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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634488/antiherding-in-financial-decision-increases-valuation-of-return-on-investment-an-event-related-potential-study
#1
Cuicui Wang, Jia Jin, João Paulo Vieito, Qingguo Ma
Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634438/computational-models-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-at-the-crossroads-between-prediction-and-effort
#2
Eliana Vassena, Clay B Holroyd, William H Alexander
In the last two decades the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has become one of the most investigated areas of the brain. Extensive neuroimaging evidence suggests countless functions for this region, ranging from conflict and error coding, to social cognition, pain and effortful control. In response to this burgeoning amount of data, a proliferation of computational models has tried to characterize the neurocognitive architecture of ACC. Early seminal models provided a computational explanation for a relatively circumscribed set of empirical findings, mainly accounting for EEG and fMRI evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633855/nanocomposites-synthesis-characterization-and-its-application-to-removal-azo-dyes-using-ultrasonic-assisted-method-modeling-and-optimization
#3
Sima Porhemmat, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Ali Reza Rezvani, Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi Azqhandi, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan
S-doped and Cu- and Co-doped TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method and characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. The Co/Cu/S-TiO2 nanocomposite loaded on the activated carbon as new nanoadsorbent was used for simultaneous removal of methylene blue (MB) and sunset yellow (SY) from aqueous solution by ultrasonic-assisted adsorption method. In this work, central composite design (CCD) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as a support tool for examining data and making prediction are used to recognize and predict the removal percentage in MB and SY dye solution of different concentrations...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633628/olfactory-testing-in-consecutive-patients-referred-with-suspected-dementia
#4
Ib Thrane Christensen, Elna-Marie Larsson, Ida E Holm, Ole B F Nielsen, Stig Andersen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and early and accurate diagnosis is important. Olfactory dysfunction is an early sign of AD. The contribution by test of olfactory function has been surveyed in AD vs a line of conditions but remains to be settled in the workup of unselected patients referred with suspected dementia. METHODS: We performed a two-step investigation: first, a comparative study of healthy controls and probable AD patients to test the applicability of the chosen scents (cuisine study); second, a study of consecutive patients referred to our geriatric outpatient clinic for suspected dementia with the investigating personnel blinded to the results of the Olfactory Test (blinded study)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633522/molecular-dynamics-information-improves-cis-peptide-based-function-annotation-of-proteins
#5
Sreetama Das, Pratiti Bhadra, Suryanarayanarao Ramakumar, Debnath Pal
Cis-peptide bonds, whose occurrence in proteins is rare but evolutionarily conserved, are implicated to play an important role in protein function. This has led to their previous use in a homology-independent, fragment match-based protein function annotation method. However, proteins are not static molecules; dynamics is integral to their activity. This is nicely epitomized by the geometric isomerization of cis-peptide to trans form for molecular activity. Hence we have incorporated both static (cis-peptide) and dynamics information to improve the prediction of protein molecular function...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#6
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632438/fair-prediction-with-disparate-impact-a-study-of-bias-in-recidivism-prediction-instruments
#7
Alexandra Chouldechova
Recidivism prediction instruments (RPIs) provide decision-makers with an assessment of the likelihood that a criminal defendant will reoffend at a future point in time. Although such instruments are gaining increasing popularity across the country, their use is attracting tremendous controversy. Much of the controversy concerns potential discriminatory bias in the risk assessments that are produced. This article discusses several fairness criteria that have recently been applied to assess the fairness of RPIs...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632407/prediction-of-the-structural-response-of-the-femoral-shaft-under-dynamic-loading-using-subject-specific-finite-element-models
#8
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jason Forman, Matthew B Panzer, Jeff R Crandall
The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models...
