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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786808/-status-epilepticus-in-children-and-adults
#1
Johan Bjellvi, Niklas Timby, Roland Flink
Status epilepticus, a condition with prolonged or repeated seizures, is a common neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. This text outlines the treatment and initial work-up for convulsive and non-convulsive status epilepticus in adults and children. The most serious form is convulsive (tonic-clonic) status epilepticus, which requires rapid treatment and work-up. Bensodiazepines are the preferred initial treatment, while antiepileptic drugs and anesthetics are added if seizures continue...
May 22, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786535/evaluating-the-importance-of-sham-controlled-trials-in-the-investigation-of-medical-devices-in-interventional-cardiology
#2
Robert A Byrne, Davide Capodanno, Felix Mahfoud, Jean Fajadet, Stephan Windecker, Peter Jüni, Andreas Baumbach, William Wijns, Michael Haude
Cardiovascular medicine is one of the specialties that has relied most heavily on evidence from randomized clinical trials in determining best practice for the management of common disease conditions. When comparing treatment approaches, trials incorporating random allocation are the most appropriate method for protecting against treatment allocation bias. In order to protect against performance and ascertainment bias, trial designs including placebo control are preferable where feasible. In contrast to testing of medicines, treatments based on procedures or use of medical devices are more challenging to assess, as sham procedures are necessary to facilitate blinding of participants...
May 22, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786415/tailoring-crystalline-morphology-by-high-efficiency-nucleating-fiber-towards-high-performance-poly-l-lactide-biocomposites
#3
Tao Gao, Zheng-Min Zhang, Le Li, Rui-Ying Bao, Zhengying Liu, Bang-Hu Xie, Ming-Bo Yang, Wei Yang
In this work, high melting point poly(L-lactide) fiber (hPLLA fiber) with high-efficiency nucleation activity was prepared and introduced into PLLA matrix to prepare fully biodegradable PLLA biocomposites. The highly active nucleating surfaces of hPLLA fiber induced chain ordering and lamellar organization, leading to preferable formation of well-organized PLLA transcrystallinity at the surface of hPLLA fiber in quiescent conditions. The construction of such compact transcrystallinity increased the crystallinity and enhanced the interfacial adhesion, which largely promoted the heat resistance, tensile strength, and barrier property of PLLA biocomposites at a low content of hPLLA fiber...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785928/post-decision-biases-reveal-a-self-consistency-principle-in-perceptual-inference
#4
Long Luu, Alan A Stocker
Making a categorical judgment can systematically bias our subsequent perception of the world. We show that these biases are well explained by a self-consistent Bayesian observer whose perceptual inference process is causally conditioned on the preceding choice. We quantitatively validated the model and its key assumptions with a targeted set of three psychophysical experiments, focusing on a task sequence where subjects first had to make a categorical orientation judgment before estimating the actual orientation of a visual stimulus...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785893/evaluating-vaccination-strategies-to-control-foot-and-mouth-disease-a-country-comparison-study
#5
T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784055/usefulness-of-c-reactive-protein-and-serum-amyloid-a-in-early-detection-of-postoperative-infectious-complications-to-tibial-plateau-leveling-osteotomy-in-dogs
#6
Karin Löfqvist, Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen, Michelle Brønniche Møller Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is a prevalent injury in dogs, and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) is one of the preferred surgical techniques. Surgical site infection is a possible complication following TPLO and measurement of serum acute phase proteins is suggested to be a way to early recognize and distinguish postoperative infectious complications from normal postoperative inflammatory conditions. In this study we investigate the changes in concentrations of the systemic inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs and evaluate if deviations from the changes expectedly induced by the surgical procedure are useful in early detection of post-surgical infections...
May 21, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783768/agreement-technologies-for-energy-optimization-at-home
#7
Alfonso González-Briones, Pablo Chamoso, Fernando De La Prieta, Yves Demazeau, Juan M Corchado
Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly common to deploy sensors in public buildings or homes with the aim of obtaining data from the environment and taking decisions that help to save energy. Many of the current state-of-the-art systems make decisions considering solely the environmental factors that cause the consumption of energy. These systems are successful at optimizing energy consumption; however, they do not adapt to the preferences of users and their comfort. Any system that is to be used by end-users should consider factors that affect their wellbeing...
