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Mougnyan Cox, Manisha Patel, Zhenteng Li, Sarah Kamel, Sandeep Deshmukh, Christopher Roth, Laurence Needleman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious common disorder with substantial cost and morbidity to society and can be life threatening in some cases. The majority of VTE is diagnosed on lower extremity ultrasound or CT pulmonary angiography, but some cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be occasionally diagnosed on CT of the abdomen and pelvis by the alert radiologist. The purpose of our study was to determine the fraction of new/unsuspected DVTs diagnosed on CTAP and the subsequent management and clinical course of these patients...
October 19, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Jianguo Zhuang, Xiuping Gao, Franklin Gao, Fadi Xu
We tested the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the caudomedial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS) are important for the ventilatory responses to stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), the carotid body-mediated hypoxia, and hypercapnia independent of the carotid body. First, we used immunohistochemistry to map MORs distribution in the caudal medulla. Then we compared the effects of intra-cmNTS microinjection of DAMGO (a MOR agonist) with or without a combination of CTAP (a MOR antagonist) on the ventilatory responses to: 1) right atrial injection of capsaicin (to stimulation of PCFs) and 2) acute hypoxia (HVR, to stimulate the carotid body) in awake intact rats; and 3) hypercapnia (HCVR) in the carotid body ablated rats...
October 12, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Nathalie Goemans, Marleen Vanden Hauwe, James Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song
BACKGROUND: Deficits in ambulatory function progress at heterogeneous rates among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The resulting inherent variability in ambulatory outcomes has complicated the design of drug efficacy trials and clouded the interpretation of trial results. We developed a prediction model for 1-year change in the six minute walk distance (6MWD) among DMD patients, and compared its predictive value to that of commonly used prognostic factors (age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use)...
2016: PloS One
Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Tenyu Motoyama, Naoya Kanogawa, Tomoko Saito, Yusuke Shinozaki, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Akinobu Tawada, Hideyuki Kato, Shinichiro Okabe, Fumihiko Kanai, Masaharu Yoshikawa, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Hypovascular nodules often occur together with hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains controversial whether hypovascular nodules associated with hypervascular HCC have any prognostic value. This study evaluated the prognostic impact of hypovascular nodules co-existing with hypervascular HCC as diagnosed by computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) and computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CTHA), which can sensitively capture the dynamic changes in blood flow through the portal vein and hepatic artery in patients with early stage HCC...
2016: PloS One
Eugenio Mercuri, James Edward Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song, Susan J Ward
High variability in patients' changes in 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) over time has complicated clinical trials of treatment efficacy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We assessed whether boys with DMD could be grouped into classes that shared similar ambulatory function trajectories as measured by 6MWD. Ambulatory boys aged 5 years or older with genetically confirmed DMD who were enrolled in a natural history study at 11 care centers throughout Italy were included. For each boy, standardized assessments of 6MWD were available at annual intervals spanning 3 years...
September 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Yana Puckett, Louis Bonacorsi, Matthew Caley, Shannon Farmakis, Colleen Fitzpatrick, Kaveer Chatoorgoon, Yosef Greenspon, Dennis W Vane
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma patients transferred to pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) often have imaging at the originating hospital (OH). The increased use of computed tomography (CT) raises concerns about malignancy risk from ionizing radiation leading many PTCs to adopt radiation dose reduction strategies. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to excess radiation from imaging before transfer. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,383 scans was performed on all trauma patients with CT imaging before transfer to our Level I PTC from 2010 to 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yin P Goh, Kenneth K Lau, Keat Low, Kevin Buchan, Lawrence Chia Wei Oh, Ahilan Kuganesan, Minh Huynh
OBJECTIVES: To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) METHODS: This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity...
March 14, 2016: European Radiology
Rika Yoshimatsu, Takuji Yamagami, Masaki Ishikawa, Kenji Kajiwara, Hiroshi Aikata, Kazuaki Chayama, Kazuo Awai
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in imaging findings on CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and CT during arterial portography (CTAP) by balloon occlusion of the treated artery and their relationship with iodized oil accumulation in the tumor during balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (B-TACE). METHODS: Both B-TACE and angiography-assisted CT were performed for 27 hepatocellular carcinomas. Tumor enhancement on selective CTHA with/without balloon occlusion and iodized oil accumulation after B-TACE were evaluated...
June 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Bruno Fant, Alexander Samuel, Stéphane Audebert, Agnès Couzon, Salsabiel El Nagar, Nathalie Billon, Thomas Lamonerie
The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor exerts multiple functions in specific developmental contexts, probably through the regulation of different sets of genes. Protein partners of Otx2 have been shown to modulate its activity. Therefore, the Otx2 interactome may play a key role in selecting a precise target-gene repertoire, hence determining its function in a specific tissue. To address the nature of Otx2 interactome, we generated a new recombinant Otx2(CTAP-tag) mouse line, designed for protein complexes purification...
November 2015: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Hui Fan, Teng-Fei Li, Nian Gong, Yong-Xiang Wang
Lamiophlomis rotata (L. rotata, Duyiwei) is an orally available Tibetan analgesic herb widely prescribed in China. Shanzhiside methylester (SM) is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. This study aims to evaluate the signal mechanisms underlying SM anti-allodynia, determine the ability of SM to induce anti-allodynic tolerance, and illustrate the interactions between SM and morphine, or SM and β-endorphin, in anti-allodynia and anti-allodynic tolerance...
