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Ewing Duque-Díaz, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, José Angel Narváez, Rafael Coveñas
An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions...
February 20, 2016: Anatomical Science International
Yongliang Jiang, Xiaofen He, Xiaohu Yin, Yafang Shen, Jianqiao Fang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats and its regulating effect on inflammation reaction and the endogenous opioid system of synovial tissues. Methods A total of 30 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one. The chronic pain model of CIA rats was made by cattle type-II collagen in the model group and EA group. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Kunlun" (BL 60) for 30 min from 16th day after model establishment, once a day for consecutive 10 days...
September 2015: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños, Hector Flores-Reyes, Nelson Lombana-Sanchez, Bernardino Cerda-Cristerna, Amaury Pozos-Guillen
PURPOSE: This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), β-endorphins (β-End), and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. METHODS: Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons) were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg), which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg), which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
W Sienkiewicz, A Chrószcz, A Dudek, M Janeczek, J Kaleczyc
The caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) is a prevetrebral ganglion which provides innervation to a number of organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. The morphology of CaMG and the chemical coding of neurones in this ganglion have been described in humans and many animal species, but data on this topic in the sheep are entirely lacking. This prompted us to undertake a study to determine the localization and morphology of sheep CaMG as well as immunohistochemical properties of its neurons. The study was carried out on 8 adult sheep, weighing from 40 to 60 kg each...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Yong-Liang Jiang, Xiao-Fen He, Ya-Fang Shen, Xiao-Hu Yin, Jun-Ying DU, Y I Liang, Jian-Qiao Fang
Previous studies have focused on strategies for pain relief based on the peripheral opioid system. However, little is known with regard to the profile of the peripheral opioid system in long-lasting inflammatory pain. In the current study, the intrinsic changes of the peripheral opioids were investigated in long-lasting inflammatory pain. A rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain was established. Paw swelling and thermal hyperalgesia (paw withdrawal latency, PWL) were analyzed until day 18 after the CFA injection...
June 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michael J Malcharek, Manuel Bartz, Birgit Rogos, Lutz Günther, Armin Sablotzki, Jochen Gille, Gerhard Schneider
BACKGROUND: Two methods of topical anaesthesia for awake fibreoptic intubation (FOI) in patients at risk of secondary cervical injury were compared: the translaryngeal injection (TLI) technique and the Enk Fibreoptic Atomizer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine which system of topical anaesthesia provides the fastest and most comfortable awake FOI, using the oral approach. DESIGN: A randomised controlled study. SETTING: A single centre trial between 2009 and 2011...
September 2015: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Mouna Saidi, Francis Beaudry
Tachykinin and opioid peptides play a central role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The treatment of pain is very important in medicine and many studies using NK1 receptor antagonists failed to show significant analgesic effects in humans. Recent investigations suggest that both pronociceptive tachykinins and the analgesic opioid systems are important for normal pain sensation. The analysis of opioid peptides in Tac1(-/-) spinal cord tissues offers a great opportunity to verify the influence of the tachykinin system on specific opioid peptides...
August 2015: Neuropeptides
Janet D Lowe, Helen S Sanderson, Alexandra E Cooke, Mehrnoosh Ostovar, Elena Tsisanova, Sarah L Withey, Charles Chavkin, Stephen M Husbands, Eamonn Kelly, Graeme Henderson, Chris P Bailey
There is ongoing debate about the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in agonist-induced desensitization of the μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) in brain neurons. In the present paper, we have used a novel membrane-permeable, small-molecule inhibitor of GRK2 and GRK3, Takeda compound 101 (Cmpd101; 3-[[[4-methyl-5-(4-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl] methyl] amino]-N-[2-(trifuoromethyl) benzyl] benzamidehydrochloride), to study the involvement of GRK2/3 in acute agonist-induced MOPr desensitization. We observed that Cmpd101 inhibits the desensitization of the G protein-activated inwardly-rectifying potassium current evoked by receptor-saturating concentrations of methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), [d-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO), endomorphin-2, and morphine in rat and mouse locus coeruleus (LC) neurons...
August 2015: Molecular Pharmacology
Zhaoqun Liu, Zhi Zhou, Lingling Wang, Xiaorui Song, Hao Chen, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengqiang Wang, Hao Wang, Linsheng Song
Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae...
August 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Enke Baldini, Chiara Tuccilli, Natalie Prinzi, Salvatore Sorrenti, Laura Falvo, Corrado De Vito, Antonio Catania, Francesco Tartaglia, Renzo Mocini, Carmela Coccaro, Stefania Alessandrini, Susi Barollo, Caterina Mian, Alessandro Antonelli, Enrico De Antoni, Massimino D'Armiento, Salvatore Ulisse
A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, but no information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, we evaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median follow-up of 63 months...
