipsychotic medications. Both studies were conducted at the same urban community mental health center...
July 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727547/designing-and-implementation-of-stable-sinusoidal-rough-neural-identifier
#9
Ghasem Ahmadi, Mohammad Teshnehlab
A rough neuron is defined as a pair of conventional neurons that are called the upper and lower bound neurons. In this paper, the sinusoidal rough-neural networks (SR-NNs) are used to identify the discrete dynamic nonlinear systems (DDNSs) with or without noise in series-parallel configuration. In the identification of periodic nonlinear systems, sinusoidal activation functions provide more efficient neural networks than the sigmoidal activation functions. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an online learning algorithm is developed to train the SR-NNs...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727039/application-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-assess-rabbit-s-body-composition-from-25-to-77-days-of-age
#10
A Saiz, A I García-Ruiz, J Fuentes-Pila, N Nicodemus
The aim of the study was to develop prediction equations for assessing, in vivo, the whole body composition of growing rabbits. The accuracy of the models obtained was externally validated with independent data sets. One hundred fifty rabbits grouped at 5 different ages (25, 35, 49, 63, and 77 d) were used. A body composition analyzer with 4 terminals was used to obtain resistance (Rs; Ω) and reactance (Xc; Ω) values. The distance between internal electrodes (D; cm), body length (Len; cm), and live BW (g) were also registered...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726940/measurement-of-specific-heat-and-thermal-conductivity-of-supported-and-suspended-graphene-by-a-comprehensive-raman-optothermal-method
#11
Qin-Yi Li, Kailun Xia, Ji Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Qunyang Li, Koji Takahashi, Xing Zhang
The last decade has seen the rapid growth of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, but research on their thermophysical properties is still far from sufficient owing to the experimental challenges. Herein, we report the first measurement of the specific heat of multilayer and monolayer graphene in both supported and suspended geometries. Their thermal conductivities were also simultaneously measured using a comprehensive Raman optothermal method without needing to know the laser absorption...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725586/role-of-prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance
#12
REVIEW
Xiaosong Meng, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Samir S Taneja
Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a beneficial strategy for management of low risk prostate cancer (PCa) and prevention of overtreatment of indolent disease. However, selection of patients for AS using traditional 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy is prone to sampling error and presents a challenge for accurate risk stratification. In fact, around a third of men are upgraded on repeat biopsy which disqualifies them as appropriate AS candidates. This uncertainty affects adoption of AS among patients and physicians, leading to current AS protocols involving repetitive prostate biopsies and unclear triggers for progression to definitive treatment...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725409/development-of-methane-conversion-factor-models-for-zebu-beef-cattle-fed-low-quality-crop-residues-and-by-products-in-tropical-regions
#13
Chatchai Kaewpila, Kritapon Sommart
The enteric methane conversion factor (Ym) is an important country-specific value for the provision of precise enteric methane emissions inventory reports. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to develop and evaluate the empirical Ym models for the national level and the farm level for tropical developing countries according to the IPCC's categorization. We used datasets derived from 18 in vivo feeding experiments from 1999 to 2015 of Zebu beef cattle breeds fed low-quality crop residues and by-products...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#14
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS; Downey & Feldman, 1996), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
July 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724219/forecasting-pm2-5-induced-male-lung-cancer-morbidity-in-china-using-satellite-retrieved-pm2-5-and-spatial-analysis
#15
Xiao Han, Yuqin Liu, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma, Xiaoxuan Mao, Yuting Wang, Xudong Ma
The present study predicts a spatial distribution of lung cancer morbidity in Chinese males due to exposure to PM2.5 concentration from 2010 to 2015. A spatial autocorrelation method was used to evaluate the spatial relationship between the lung cancer morbidities from 2006 to 2009 and satellite-derived PM2.5 atmospheric levels. A comprehensive grey correlation degree analysis was carried out to assess the simultaneous and lag associations between the lung cancer morbidity and PM2.5 concentration. These relationships were subsequently applied to predict male lung cancer morbidity in a specific year...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723964/development-of-the-korean-adult-reading-test-kart-to-estimate-premorbid-intelligence-in-dementia-patients
#16
Dahyun Yi, Eun Hyun Seo, Ji Young Han, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Suzy Ahn, Jong Inn Woo, Jongho Jun, Dong Young Lee
We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721624/on-the-successful-use-of-a-simplified-model-to-simulate-the-succession-of-toxic-cyanobacteria-in-a-hypereutrophic-reservoir-with-a-highly-fluctuating-water-level
#17
Ali Fadel, Bruno J Lemaire, Brigitte Vinçon-Leite, Ali Atoui, Kamal Slim, Bruno Tassin
Many freshwater bodies worldwide that suffer from harmful algal blooms would benefit for their management from a simple ecological model that requires few field data, e.g. for early warning systems. Beyond a certain degree, adding processes to ecological models can reduce model predictive capabilities. In this work, we assess whether a simple ecological model without nutrients is able to describe the succession of cyanobacterial blooms of different species in a hypereutrophic reservoir and help understand the factors that determine these blooms...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721500/early-prediction-of-tumor-response-to-bevacizumab-treatment-in-murine-colon-cancer-models-using-three-dimensional-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging
#18
Jianhua Zhou, Huiping Zhang, Huaijun Wang, Amelie M Lutz, Ahmed El Kaffas, Lu Tian, Dimitre Hristov, Jürgen K Willmann
Due to spatial tumor heterogeneity and consecutive sampling errors, it is critically important to assess treatment response following antiangiogenic therapy in three dimensions as two-dimensional assessment has been shown to substantially over- and underestimate treatment response. In this study, we evaluated whether three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging allows assessing early changes in tumor perfusion following antiangiogenic treatment (bevacizumab administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg b...
July 18, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720897/a-predictive-mathematical-modeling-approach-for-the-study-of-doxorubicin-treatment-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Matthew T McKenna, Jared A Weis, Stephanie L Barnes, Darren R Tyson, Michael I Miga, Vito Quaranta, Thomas E Yankeelov
Doxorubicin forms the basis of chemotherapy regimens for several malignancies, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we present a coupled experimental/modeling approach to establish an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe how the concentration and duration of doxorubicin therapy shape subsequent cell population dynamics. This work features a series of longitudinal fluorescence microscopy experiments that characterize (1) doxorubicin uptake dynamics in a panel of TNBC cell lines, and (2) cell population response to doxorubicin over 30 days...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720184/human-performance-time-model-of-spacecraft-control-panel-operation-in-simulated-microgravity
#20
Shi Cao, Yijing Zhang, Yunhuan Guo, Shanguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Human performance modeling plays an important role in the design and management of human spaceflight missions. Previous studies reported that manual control task time increased in microgravity conditions. The current study aimed to find a modeling method that can quantify and predict the task time of spacecraft control panel operation in the simulated microgravity condition. METHODS: We proposed the application of a predetermined elemental task method together with an information processing time model to quantify both physical motion time and cognitive time...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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