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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240346/complex-mechanical-conditioning-of-cell-seeded-agarose-constructs-can-influence-chondrocyte-biosynthetic-activity
#1
E Di Federico, J C Shelton, D L Bader
Articular cartilage with its inherently poor capacity for self-regeneration represents a primary target for tissue engineering strategies, with approaches focusing on the in vitro generation of neo-cartilage using chondrocyte-seeded 3D scaffolds subjected to mechanical conditioning. Although uniaxial compression regimens have significantly up-regulated proteoglycan synthesis, their effects on the synthesis of collagen have been modest. Articular cartilage is subjected to shear forces during joint motion. Accordingly, this study utilised an apparatus to apply biaxial loading to chondrocytes seeded within agarose constructs with endplates...
February 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239345/improvements-in-orientation-and-balancing-abilities-in-response-to-one-month-of-intensive-slackline-training-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study
#2
Milos Dordevic, Anita Hökelmann, Patrick Müller, Kathrin Rehfeld, Notger G Müller
Background: Slackline-training has been shown to improve mainly task-specific balancing skills. Non-task specific effects were assessed for tandem stance and preferred one-leg stance on stable and perturbed force platforms with open eyes. It is unclear whether transfer effects exist for other balancing conditions and which component of the balancing ability is affected. Also, it is not known whether slackline-training can improve non-visual-dependent spatial orientation abilities, a function mainly supported by the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239258/euryhaline-preferences-of-the-decapod-crab-mioplax-socialis-enabled-it-to-survive-during-the-badenian-sarmatian-extinction-miocene-in-the-central-paratethys
#3
Matúš Hyžný, Oleg Mandic, Mathias Harzhauser, Peter Ledvák
Although decapod crustaceans of the Central Paratethys were diverse during the Badenian (Langhian-Early Serravallian), a dramatic drop in their diversity occurred at the boundary with the Sarmatian. A crab Mioplax socialis is one of the few decapods reported from the Lower Sarmatian (Mohrensternia Zone) of the Paratethys. Until now, this species has been known from only a handful of specimens from Austria, Croatia and Bulgaria (Central Paratethys), and its systematics and ecology remain poorly known. Here, on the basis of new specimens from the Sarmatian tuffitic clays of the Stretava Formation (Skároš, Eastern Slovakia) we confirm that this species belongs to the subfamily Chasmocarcininae...
April 2016: Geologica Carpathica: the Journal of Geological Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237012/ranges-of-the-least-uncomfortable-joint-angles-for-assessing-automotive-driving-posture
#4
Junfeng Peng, Xuguang Wang, Lisa Denninger
Few investigations have been performed on how the ranges of preferred angles should be used for vehicle interior discomfort evaluation. This study investigated the ranges of the least uncomfortable joint angles considering both inter-individual and intra-individual variability. The driving postures of sixty-one subjects were collected using two multi-adjustable vehicle mock-ups under four test conditions by gradually adding the number of control parameters (constraints), from the "least-constrained" driving condition to the configurations close to currently existing vehicles...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236271/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-attributes-important-to-injection-experienced-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-preference-study-in-germany-and-the-united-kingdom
#5
Lei Qin, Stephanie Chen, Emuella Flood, Alka Shaunik, Beverly Romero, Marie de la Cruz, Cynthia Alvarez, Susan Grandy
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the relative importance of treatment-related attributes in influencing patient preferences for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) among injection-experienced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany and the United Kingdom. METHODS: T2DM patients experienced with injecting once-weekly (QW) exenatide or once-daily (QD) liraglutide completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE) survey. Patients chose between hypothetical blinded treatment profiles reflecting attributes of GLP-1RAs...