May 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783012/decisional-conflict-among-patients-considering-treatment-options-for-lumbar-herniated-disc
#8
Hwang Richard, Lambrechts Sylvia, Liu Hui, Christopher S Saigal, Kwan Lorna, Cisneros Crystal, Langston T Holly, Duru O Kenrik
BACKGROUND: Lumbar herniated disc is a "preference-sensitive" condition, in which the optimal treatment choice is crucially dependent on an informed patient's goals and values. Little is known about decisional conflict, defined as an individual's level of uncertainty regarding a decision, in patients considering treatment for lumbar herniated discs. Our work aims to identify factors associated with decisional conflict and areas for improved shared decision-making. METHODS: We prospectively surveyed patients seeking treatment for a lumbar herniated disc at L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 with a physician at the UCLA Spine Center...
May 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782953/electrodermal-reactivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#9
Jacques Luauté, Anne Dubois, Lizette Heine, Chloé Guironnet, Ariane Juliat, Valérie Gaveau, Barbara Tillmann, Fabien Perrin
OBJECTIVES: After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients with neurological impairment. We hypothesized that signs of awareness could be enhanced in some patients with disorders of consciousness under appropriate emotional stimulation such as preferred music and also probably preferred odors...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782817/evolution-of-the-developmental-plasticity-and-a-coupling-between-left-mechanosensory-neuromasts-and-an-adaptive-foraging-behavior
#10
Vânia Filipa Lima Fernandes, Christian Macaspac, Louise Lu, Masato Yoshizawa
Many animal species exhibit laterality in sensation and behavioral responses, namely, the preference for using either the left or right side of the sensory system. For example, some fish use their left eye when observing social stimuli, whereas they use their right eye to observe novel objects. However, it is largely unknown whether such laterality in sensory-behavior coupling evolves during rapid adaptation processes. Here, in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, we investigate the laterality in the relationship between an evolved adaptive behavior, vibration attraction behavior (VAB), and its main sensors, mechanosensory neuromasts...
May 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782180/current-evidence-on-heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-as-a-complementary-anticraving-intervention
#11
Nour Alayan, Lucille Eller, Marsha E Bates, Dennis P Carmody
BACKGROUND: The limited success of conventional anticraving interventions encourages research into new treatment strategies. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB), which is based on slowed breathing, was shown to improve symptom severity in various disorders. HRVB, and certain rates of controlled breathing (CB), may offer therapeutic potential as a complementary drug-free treatment option to help control substance craving. METHODS: This review evaluated current evidence on the effectiveness of HRVB and CB training as a complementary anticraving intervention, based on guidelines from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781560/conditioned-reward-of-opioids-but-not-psychostimulants-is-impaired-in-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-subunit-knockout-mice
#12
Milo S Siivonen, Elena de Miguel, Juho Aaltio, Aino K Manner, Mikko Vahermo, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Anni-Maija Linden, Teemu Aitta-Aho, Esa R Korpi
Extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) are emerging as targets for a number of neuropsychopharmacological drugs, including the direct GABA-site agonist gaboxadol and neuroactive steroids. Among other regions, these δ-GABAA Rs are functionally expressed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the cell body region of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system important for motivated behaviors, and in the target region, the nucleus accumbens. Gaboxadol and neurosteroids induce VTA DA neuron plasticity ex vivo, by inhibiting the VTA GABA neurons, and aversive place conditioning, which are absent in the δ-GABAA R knockout mice (δ-KO)...