February 2016: Neuropharmacology
Chinwendu Onwubiko, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Historically, computed tomography (CT) scans of injured children obtained at referring emergency departments were not reinterpreted by trauma center radiologists at our institution, creating a dilemma for trauma physicians: rescan, use the outside interpretation, or interpret scans themselves. In 2010, our radiologists began reinterpreting all referring hospital trauma CT scans; this study examines the effect of that change. METHODS: Transferred patients who had undergone an abdomen/pelvis CT (CTAP) scan between December 2010 and December 2012 were identified in our trauma registry...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jian-Ping Jiang, Yan Fu, Fen-Juan Hu, Yan-Guo Hong
This study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the modulation effect of activation of spinal Mas-related gene C (MrgC) receptors on hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar ( injection of (Tyr6)-γ2-MSH-6-12 (MSH) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Paw withdrawal latency test and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) administration of MSH or BAM8-22, two selective agonists of MrgC receptor, in hyperalgesia in rats. The results showed that i.t. administration of MSH inhibited acute hyperalgesic response induced by i...
August 25, 2015: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Chen Ju Fu, Yon Cheong Wong, Yuk Ming Tsang, Li Jen Wang, Huan Wu Chen, Yi Kang Ku, Cheng Hsien Wu, Huan Wen Chen, Shih Ching Kang
PURPOSE: Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. METHODS: Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT...
September 2015: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Jai S Bagia, Alan Chai, Roger Chou, Christopher Chu, John Rouse, Elizabeth Sinclair, Leon Vonthethoff, Armando Teixeira-Pinto
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the accuracy and inter-observer agreement for the detection of liver lesions using Primovist magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) and computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP). METHODS: Patients evaluated at St George Hospital Liver Unit for colorectal liver metastases (CRCLM) underwent CTAP as part of standard staging. pMRI was added to the pre-operative assessment. Two radiologists reported CTAP and two reported pMRI...
October 2015: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Zia A Dehqanzada, Quinn Meisinger, Jay Doucet, Alan Smith, Giovanna Casola, Raul Coimbra
BACKGROUND: Liberal use of computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in the screening of blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) has heightened concerns for increased radiation exposure and costs. We sought to demonstrate that in a select group of BAT patients, complete ultrasonography of trauma (CUST) is equivalent to routine CTAP but with significantly decreased radiation and costs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients screened for BAT from 2000 to 2011 in a Level 1 trauma center was performed...
August 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Afton McNierney-Moore, Cynthia Smith, Jose Guardiola, K Tom Xu, Peter B Richman
Background. Cultural differences and language barriers may adversely impact patients with respect to understanding the risks/benefits of medical testing. Objective. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic patients' knowledge of radiation risk that results from CT of the abdomen/pelvis (CTAP). Methods. We enrolled a convenience sample of adults at an inner-city emergency department (ED). Patients provided written answers to rate agreement on a 10-point scale for two correct statements comparing radiation exposure equality between: CTAP and 5 years of background radiation (question 1); CTAP and 200 chest x-rays (question 3)...
2015: PeerJ
Peter Blaesse, Lena Goedecke, Michaël Bazelot, Marco Capogna, Hans-Christian Pape, Kay Jüngling
The amygdala is a key region for the processing of information underlying fear, anxiety, and fear extinction. Within the local neuronal networks of the amygdala, a population of inhibitory, intercalated neurons (ITCs) modulates the flow of information among various nuclei of amygdala, including the basal nucleus (BA) and the centromedial nucleus (CeM) of the amygdala. These ITCs have been shown to be important during fear extinction and are target of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Here we provide evidence that the activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) by the specific agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin) hyperpolarizes medially located ITCs (mITCs) in acute brain slices of mice...
May 13, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jeremiah A Schumm, Candice M Monson, Timothy J O'Farrell, Nancy G Gustin, Kathleen M Chard
We studied 13 U.S. male military veterans and their female partners who consented to participate in an uncontrolled trial of couple treatment for alcohol use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (CTAP). CTAP is a 15-session, manualized therapy, integrating behavioral couples therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD) with cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Due to ineligibility (n = 1) and attrition (n = 3), 9 couples completed the study, and 7 completed 12 or more sessions...
June 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Shauna L Parkes, Laura A Bradfield, Bernard W Balleine
The anterior insular cortex (IC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core have been separately implicated in the selection and performance of actions based on the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. Here, we examined the role of connections between the IC and the NAc core in the performance of goal-directed actions. Rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes, after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed the projection from the IC to the NAc core and then disconnected these structures via asymmetrical excitotoxic lesions before training...
April 22, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lan-Qin Cao, Jie Wen, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Learning/memory impairment is one of the most serious problems induced by stress, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Opiates and opioid receptors are implicated in multiple physiological functions including learning and memory. However, there is no clear evidence whether the endogenous opioid system is involved in the formation of the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of μ opioid receptor in the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment by means of Morris water maze (MWM) test in a mouse elevated platform stress model...
April 25, 2015: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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