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Mario García-Domínguez, Ana Lastra, Alicia R Folgueras, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda, María Teresa Fernández-García, Agustín Hidalgo, Luis Menéndez, Ana Baamonde
In the present study, we characterize the antinociceptive effects produced by the chemokine CCL4 in mice. The intraplantar administration of very low doses of CCL4 (0.1-3 pg) produced bilateral antinociception assessed by the unilateral hot-plate test (UHP) without evoking chemotactic responses at the injection site. Moreover, the subcutaneous administration of CCL4 (3-100 pg/kg) also yielded bilateral antinociception in the UHP and the paw pressure test and reduced the number of spinal neurons that express Fos protein in response to noxious stimulation...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Marie Barbier, Dominique Fellmann, Pierre-Yves Risold
The actual organization of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the rat is mostly based on cytoarchitecture and the distribution of several cell types, as described by McDonald in 1982. Four divisions were identified by this author. However, since this original work, one of these divisions, the intermediate part, has not been consistently recognized based on Nissl-stained material. In the present study, we observed that a compact condensation of retrogradely labeled cells is found in the CEA after fluorogold injection in the anterior region of the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area in the rat...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
W Sienkiewicz, A Dudek, A Zacharko-Siembida, M Marszałek
The study was carried out on three 4-month old female pigs. All the animals were deeply anesthetized and transcardially perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (pH 7.4). Left and right superior vagal ganglia (SVG) were collected and processed for immunofluorescence labeling method. The preparations were examined under a Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope equipped with adequate filter block. Neurons forming SVG were round or oval in shape with a round nucleus in the center. The majority of them (52%) were medium (M) (31-50 μm in diameter) while 7% and 41% were small (S) (up to 30μm in diameter) or large (L) (above 50 μm in diameter) in size, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides play a fundamental role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The proteolysis control of endogenous tachykinin and opioid neuropeptides has a significant impact on pain perception. The role of proprotein convertases (PCs) in the proteolysis of proneuropeptides was previously established but very few studies have shown the direct impact of PCs on the regulation of specific tachykinin and opioid peptides in the central nervous system. There is an increasing interest in the therapeutic targeting of PCs for the treatment of pain but it is imperative to assess the impact of PCs on the pronociceptive and the endogenous opioid systems...
October 2017: Neuropeptides
P Abate, A C Reyes-Guzmán, K Hernández-Fonseca, M Méndez
Several studies suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) facilitates ethanol intake. Opioid peptides play a main role in ethanol reinforcement during infancy and adulthood. However, PEE effects upon motor responsiveness elicited by an ethanol challenge and the participation of opioids in these actions remain to be understood. This work assessed the susceptibility of adolescent rats to prenatal and/or postnatal ethanol exposure in terms of behavioral responses, as well as alcohol effects on Met-enk expression in brain areas related to drug reinforcement...
April 2017: Neuropeptides
Ewing Duque-Díaz, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions...
March 2017: Anatomical Science International
Yongliang Jiang, Xiaofen He, Xiaohu Yin, Yafang Shen, Jianqiao Fang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its regulating effect on inflammation reaction and the endogenous opioid system of synovial tissues. Methods A total of 30 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one. The chronic pain model of CIA rats was made by cattle type-II collagen in the model group and EA group. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Kunlun" (BL 60) for 30 min from 16th day after model establishment, once a day for consecutive 10 days...
September 2015: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños, Hector Flores-Reyes, Nelson Lombana-Sanchez, Bernardino Cerda-Cristerna, Amaury Pozos-Guillen
PURPOSE: This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. METHODS: Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
W Sienkiewicz, A Chrószcz, A Dudek, M Janeczek, J Kaleczyc
The caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) is a prevetrebral ganglion which provides innervation to a number of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The morphology of CaMG and the chemical coding of neurones in this ganglion have been described in humans and many animal species, but data on this topic in the sheep are entirely lacking. This prompted us to undertake a study to determine the localization and morphology of sheep CaMG as well as immunohistochemical properties of its neurons. The study was carried out on 8 adult sheep, weighing from 40 to 60 kg each...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Yong-Liang Jiang, Xiao-Fen He, Ya-Fang Shen, Xiao-Hu Yin, Jun-Ying DU, Y I Liang, Jian-Qiao Fang
Previous studies have focused on strategies for pain relief based on the peripheral opioid system. However, little is known with regard to the profile of the peripheral opioid system in long-lasting inflammatory pain. In the current study, the intrinsic changes of the peripheral opioids were investigated in long-lasting inflammatory pain. A rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain was established. Paw swelling and thermal hyperalgesia (paw withdrawal latency, PWL) were analyzed until day 18 after the CFA injection...