May 21, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781353/clinical-trials-with-multiple-endpoints-can-establish-a-correlation-but-not-yet-causality-between-dietary-supplementation-with-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca
#13
Roger Lee Mendoza
AIM: We review clinical evidence of therapeutic efficacy and effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) in keratoconjunctivitis sicca, colloquially known as dry eye disease. In doing so, we identify relevant literature to address the following questions: 1) What definitive guidance can clinical evidence offer eye physicians and their patients? 2) What aspects of omega-3 supplementation lack definitive evidence, and how might economic assessments help? METHODS: A targeted and systematic search strategy based on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) was designed in this study for refereed clinical trials of omega-3s in dry eye treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780988/growth-dynamics-of-surface-nanodroplets-during-solvent-exchange-at-varying-flow-rates
#14
Brendan Dyett, Akihito Kiyama, Maaike Rump, Yoshiyuki Tagawa, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
Solvent exchange is a simple solution-based process to produce surface nanodroplets over a large area. The final size of the droplets is determined by both the flow and solution conditions for a given substrate. In this work, we investigate the growth dynamics of surface nanodroplets during solvent exchange by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF). The results show that during the solvent exchange, the formation of surface nanodroplets advanced on the surface in the direction of the flow...
May 21, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780467/computational-evaluation-of-metal-pentazolate-frameworks-inorganic-analogues-of-azolate-metal-organic-frameworks
#15
Mihails Arhangelskis, Athanassios D Katsenis, Andrew J Morris, Tomislav Friščić
Pentazolate is the ultimate all-nitrogen, inorganic member of the azolate series of aromatic 5-membered ring anions. As an azolate ligand, it has the potential to form open framework structures with metal ions, that would be inorganic analogues of azolate metal-organic frameworks formed by its congeners. However, while the low stability and elusive nature of the pentazolate ion have so far prevented the synthesis of such frameworks, computational studies have focused on pentazolate exclusively as a ligand that would form discrete metallocene structures...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780436/fragranced-consumer-products-effects-on-asthmatic-australians
#16
Anne Steinemann, Amanda J Wheeler, Alexander Larcombe
Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition...
2018: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780165/a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-acumens-corticotropin-releasing-factor-circuitry-for-neuropathic-pain-increased-susceptibility-to-opioid-reward
#17
Yuanzhong Kai, Yanhua Li, Tingting Sun, Weiwei Yin, Yu Mao, Jie Li, Wen Xie, Shi Chen, Likui Wang, Juan Li, Zhi Zhang, Wenjuan Tao
Recent studies have shown that persistent pain facilitates the response to morphine reward. However, the circuit mechanism underlying this process remains ambiguous. In this study, using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we found that persistent neuropathic pain reduced the minimum number of morphine conditioning sessions required to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. This dose of morphine had no effect on the pain threshold. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in both pain and emotion processing, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expressing neuronal activity was increased in CCI mice...
May 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779128/why-do-testate-amoeba-optima-related-to-water-table-depth-vary
#18
Irina V Kurina, Hongkai Li
This study focusses on the ecology of testate amoeba species in peatlands of the southern taiga of Western Siberia. To estimate the influence of the trophic state of mires on species optima related to water table depth, a separate study of three calibration datasets including ombrotrophic, minerotrophic and the combined habitats was conducted. In the datasets obtained separately from ombrotrophic and minerotrophic mires, the water table depth was the main factor affecting testate amoeba assemblages. However, the trophic state (specifically pH and ash content) was more important factor in the combined dataset, including all of the studied mires...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778018/phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-anti-depressant-medicinal-plants-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Jeanette Martins, Brijesh S
Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777807/identification-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-pea-pod-by-products-and-evaluation-of-their-biological-and-functional-properties
#20
Lilia Belghith-Fendri, Fatma Chaari, Khawla Ben Jeddou, Fatma Kallel, Fatma Bouaziz, Claire Boisset Helbert, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Semia Ellouz-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi-Aydi
A three-variable Box-Behnken design was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction time, ratio (raw material/water) and extraction temperature to allow maximum extraction yield of polysaccharides from pea pod (PPP). The preferred extraction conditions were: extraction time 195 min, extraction temperature 70 °C and ratio of raw material/water 1/40. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 16.21 ± 1.12%, which is in close agreement with the value predicted by response surface methodology model yield (16...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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