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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335444/hiv-education-and-welfare-services-in-primary-care-an-empirical-model-of-integration-in-brazil-s-unified-health-system
#1
Rahbel Rahman, Rogério M Pinto, Melanie M Wall
Integration of health education and welfare services in primary care systems is a key strategy to solve the multiple determinants of chronic diseases, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, there is a scarcity of conceptual models from which to build integration strategies. We provide a model based on cross-sectional data from 168 Community Health Agents, 62 nurses, and 32 physicians in two municipalities in Brazil's Unified Health System (UHS)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334802/engagement-strategies-that-foster-community-self-determination-in-participatory-research-insider-ownership-through-outsider-championship
#2
Jon Salsberg, Soultana Macridis, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Ann C Macaulay, Spencer Moore
Background.: In order to maximize the benefits of community-based participatory research, effective ownership over the research process must be at least equally in the hands of the community. A previous social network analysis documented that the participatory research process shifted ownership from academic to community partners, but did not show what actions and strategies fostered this shift. Objectives.: This study follows the trajectory of a community-academic partnership and asks, from the perspective of the project stakeholders, which actions and strategies over the lifespan of the research led to the observed shift in ownership and decision-making from the original external academics to the community stakeholders? Methods...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334633/now-or-not-now-the-influence-of-alexithymia-on-intertemporal-decision-making
#3
Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity...
March 20, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334612/computing-by-robust-transience-how-the-fronto-parietal-network-performs-sequential-category-based-decisions
#4
Warasinee Chaisangmongkon, Sruthi K Swaminathan, David J Freedman, Xiao-Jing Wang
Decision making involves dynamic interplay between internal judgements and external perception, which has been investigated in delayed match-to-category (DMC) experiments. Our analysis of neural recordings shows that, during DMC tasks, LIP and PFC neurons demonstrate mixed, time-varying, and heterogeneous selectivity, but previous theoretical work has not established the link between these neural characteristics and population-level computations. We trained a recurrent network model to perform DMC tasks and found that the model can remarkably reproduce key features of neuronal selectivity at the single-neuron and population levels...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334309/long-term-surveillance-following-intralesional-steroid-injection-for-benign-vocal-fold-lesions
#5
Chi-Te Wang, Mei-Shu Lai, Po-Wen Cheng
Importance: The short-term outcomes of vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) are well documented. However, few studies have reported the long-term outcomes following VFSI. Objective: To investigate the incidence rates of symptom recurrence and secondary interventions following VFSI for benign vocal fold lesions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral medical center in Taipei, Taiwan...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334212/sequential-sampling-plan-of-anthonomus-grandis-coleoptera-curculionidae-in-cotton-plants
#6
J F J Grigolli, L A Souza, T A Mota, M G Fernandes, A C Busoli
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important pests of cotton production worldwide. The objective of this work was to develop a sequential sampling plan for the boll weevil. The studies were conducted in Maracaju, MS, Brazil, in two seasons with cotton cultivar FM 993. A 10,000-m2 area of cotton was subdivided into 100 of 10- by 10-m plots, and five plants per plot were evaluated weekly, recording the number of squares with feeding + oviposition punctures of A...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334031/forecasted-economic-change-and-the-self-fulfilling-prophecy-in-economic-decision-making
#7
Diamantis Petropoulos Petalas, Hein van Schie, Paul Hendriks Vettehen
This study addresses the self-fulfilling prophecy effect, in the domain of economic decision-making. We present experimental data in support of the hypothesis that speculative forecasts of economic change can impact individuals' economic decision behavior, prior to any realized changes. In a within-subjects experiment, participants (N = 40) played 180 trials in a Balloon Analogue Risk Talk (BART) in which they could make actual profit. Simple messages about possible (positive and negative) changes in outcome probabilities of future trials had significant effects on measures of risk taking (number of inflations) and actual profits in the game...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334023/preferences-for-the-provision-of-whole-genome-sequencing-services-among-young-adults
#8
Christopher H Wade, Kailyn R Elliott
OBJECTIVES: As whole genome sequencing (WGS) becomes increasingly available, clinicians will be faced with conveying complex information to individuals at different stages in life. The purpose of this study is to characterize the views of young adults toward obtaining WGS, learning different types of genomic information, and having choice about which results are disclosed. METHODS: A mixed-methods descriptive study was conducted with a diverse group of 18 and 19-years-olds (N = 145)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334018/development-of-an-evidence-evaluation-and-synthesis-system-for-drug-drug-interactions-and-its-application-to-a-systematic-review-of-hiv-and-malaria-co-infection
#9
Kay Seden, Sara Gibbons, Catia Marzolini, Jonathan M Schapiro, David M Burger, David J Back, Saye H Khoo
BACKGROUND: In all settings, there are challenges associated with safely treating patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The need to characterise, understand and limit harms resulting from medication use is therefore increasingly important. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are prevalent in patients taking antiretrovirals (ARVs) and if unmanaged, may pose considerable risk to treatment outcome. One of the biggest challenges in preventing DDIs is the substantial gap between theory and clinical practice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333829/acute-traumatic-coagulopathy-the-elephant-in-a-room-of-blind-scientists
#10
Michael A Meledeo, Maryanne C Herzig, James A Bynum, Xiaowu Wu, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Daniel N Darlington, Kristin M Reddoch, Andrew P Cap
Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) is the failure of coagulation homeostasis that can rapidly arise following traumatic injury, hemorrhage, and shock; it is associated with higher injury severity, coagulation abnormalities, and increased blood transfusions. ATC has historically been defined by a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), although newer, more informative measurements of hemostatic function have been employed to improve diagnosis and support clinical decision making. The underlying biochemical mechanisms of and best practice therapeutics for ATC remain under active investigation because of its significant correlation to poor outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333789/nursing-informatics-competency-assessment-for-the-nurse-leader-the-delphi-study
#11
Sarah Collins, Po-Yin Yen, Andrew Phillips, Mary K Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify nursing informatics competencies perceived as relevant and required by nurse leaders. BACKGROUND: To participate as a full partner in healthcare leadership among rapidly advancing health information technologies (HITs), nurse leaders must attain knowledge of informatics competencies related to their clinical leadership roles and responsibilities. Despite this increased need to engage in HIT-related decision making, a gap remains in validated informatics competencies specific to the needs of nurse leaders...