June 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michael J Malcharek, Manuel Bartz, Birgit Rogos, Lutz Günther, Armin Sablotzki, Jochen Gille, Gerhard Schneider
BACKGROUND: Two methods of topical anaesthesia for awake fibreoptic intubation (FOI) in patients at risk of secondary cervical injury were compared: the translaryngeal injection (TLI) technique and the Enk Fibreoptic Atomizer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine which system of topical anaesthesia provides the fastest and most comfortable awake FOI, using the oral approach. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: A single centre trial between 2009 and 2011...
September 2015: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid peptides play a central role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The treatment of pain is very important in medicine and many studies using NK1 receptor antagonists failed to show significant analgesic effects in humans. Recent investigations suggest that both pronociceptive tachykinins and the analgesic opioid systems are important for normal pain sensation. The analysis of opioid peptides in Tac1(-/-) spinal cord tissues offers a great opportunity to verify the influence of the tachykinin system on specific opioid peptides...
August 2015: Neuropeptides
Janet D Lowe, Helen S Sanderson, Alexandra E Cooke, Mehrnoosh Ostovar, Elena Tsisanova, Sarah L Withey, Charles Chavkin, Stephen M Husbands, Eamonn Kelly, Graeme Henderson, Chris P Bailey
There is ongoing debate about the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in agonist-induced desensitization of the μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) in brain neurons. In the present paper, we have used a novel membrane-permeable, small-molecule inhibitor of GRK2 and GRK3, Takeda compound 101 (Cmpd101; 3-[[[4-methyl-5-(4-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl] methyl] amino]-N-[2-(trifuoromethyl) benzyl] benzamidehydrochloride), to study the involvement of GRK2/3 in acute agonist-induced MOPr desensitization. We observed that Cmpd101 inhibits the desensitization of the G protein-activated inwardly-rectifying potassium current evoked by receptor-saturating concentrations of methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), [d-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO), endomorphin-2, and morphine in rat and mouse locus coeruleus (LC) neurons...
August 2015: Molecular Pharmacology
Zhaoqun Liu, Zhi Zhou, Lingling Wang, Xiaorui Song, Hao Chen, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengqiang Wang, Hao Wang, Linsheng Song
Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Enke Baldini, Chiara Tuccilli, Natalie Prinzi, Salvatore Sorrenti, Laura Falvo, Corrado De Vito, Antonio Catania, Francesco Tartaglia, Renzo Mocini, Carmela Coccaro, Stefania Alessandrini, Susi Barollo, Caterina Mian, Alessandro Antonelli, Enrico De Antoni, Massimino D'Armiento, Salvatore Ulisse
A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, but no information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, we evaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median follow-up of 63 months...
2015: PloS One
Gopakumar Gopalakrishnan, Sinda Lepetre, Andrei Maksimenko, Simona Mura, Didier Desmaële, Patrick Couvreur
Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides-Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration...
May 2015: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yu-Wei Chen, Jessica R Barson, Aimee Chen, Bartley G Hoebel, Sarah F Leibowitz
Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN...
November 2014: Alcohol
P Abate, K Hernández-Fonseca, A C Reyes-Guzmán, I G Barbosa-Luna, M Méndez
The endogenous opioid system is involved in ethanol reinforcement. Ethanol-induced changes in opioidergic transmission have been extensively studied in adult organisms. However, the impact of ethanol exposure at low or moderate doses during early ontogeny has been barely explored. We investigated the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on alcohol intake and Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enk) content in rat offspring. Met-enk content was assessed in the ventral tegmental area [VTA], nucleus accumbens [NAcc], prefrontal cortex [PFC], substantia nigra [SN], caudate-putamen [CP], amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus...
November 1, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Fatemeh Rajaii, Laura Asnaghi, Raymond Enke, Shannath L Merbs, James T Handa, Charles G Eberhart
PURPOSE: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Although local disease can be controlled with radiation therapy or enucleation, many cases are complicated by metastases, which account for the significant mortality from this disease. To date, no chemotherapeutic regimens effectively treat local or metastatic disease. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been shown to be an important factor in the growth and metastasis of many cancers. One form of epigenetic alteration is DNA methylation, which often occurs at promoter elements resulting in the silencing of target gene transcription...
October 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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