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Caroline Cristina-Silva, Victor Martins, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is rich in mu and kappa opioid receptors, and this system is involved in thermoregulation, analgesia, and defensive behaviors. No study approached the involvement of the PAG opioids in body temperature (Tb) regulation during psychological stress such as restraint. Because activation of mu and kappa receptors increases and reduces Tb, respectively, we tested the hypothesis that they exert excitatory and inhibitory modulation, respectively, of the restraint-induced fever in rats...
April 4, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Eugenio Mercuri, James Edward Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song, Susan J Ward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada, Toshifumi Tada, Kazuyuki Mizuno, Natsuko Kobayashi, Yosuke Inukai, Akira Takeda, Yasuhiro Sone
We encountered a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma who had discrepant imaging findings on portal vein thrombosis with portal phase dynamic computed tomography (CT) and CT during arterial portography (CTAP). CTAP, via the superior mesenteric artery and via the splenic artery, both showed a portal perfusion defect in the right hepatic lobe, indicating portal vein thrombosis in the main trunk of the right portal vein. Portal phase dynamic CT clearly depicted portal perfusion of the same hepatic area. Transarterial chemoembolization was successfully performed, but it was associated with severe liver injury...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Kristen A Horner, Mary Caroline Logan, Trevor J Fisher, Jordan B Logue
The behavioral effects of methamphetamine (METH) are mediated by the striatum, which is divided into the patch compartment, which mediates limbic and reward functions, and the matrix compartment, which mediates sensorimotor tasks. METH treatment results in repetitive behavior that is related to enhanced relative activation of the patch versus the matrix compartment. The patch, but not the matrix compartment contains a high density of μ opioid receptors, and localized blockade of patch-based μ opioid receptors attenuates METH-induced patch-enhanced activity and repetitive behaviors...
February 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
L Hubbard, B Ziemer, J Lipinski, S Malkasian, B Sadeghi, H Javan, B Dertli, E M Groves, S Molloi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of a low-dose, first-pass-analysis (FPA) dynamic computed tomography angiography and perfusion (CTAP) technique, for whole-organ anatomical and functional assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: An angioplasty balloon was advanced into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of five swine (35-45 kg) to induce several levels of stenosis at maximal hyperemia (intracoronary adenosine, 240 µg/min). Reference fluorescence microspheres and intravenous contrast (370 mg/mL iodine, 25 mL, 7 mL/s) were injected centrally and dynamic imaging was performed using a 320-slice CT scanner at 100 kVp and 200 mA...
June 2016: Medical Physics
M T Morgan, A McCallum, C J Fahrni
Fluorescence probes represent an attractive solution for the detection of the biologically important Cu(I) cation; however, achieving a bright, high-contrast response has been a challenging goal. Concluding from previous studies on pyrazoline-based fluorescent Cu(I) probes, the maximum attainable fluorescence contrast and quantum yield were limited due to several non-radiative deactivation mechanisms, including ternary complex formation, excited state protonation, and colloidal aggregation in aqueous solution...
February 2016: Chemical Science
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
H Y Lim, M Ashby, B Williams, A Grigg
We retrospectively evaluated the use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in febrile neutropenic autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. CTAP was more common in ASCT patients (59%) compared with AML (31%; P  < 0.001). Although abnormal findings were reported in 51%, only 10% resulted in therapy change (addition of anaerobic antibiotic/bowel rest), which would have otherwise been instituted based on clinical grounds. CTAP in these patients rarely provide useful information unsuspected clinically...
November 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Mougnyan Cox, Manisha Patel, Zhenteng Li, Sarah Kamel, Sandeep Deshmukh, Christopher Roth, Laurence Needleman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious common disorder with substantial cost and morbidity to society and can be life threatening in some cases. The majority of VTE is diagnosed on lower extremity ultrasound or CT pulmonary angiography, but some cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) may be occasionally diagnosed on CT of the abdomen and pelvis by the alert radiologist. The purpose of our study was to determine the fraction of new/unsuspected DVTs diagnosed on CTAP and the subsequent management and clinical course of these patients...