April 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333785/improving-decision-making-for-advanced-heart-failure-patients-and-caregivers
#12
Colleen K McIlvennan
In this month's Magnet® Perspectives column, Colleen K. McIlvennan, DNP, ANP, lead nurse practitioner, Advanced Heart Failure and Transplantation at the University of Colorado, discusses her groundbreaking research encompassing patients' and caregivers' emotional, rational, and fundamental beliefs when considering a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Results have led to the development of 2 innovative decision aids that are currently in use by LVAD programs across the United States and Canada. Dr McIlvennan's efforts led to a $2 million grant from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, as well as national recognition from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America...
April 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333517/considering-a-family-systems-approach-to-surrogate-decision-making
#13
Elizabeth K Vig, Janelle S Taylor, Ann M O'Hare
Comments on the original article by Rolland, Emanuel, and Torke (see record 2017-05300-001) regarding a family systems approach to medical decision-making by proxy. The authors expanded the focus of clinicians beyond the patient to a more comprehensive understanding of the patient's family. They assert that a better understanding of family dynamics may help clinicians to engage with families more effectively when decision-making is needed for seriously ill loved ones, and may lessen the emotional challenges families and clinicians face when decisions are needed...
March 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333067/optimal-waste-load-allocation-using-graph-model-for-conflict-resolution
#14
Leila Saberi, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan
In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for waste load allocation in river systems using the decision support system (DSS) for the graph model for conflict resolution II (GMCRII), multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) analysis and the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. Minimization of total treatment and penalty costs and minimization of biological oxygen demand violation of standards at the check point are considered as the main objectives of this study. At first, the water quality along the river was simulated using the Streeter-Phelps (S-P) equation coupled with the MOPSO model...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332892/outcomes-in-continuing-pregnancies-diagnosed-with-a-severe-fetal-abnormality-and-implication-of-antenatal-neonatology-consultation-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#15
Laura Hostalery, Barthélémy Tosello
PURPOSE: To describe a population choosing to continue their pregnancy despite a severe fetal abnormality and to evaluate the role of antenatal neonatology consultation in perinatal decision-making. METHODS: A 10-year (2005-2015) retrospective descriptive study in a single Multidisciplinary Prenatal Diagnosis Center in South France. A series of pregnancies with severe fetal abnormalities were collected by a person outside the decision making process and/or the child's care...
March 23, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332294/farm-level-risk-factors-associated-with-bovine-tuberculosis-in-the-dairy-sector-in-eritrea
#16
M K Ghebremariam, A L Michel, M Nielen, J C M Vernooij, V P M G Rutten
The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately...
March 22, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332254/information-needs-and-decision-making-preferences-of-older-women-offered-a-choice-between-surgery-and-primary-endocrine-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer
#17
Maria Burton, Karen Kilner, Lynda Wyld, Kate Joanna Lifford, Frances Gordon, Annabel Allison, Malcolm Reed, Karen Anna Collins
OBJECTIVES: To establish older women's (≥75 years) information preferences regarding two breast cancer treatment options: surgery plus adjuvant endocrine therapy versus primary endocrine therapy (PET). To quantify women's preferences for the mode of information presentation and decision making (DM) style. METHODS: This was a UK multi-centre survey of women, ≥75 years, who had been offered a choice between PET and surgery at diagnosis of breast cancer. A questionnaire was developed including two validated scales of decision regret and DM preferences...
March 23, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332215/effects-of-increased-left-ventricular-wall-thickness-on-the-myocardium-in-severe-aortic-stenosis-with-normal-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-two-and-three-dimensional-multilayer-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#18
Eun Jeong Cho, Sung-Ji Park, Eun Kyoung Kim, Ga Yeon Lee, Sung-A Chang, Jin-Oh Choi, Sang-Chol Lee, Seung Woo Park
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the capability of real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) and two-dimensional (2D) multilayer speckle tracking echocardiography (MSTE) for evaluation of early myocardial dysfunction triggered by increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness in severe aortic stenosis (AS) with normal LV ejection fraction (EF≥55%). METHODS: Conventional, RT3D STE and 2D MSTE were performed in 45 patients (mean 68.9±9...
March 23, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332130/if-you-re-a-rawlsian-how-come-you-re-so-close-to-utilitarianism-and-intuitionism-a-critique-of-daniels-s-accountability-for-reasonableness
#19
Gabriele Badano
Norman Daniels's theory of 'accountability for reasonableness' is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls's general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls's argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques...
March 22, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332080/erratum-to-impaired-social-decision-making-mediates-the-association-between-adhd-and-social-problems
#20
Kathryn L Humphreys, Chardeé A Galán, Nim Tottenham, Steve S Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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