February 24, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235600/descending-facilitatory-pain-pathways-mediate-ongoing-pain-and-tactile-hypersensitivity-in-a-rat-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain
#6
C F M Nones, R F Claudino, L E N Ferreira, R C Dos Reis, T King, J G Chichorro
The Chronic Constriction Injury of the Infraorbital Nerve (CCI-ION) is a well-established model to study facial sensory changes related to trigeminal neuropathic pain. CCI-ION induces heat hypersensitivity that resolves within 2-3 weeks and a delayed mechanical hypersensitivity that emerges during the second week post-injury. The role of descending facilitatory pain pathways from the rostro ventromedial medulla (RVM) in mediating the heat and tactile hypersensitivity was examined. CCI-ION induced heat hypersensitivity observed 5days post-surgery was reversed by systemic, but not RVM lidocaine...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235415/a-systematic-review-of-health-economic-models-of-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-maintenance-treatment-of-non-prescription-opioid-dependence
#7
Mersha Chetty, James J Kenworthy, Sue Langham, Andrew Walker, William C N Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites...
February 24, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231443/changes-in-fish-communities-on-a-small-spatial-scale-an-effect-of-increased-habitat-complexity-by-an-offshore-wind-farm
#8
R van Hal, A B Griffioen, O A van Keeken
The number of offshore wind farms (OWF) is increasing to meet the demands for renewable energy. The piles and hard substrate surrounding these piles creates new habitat for species with preference to hard substrates. We studied the impact of this hard substrate on the fish community in a Dutch OWF in the sandy southern North Sea, which had been in operation for five years. Multi-mesh gillnets were placed near the OWF structures on the hard substrate protection revetments and on the sandy bottom in the middle of the farm...
January 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229805/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-health-anxiety-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Kate Cooper, James D Gregory, Ian Walker, Sinead Lambe, Paul M Salkovskis
BACKGROUND: Health anxiety (HA), or hypochondriasis, is a psychological problem characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one is physically unwell. A 2007 Cochrane review (Thomson and Page, 2007) found cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to be an effective intervention for individuals with HA. Similar findings were reported in a recent meta-analysis (Olatunji et al., 2014), which did not employ a systematic search strategy. The current review aimed to investigate the efficacy of CBT for HA, and to update the existing reviews...
March 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229502/shared-musical-knowledge-in-11-month-old-infants
#10
Samuel A Mehr, Elizabeth S Spelke
Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of social preferences. We randomly assigned 64 11-month-old infants to 1-2 weeks' exposure to one of two novel play songs that a parent either sang or produced by activating a recording inside a toy...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229461/how-different-is-a-3d-printed-replica-from-a-conspecific-in-the-eyes-of-a-zebrafish
#11
Tommaso Ruberto, Giovanni Polverino, Maurizio Porfiri
Robotics is emerging as a promising tool for aiding research on animal behavior. The possibility of generating customizable, controllable, and standardized robotic stimuli has been demonstrated through a number of behavioral assays, involving vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific appraisal of the nature of robotic stimuli is currently lacking. Here, we attempt to evaluate this aspect in zebrafish, through a within-subject design in which experimental subjects are faced with three experimental conditions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229022/opportunities-drive-the-global-distribution-of-protected-areas
#12
Germán Baldi, Marcos Texeira, Osvaldo A Martin, H Ricardo Grau, Esteban G Jobbágy
BACKGROUND: Protected areas, regarded today as a cornerstone of nature conservation, result from an array of multiple motivations and opportunities. We explored at global and regional levels the current distribution of protected areas along biophysical, human, and biological gradients, and assessed to what extent protection has pursued (i) a balanced representation of biophysical environments, (ii) a set of preferred conditions (biological, spiritual, economic, or geopolitical), or (iii) existing opportunities for conservation regardless of any representation or preference criteria...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228174/fast-atomic-scale-elemental-mapping-of-crystalline-materials-by-stem-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-achieved-with-thin-specimens
#13
Ping Lu, Renliang Yuan, Jian Min Zuo
Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved...