June 20, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632384/finite-field-method-for-nonlinear-optical-property-prediction-using-rational-function-approximants
#9
Anand H G Patel, Ahmed A K Mohammed, Peter A Limacher, Paul Woodson Ayers
The finite-field (FF) method is a quick, easy-to-implement tool for the prediction of nonlinear optical properties. Here, we present and explore a novel variant of the FF method, which uses a rational function to fit a molecule's energy with respect to an electric field. Similarly to previous FF methods, factors crucial for the method's accuracy were tuned. These factors include: the number of terms in the function, the distribution of fields used to construct the approximation, and the initial field in the approximation...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631987/development-of-a-scale-of-executive-functioning-for-the-rbans
#10
Robert J Spencer, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Kathryn A Tolle
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631838/aging-of-zn-added-to-soils-with-a-wide-range-of-different-properties-factors-and-modeling
#11
Xi Zhang, Bao Jiang, Yibing Ma
The aging of metals added to soil is significant in ecological risk assessment and the derivation of soil environmental quality criteria. Semi-mechanistic aging models have been developed for some metals, but not for zinc (Zn). In the present study, a published dataset detailing the changes in isotopic exchangeability with time, after water soluble Zn was added to 23 soils and incubated for 813 d, was used to analyze the effect of soil properties on aging and develop empirical and mechanistic models. Aging was mainly controlled by soil pH, probably due to precipitation, and was linearly correlated with the square root of incubation time, probably due to diffusion...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631734/learning-relative-values-in-the-striatum-induces-violations-of-normative-decision-making
#12
Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Gerhard Jocham
To decide optimally between available options, organisms need to learn the values associated with these options. Reinforcement learning models offer a powerful explanation of how these values are learnt from experience. However, human choices often violate normative principles. We suggest that seemingly counterintuitive decisions may arise as a natural consequence of the learning mechanisms deployed by humans. Here, using fMRI and a novel behavioural task, we show that, when suddenly switched to novel choice contexts, participants' choices are incongruent with values learnt by standard learning algorithms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630878/prediction-of-brain-tissue-temperature-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Lisa Holper, Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, Nicola Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset)...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630865/2d-qsar-and-3d-qsar-analyses-for-egfr-inhibitors
#14
Manman Zhao, Lin Wang, Linfeng Zheng, Mengying Zhang, Chun Qiu, Yuhui Zhang, Dongshu Du, Bing Niu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important target for cancer therapy. In this study, EGFR inhibitors were investigated to build a two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) model and a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model. In the 2D-QSAR model, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier combined with the feature selection method was applied to predict whether a compound was an EGFR inhibitor. As a result, the prediction accuracy of the 2D-QSAR model was 98...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630864/intravoxel-incoherent-motion-diffusion-for-identification-of-breast-malignant-and-benign-tumors-using-chemometrics
#15
Fengnong Chen, Pulan Chen, Hamed Hamid Muhammed, Juan Zhang
The aim of the paper is to identify the breast malignant and benign lesions using the features of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction f, pseudodiffusion coefficient D(⁎), and true diffusion coefficient D from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). There are 69 malignant cases (including 9 early malignant cases) and 35 benign breast cases who underwent diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0 T with 8 b-values (0~1000 s/mm(2)). ADC and IVIM parameters were determined in lesions. The early malignant cases are used as advanced malignant and benign tumors, respectively, so as to assess the effectiveness on the result...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630712/quantifying-drivers-of-wild-pig-movement-across-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales
#16
Shannon L Kay, Justin W Fischer, Andrew J Monaghan, James C Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A Campbell, Susan M Cooper, Stephen S Ditchkoff, Steve B Hartley, John C Kilgo, Samantha M Wisely, A Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
BACKGROUND: The movement behavior of an animal is determined by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that operate at multiple spatio-temporal scales, yet much of our knowledge of animal movement comes from studies that examine only one or two scales concurrently. Understanding the drivers of animal movement across multiple scales is crucial for understanding the fundamentals of movement ecology, predicting changes in distribution, describing disease dynamics, and identifying efficient methods of wildlife conservation and management...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630456/rare-disruptive-variants-in-the-disc1-interactome-and-regulome-association-with-cognitive-ability-and-schizophrenia
#17
S Teng, P A Thomson, S McCarthy, M Kramer, S Muller, J Lihm, S Morris, D C Soares, W Hennah, S Harris, L M Camargo, V Malkov, A M McIntosh, J K Millar, D H Blackwood, K L Evans, I J Deary, D J Porteous, W R McCombie
Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630233/motor-recovery-prediction-with-clinical-assessment-and-local-diffusion-homogeneity-after-acute-subcortical-infarction
#18
Gang Liu, Shuangquan Tan, Chao Dang, Kangqiang Peng, Chuanmiao Xie, Shihui Xing, Jinsheng Zeng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial clinical assessment or conventional diffusion tensor imaging parameters alone do not reliably predict poststroke recovery of motor function. Recently, local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) has been proposed to represent the local coherence of water molecule diffusion and can serve as a complementary marker for investigating white matter alterations of the brain. We aimed to determine whether a combination of initial clinical assessment and LDH could predict motor recovery after acute subcortical infarction...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629165/a-cost-effective-vehicle-localization-solution-using-an-interacting-multiple-model-unscented-kalman-filters-imm-ukf-algorithm-and-grey-neural-network
#19
Qimin Xu, Xu Li, Ching-Yao Chan
In this paper, we propose a cost-effective localization solution for land vehicles, which can simultaneously adapt to the uncertain noise of inertial sensors and bridge Global Positioning System (GPS) outages. First, three Unscented Kalman filters (UKFs) with different noise covariances are introduced into the framework of Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm to form the proposed IMM-based UKF, termed as IMM-UKF. The IMM algorithm can provide a soft switching among the three UKFs and therefore adapt to different noise characteristics...
June 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628849/kinematic-patterns-underlying-disguised-movements-spatial-and-temporal-dissimilarity-compared-to-genuine-movement-patterns
#20
Fabian Helm, Jörn Munzert, Nikolaus F Troje
This study examined the kinematic characteristics of disguised movements by applying linear discriminant (LDA) and dissimilarity analyses to the motion data from 788 disguised and 792 non-disguised 7-m penalty throws performed by novice and expert handball field players. Results of the LDA showed that discrimination between type of throws (disguised vs. non-disguised) was more error-prone when throws were performed by experts (spatial: 4.6%; temporal: 29.6%) compared to novices (spatial: 1.0%; temporal: 20...
June 16, 2017: Human Movement Science
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