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conditioned preference

Klaus Lunau, Lina An, Miriam Donda, Michele Hohmann, Leonie Sermon, Vanessa Stegmanns
Flower visiting Eristalis hoverflies feed on nectar and pollen and are known to rely on innate colour preferences. In addition to a preference for visiting yellow flowers, the flies possess an innate proboscis reflex elicited by chemical as well as yellow colour stimuli. In this study we show that the flies' proboscis reflex is only triggered by yellow colour stimuli and not altered by conditioning to other colours. Neither in absolute nor in differential conditioning experiments the flies learned to associate other colours than yellow with reward...
2018: PloS One
Eoghan T Hurley, Daren Lim Fat, Shane K Farrington, Hannan Mullett
BACKGROUND: Anterior shoulder instability with significant glenoid bone loss is a challenging condition. The open Latarjet procedure is the established standard treatment method in this setting, but there is an increasing use of the arthroscopic technique. PURPOSE: To systematically review the current evidence in the literature to ascertain if the open or arthroscopic Latarjet procedure resulted in improved patient outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jason A Brant, Steven J Eliades, Hannah Kaufman, Jinbo Chen, Michael J Ruckenstein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate high-performing cochlear implant patients' performance on AzBio sentence testing. METHODS: Retrospective review of prospectively collected database at a tertiary care hospital. Unilateral cochlear implant patients with AzBio testing were included. The primary outcome of interest was AzBio performance scores in quiet and at +10 and +5 decibels signal to noise (dB S/N). RESULTS: One hundred eighty five subjects met inclusion criteria with scores for AzBio in quiet, 114 at +10 dB S/N, and 66 at +5 dB S/N...
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Tamer Sekmenli, Metin Gündüz, Hikmet Akbulut, H Haldun Emiroglu, Mustafa Koplay, Ilhan Ciftci
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is used as an alternative to enteral/nasoenteral feeding in situations where long-term oral feeding is ineffective or not tolerated. It is mostly preferred in patients with neurological conditions and also to support nutrition in patients with congenital heart diseases, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and various oropharyngeal diseases. Although it is easily applicable compared to many invasive procedures, it has complications ranging from wound infection to death...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Hanifi Şahin, Oya Soylu Karapınar, Eda Adeviye Şahin, Kenan Dolapçıoğlu, Ali Baloğlu
A broader range of more effective compression techniques are needed in the patients who have an intractable postpartum haemorrhage due to uterine atony despite medical treatment and B-Lynch sutures. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of a series of patients with haemorrhage who were managed by double B-Lynch suture. Fourteen patients who were treated in a tertiary hospital between July 2010 and February 2015 were included in the study. The intractable haemorrhage rate was 0.35% over 5 years (14/4000 births)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Bram D Vermeulen, Peter D Siersema
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal stents are used in clinical practice for endoscopic treatment of a wide variety of esophageal diseases and conditions. This review provides key principles and a literature update on the utility and limitations of esophageal stenting in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Indications for esophageal stenting can be subdivided into two groups. The first group consists of patients with malignant or benign dysphagia, in which an esophageal stent restores luminal patency...
March 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Günseli Kurt-Gür, Emel Ordu
NAD+ -dependent formate dehydrogenases (FDH, EC, providing energy to the cell in methylotrophic microorganisms, are stress proteins in higher plants and the level of FDH expression increases under several abiotic and biotic stress conditions. They are biotechnologically important enzymes in NAD(P)H regeneration as well as CO2 reduction. Here, the truncated form of the Gossypium hirsutum fdh1 cDNA was cloned into pQE-2 vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli DH5α-T1 cells. Recombinant GhFDH1 was purified 26...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Frédérique Rodieux, Laszlo Vutskits, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Walid Habre, Valérie Piguet, Jules A Desmeules, Caroline F Samer
Children represent a vulnerable population in which management of nociceptive pain is complex. Drug responses in children differ from adults due to age-related differences. Moreover, therapeutic choices are limited by the lack of indication for a number of analgesic drugs due to the challenge of conducting clinical trials in children. Furthermore the assessment of efficacy as well as tolerance may be complicated by children's inability to communicate properly. According to the World Health Organization, weak opioids such as tramadol and codeine, may be used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen for moderate nociceptive pain in both children and adults...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mari H Eilertsen, Magdalena N Georgieva, Jon A Kongsrud, Katrin Linse, Helena Wiklund, Adrian G Glover, Hans T Rapp
The paradigm of large geographic ranges in the deep sea has been challenged by genetic studies, which often reveal putatively widespread species to be several taxa with more restricted ranges. Recently, a phylogeographic study revealed that the tubeworm Sclerolinum contortum (Siboglinidae) inhabits vents and seeps from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Here, we further test the conspecificity of the same populations of S. contortum with additional mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We also investigate the genetic connectivity of another species with putatively the same wide geographic range - Nicomache lokii (Maldanidae)...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Renata N Florindo, Valquiria P Souza, Lívia R Manzine, Cesar M Camilo, Sandro R Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S Nascimento
Bifidobacterium is an important genus of probiotic bacteria colonizing the human gut. These bacteria can uptake oligosaccharides for the fermentative metabolism of hexoses and pentoses, producing lactate, acetate as well as short-chain fatty acids and propionate. These end-products are known to have important effects on human health. β-glucosidases (EC are pivotal enzymes for the metabolism and homeostasis of Bifidobacterium, since they hydrolyze small and soluble saccharides, typically producing glucose...