February 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227131/sound-preference-test-in-animal-models-of-addicts-and-phobias
#14
Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Ryo Soga, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Ryohei Kanzaki, Ryo Soga, Hirokazu Takahashi
Biased or too strong preference for a particular object is often problematic, resulting in addiction and phobia. In animal models, alternative forced-choice tasks have been routinely used, but such preference test is far from daily situations that addicts or phobic are facing. In the present study, we developed a behavioral assay to evaluate the preference of sounds in rodents. In the assay, several sounds were presented according to the position of free-moving rats, and quantified the sound preference based on the behavior...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226395/healthcare-professionals-accounts-of-challenges-in-managing-motor-neurone-disease-in-primary-healthcare-a-qualitative-study
#15
Sverre Vigeland Lerum, Kari Nyheim Solbraekke, Jan C Frich
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a progressive neurological disease causing muscle wasting, gradual paralysis and respiratory failure, with a life expectancy of 2-4 years. In order to better understand how MND is managed in the community, we conducted a qualitative study to explore the challenges healthcare professionals encounter when managing MND in primary healthcare. Based on data from 15 semi-structured interviews with primary healthcare professionals in Norway, we found that MND is viewed as a condition that requires exceptional effort and detailed planning...
February 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226342/-strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-postoperative-complications-of-gastric-cancer
#16
Xinyu Qin, Hongshan Wang, Yihong Sun
Postoperative complications after gastric cancer surgery has their own specificity and complexity, and the strategies for prevention and treatment should be of equal emphasis on both theory and technology. Based on the knowledge and familiarity with different postoperative complications, to efficiently prevent them, it is not only necessary to strengthen the training of acknowledged operative strategy, smooth and precise surgical techniques, but also to address the importance of overall preoperative assessment for patients, to treat the basic diseases, and to improve and correct their general conditions...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225554/person-specific-versus-multilevel-autoregressive-models-accuracy-in-parameter%C3%A2-estimates-at-the-population-and-individual-levels
#17
Siwei Liu
This paper compares the multilevel modelling (MLM) approach and the person-specific (PS) modelling approach in examining autoregressive (AR) relations with intensive longitudinal data. Two simulation studies are conducted to examine the influences of sample heterogeneity, time series length, sample size, and distribution of individual level AR coefficients on the accuracy of AR estimates, both at the population level and at the individual level. It is found that MLM generally outperforms the PS approach under two conditions: when the sample has a homogeneous AR pattern, namely, when all individuals in the sample are characterized by AR processes with the same order; and when the sample has heterogeneous AR patterns, but a multilevel model with a sufficiently high order (i...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224875/-thiamine-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder-and-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#18
D J Brinkman, J K Bekema, M A Kuijenhoven, J W Wijnia, M J H J Dekker, M A van Agtmael
- Patients with alcohol use disorder frequently have a thiamine deficiency.- A potential life-threatening complication of thiamine deficiency is Wernicke's encephalopathy.- Since it is clinically difficult to recognize Wernicke's encephalopathy, this condition is often treated inadequately. - Early supplementation of thiamine is important to avoid irreversible neurological damage. - There are differences between the Dutch guidelines regarding the supplementation of thiamine for the treatment of alcoholic use disorder, and those for Wernicke's encephalopathy...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222821/using-long-term-averted-goats-for-selective-grazing-in-olive-groves
#19
E Albanell, C L Manuelian, M Rovai, A A K Salama, G Caja
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a useful tool to modify animal feed preferences, allowing the implementation of selective grazing to control weeds in tree orchards without damaging the trees or affecting fruit production. LiCl is commonly used for inducing CTA. However, studies investigating the long-term persistence of CTA by LiCl in small ruminants are scarce. With this aim, we evaluated the efficiency of two LiCl doses (AV1 and AV2, 175 and 200 mg/kg BW, respectively) and a control (C, 0 mg/kg BW) for averting non-lactating dairy goats (n=15) to olive tree leaves...
February 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222124/modelling-the-effects-of-environmental-conditions-on-the-acoustic-occurrence-and-behaviour-of-antarctic-blue-whales
#20
Fannie W Shabangu, Dawit Yemane, Kathleen M Stafford, Paul Ensor, Ken P Findlay
Harvested to perilously low numbers by commercial whaling during the past century, the large scale response of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia to environmental variability is poorly understood. This study uses acoustic data collected from 586 sonobuoys deployed in the austral summers of 1997 through 2009, south of 38°S, coupled with visual observations of blue whales during the IWC SOWER line-transect surveys. The characteristic Z-call and D-call of Antarctic blue whales were detected using an automated detection template and visual verification method...
2017: PloS One
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