2015: PloS One
Gopakumar Gopalakrishnan, Sinda Lepetre, Andrei Maksimenko, Simona Mura, Didier Desmaële, Patrick Couvreur
Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides-Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration...
May 2015: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yu-Wei Chen, Jessica R Barson, Aimee Chen, Bartley G Hoebel, Sarah F Leibowitz
Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN...
November 2014: Alcohol
P Abate, K Hernández-Fonseca, A C Reyes-Guzmán, I G Barbosa-Luna, M Méndez
The endogenous opioid system is involved in ethanol reinforcement. Ethanol-induced changes in opioidergic transmission have been extensively studied in adult organisms. However, the impact of ethanol exposure at low or moderate doses during early ontogeny has been barely explored. We investigated the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on alcohol intake and Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enk) content in rat offspring. Met-enk content was assessed in the ventral tegmental area [VTA], nucleus accumbens [NAcc], prefrontal cortex [PFC], substantia nigra [SN], caudate-putamen [CP], amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus...
November 1, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Fatemeh Rajaii, Laura Asnaghi, Raymond Enke, Shannath L Merbs, James T Handa, Charles G Eberhart
PURPOSE: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Although local disease can be controlled with radiation therapy or enucleation, many cases are complicated by metastases, which account for the significant mortality from this disease. To date, no chemotherapeutic regimens effectively treat local or metastatic disease. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been shown to be an important factor in the growth and metastasis of many cancers. One form of epigenetic alteration is DNA methylation, which often occurs at promoter elements resulting in the silencing of target gene transcription...
October 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Andreas C Schmidt, Lars E Dunaway, James G Roberts, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
Methionine-enkephalin (M-ENK) and leucine-enkephalin (L-ENK) are small endogenous opioid peptides that have been implicated in a wide variety of complex physiological functions, including nociception, reward processing, and motivation. However, our understanding of the role that these molecules play in modulating specific brain circuits remains limited, largely due to challenges in determining where, when, and how specific neuropeptides are released in tissue. Background-subtracted fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled with carbon-fiber microelectrodes has proven to be sensitive and selective for detecting rapidly fluctuating neurochemicals in vivo; however, many challenges exist for applying this approach to the detection of neuropeptides...
August 5, 2014: Analytical Chemistry
Luciana Inácia Gomes, Martin Johannes Enk, Ana Rabello
In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included...
January 2014: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Lixin Kan, Amelia A Mutso, Tammy L McGuire, Apkar Vania Apkarian, John A Kessler
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies found that neuron specific enolase promoter (Nse-BMP4) transgenic mice have increased expression of the nociceptive mediator, substance P and exaggerated local injury responses associated with heterotopic ossification (HO). It is of interest great to know the pain responses in these mice and how the opioid signaling is involved in the downstream events such as mast cell (MC) activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study utilized a transgenic mouse model of HO in which BMP4 is expressed under the control of the Nse-BMP4...
March 2014: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Walter Mier, Clemens Kratochwil, Jessica C Hassel, Frederik L Giesel, Barbro Beijer, John W Babich, Matthias Friebe, Michael Eisenhut, Alexander Enk, Uwe Haberkorn
UNLABELLED: The performance of cytotoxic drugs is defined by their selectivity of uptake and action in tumor tissue. Recent clinical responses achieved by treating metastatic malignant melanoma with therapeutic modalities based on gene expression profiling showed that malignant melanoma is amenable to systemic treatment. However, these responses are not persistent, and complementary targeted treatment strategies are required for malignant melanoma. METHODS: Here we provide our experience with different labeling procedures for the radioiodination of benzamides and report on initial dosimetry data and the first therapeutic application of (131)I-BA52, a novel melanin-binding benzamide in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma...
January 2014: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
B Husberg, M Schultzberg
The pathophysiology of the impaired sphincter function in Hirschsprung's disease is still unclear. The peptidergic innervation of the aganglionic large intestine is known to be disturbed. The present study analyzes the peptidergic innervation of the aganglionic internal anal sphincter (IAS) in comparison with that of the circular layer of ganglionic and aganglionic large intestine. Immunoreactivity for the following substances was analyzed: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), met-enkephalin (ENK), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), and neuropeptide Y (NPY)...
December 1996: Pediatric Surgery International
Daniel Chavarría-Bolaños, Alan Martinez-Zumaran, Nelson Lombana, Hector Flores-Reyes, Amaury Pozos-Guillen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of two sensory neuropeptides (substance P [SP] and calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP]) and two endogenous opioids (methionine-enkephalin [Met-Enk] and β-endorphin [β-End]) in dental pulp tissue samples subjected to controlled orthodontic intrusive forces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen healthy premolars were selected from eight patients who were undergoing extraction for orthodontic purposes. Eight were randomly used as controls, and the other eight were assigned to an experimental group (controlled orthodontic intrusive forces applied for 24 hours)...
May 2014: Angle Orthodontist
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