March 16, 2018: Biochimie
T Tiwari, L Jamieson, J Broughton, H P Lawrence, T S Batliner, R Arantes, J Albino
Indigenous populations around the world experience a disproportionate burden in terms of oral diseases and conditions. These inequalities are likely due to a complex web of social determinants that includes poverty, historical consequences of colonialism, social exclusion, government policies of assimilation, cultural annihilation, and racism in all its forms (societal, institutional). Despite documented oral health disparities, prevention interventions have been scarce in Indigenous communities. This review describes oral health interventions and their outcomes conducted for Indigenous populations of the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Rashmi Sarkar, Pallavi Ailawadi, Shilpa Garg
Melasma is a common skin condition that affects both men and women. However, it is more commonly seen in women and dark-skinned individuals, such as in Hispanics, Asians, and African Americans who live in areas with intense ultraviolet radiation. Melasma is less common in men, but it negatively affects the quality of life in men as much as it does in women. While melasma has been studied in detail in women, however, there is a paucity of studies on the clinico- etiopathology and therapeutics of melasma in men...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Despoina Angeliki Stavropoulou, Emiel Van Reckem, Stefaan De Smet, Luc De Vuyst, Frédéric Leroy
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are involved in colour and flavour formation of fermented meats. Their communities are established either spontaneously, as in some artisan-type products, or using a starter culture. The latter usually consists of Staphylococcus carnosus and/or Staphylococcus xylosus strains, although strains from other CNS species also have potential for application. However, it is not entirely clear how the fitness of alternative starter cultures within a fermented meat matrix compares to conventional ones and how this may be affected by processing conditions...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Frederick Fasslrinner, Johannes Schetelig, Andreas Burchert, Michael Kramer, Rudolf Trenschel, Ute Hegenbart, Michael Stadler, Kerstin Schäfer-Eckart, Michael Bätzel, Hans Eich, Martin Stuschke, Rita Engenhart-Cabillic, Mechthild Krause, Peter Dreger, Andreas Neubauer, Gerhard Ehninger, Dietrich Beelen, Wolfgang E Berdel, Timo Siepmann, Matthias Stelljes, Martin Bornhäuser
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intensity of conditioning before allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been studied in a randomised phase 3 trial comparing reduced-intensity conditioning with myeloablative conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Because of the short follow-up of the original trial, whether reduced-intensity conditioning increases the risk of late relapse compared with myeloablative conditioning remained unclear...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Joseph P DeSimone, David J Malenka, Paul W Weldner, Alexander Iribarne, Bruce J Leavitt, Jock N McCullough, Reed D Quinn, Joseph D Schmoker, Robert S Kramer, Yvon Baribeau, John D Klemperer, Gerald L Sardella, Elaine M Olmstead, Cathy S Ross, Anthony W DiScipio
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) arterial conduits are preferred to venous conduits because of longer patency. A single internal mammary artery (SIMA) is used routinely. Bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) are used less frequently. We sought to determine if BIMA were superior to SIMA. METHODS: From our regional registry of consecutive open heart surgery, we identified 47,984 patients who underwent isolated CABG from 1992-2014. Of the 1,482 BIMA patients, 1,297 were propensity matched to a cohort of SIMA patients...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Oscar Aníbal Stellatelli, Agustina Villalba, Carolina Block, Laura Estela Vega, Juan Esteban Dajil, Félix Benjamín Cruz
Small lizards can accommodate to constraints imposed by temporal changes in ambient temperature through a combination of adaptive evolution and behavioral and physiological plasticity. Thermal physiology plasticity may compensate for climate variation and favor performance while minimizing behavioral costs in sub-optimal conditions. The Tandilia's lizard, Liolaemus tandiliensis, occurs in an isolated mountain range of the Argentinean temperate Pampas. In this study, we compared the thermal biology of L. tandiliensis between late spring (December) and mid-summer (February)...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Stephanie S Bauerfeind, Jesper G Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke, David Berger, E Dale Broder, Madeleine Geiger, Manuela Ferrari, Wolf U Blanckenhorn
Climatic conditions can be very heterogeneous even over small geographic scales, and are believed to be major determinants of the abundance and distribution of species and populations. Organisms are expected to evolve in response to the frequency and magnitude of local thermal extremes, resulting in local adaptation. Using replicate yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations from cold (northern Europe) and warm climates (southern Europe), we compared 1) responses to short-term heat and cold shocks in both sexes, 2) heat shock protein (Hsp70) expression in adults and eggs, and 3) female reproductive traits when facing short-term heat stress during egg maturation...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
T C McDonnell, S Belyazid, T J Sullivan, M Bell, C Clark, T Blett, T Evans, W Cass, A Hyduke, H Sverdrup
Ecological effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition on two hardwood forest sites in the eastern United States were simulated in the context of a changing climate using the dynamic coupled biogeochemical/ecological model chain ForSAFE-Veg. The sites are a mixed oak forest in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia (Piney River) and a mixed oak-sugar maple forest in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (Cosby Creek). The sites have received relatively high levels of both S and N deposition and the climate has warmed over the past half century or longer...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Francesco Rigoli, Katrin H Preller, Raymond J Dolan
In several contexts, such as finance and politics, people make choices that are relevant for others but irrelevant for oneself. Focusing on decision-making under risk, we compared monetary choices made for one's own interest with choices made on behalf of an anonymous individual. Consistent with the previous literature, other-interest choices were characterized by an increased gambling propensity. We also investigated choice stochasticity, which captures how much decisions vary in similar conditions. An aspect related to choice stochasticity is how much decisions are tuned to the option values, and we found that this was higher during self-interest than during other-interest choices...
March 16, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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