October 19, 2016: Emergency Radiology
Jianguo Zhuang, Xiuping Gao, Franklin Gao, Fadi Xu
We tested the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the caudomedial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS) are important for the ventilatory responses to stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), the carotid body-mediated hypoxia, and hypercapnia independent of the carotid body. First, we used immunohistochemistry to map MORs distribution in the caudal medulla. Then we compared the effects of intra-cmNTS microinjection of DAMGO (a MOR agonist) with or without a combination of CTAP (a MOR antagonist) on the ventilatory responses to: 1) right atrial injection of capsaicin (to stimulation of PCFs) and 2) acute hypoxia (HVR, to stimulate the carotid body) in awake intact rats; and 3) hypercapnia (HCVR) in the carotid body ablated rats...
January 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Nathalie Goemans, Marleen Vanden Hauwe, James Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song
BACKGROUND: Deficits in ambulatory function progress at heterogeneous rates among individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The resulting inherent variability in ambulatory outcomes has complicated the design of drug efficacy trials and clouded the interpretation of trial results. We developed a prediction model for 1-year change in the six minute walk distance (6MWD) among DMD patients, and compared its predictive value to that of commonly used prognostic factors (age, baseline 6MWD, and steroid use)...
2016: PloS One
Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Tenyu Motoyama, Naoya Kanogawa, Tomoko Saito, Yusuke Shinozaki, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Akinobu Tawada, Hideyuki Kato, Shinichiro Okabe, Fumihiko Kanai, Masaharu Yoshikawa, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Hypovascular nodules often occur together with hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains controversial whether hypovascular nodules associated with hypervascular HCC have any prognostic value. This study evaluated the prognostic impact of hypovascular nodules co-existing with hypervascular HCC as diagnosed by computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) and computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CTHA), which can sensitively capture the dynamic changes in blood flow through the portal vein and hepatic artery in patients with early stage HCC...
2016: PloS One
Eugenio Mercuri, James Edward Signorovitch, Elyse Swallow, Jinlin Song, Susan J Ward
High variability in patients' changes in 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) over time has complicated clinical trials of treatment efficacy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We assessed whether boys with DMD could be grouped into classes that shared similar ambulatory function trajectories as measured by 6MWD. Ambulatory boys aged 5 years or older with genetically confirmed DMD who were enrolled in a natural history study at 11 care centers throughout Italy were included. For each boy, standardized assessments of 6MWD were available at annual intervals spanning 3 years...
September 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Yana Puckett, Louis Bonacorsi, Matthew Caley, Shannon Farmakis, Colleen Fitzpatrick, Kaveer Chatoorgoon, Yosef Greenspon, Dennis W Vane
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma patients transferred to pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) often have imaging at the originating hospital (OH). The increased use of computed tomography (CT) raises concerns about malignancy risk from ionizing radiation leading many PTCs to adopt radiation dose reduction strategies. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to excess radiation from imaging before transfer. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1,383 scans was performed on all trauma patients with CT imaging before transfer to our Level I PTC from 2010 to 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Yin P Goh, Kenneth K Lau, Keat Low, Kevin Buchan, Lawrence Chia Wei Oh, Ahilan Kuganesan, Minh Huynh
OBJECTIVES: To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) METHODS: This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity...
December 2016: European Radiology
Rika Yoshimatsu, Takuji Yamagami, Masaki Ishikawa, Kenji Kajiwara, Hiroshi Aikata, Kazuaki Chayama, Kazuo Awai
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in imaging findings on CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and CT during arterial portography (CTAP) by balloon occlusion of the treated artery and their relationship with iodized oil accumulation in the tumor during balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (B-TACE). METHODS: Both B-TACE and angiography-assisted CT were performed for 27 hepatocellular carcinomas. Tumor enhancement on selective CTHA with/without balloon occlusion and iodized oil accumulation after B-TACE were evaluated...
June 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Bruno Fant, Alexander Samuel, Stéphane Audebert, Agnès Couzon, Salsabiel El Nagar, Nathalie Billon, Thomas Lamonerie
The Otx2 homeodomain transcription factor exerts multiple functions in specific developmental contexts, probably through the regulation of different sets of genes. Protein partners of Otx2 have been shown to modulate its activity. Therefore, the Otx2 interactome may play a key role in selecting a precise target-gene repertoire, hence determining its function in a specific tissue. To address the nature of Otx2 interactome, we generated a new recombinant Otx2(CTAP-tag) mouse line, designed for protein complexes purification...
November 2015: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Hui Fan, Teng-Fei Li, Nian Gong, Yong-Xiang Wang
Lamiophlomis rotata (L. rotata, Duyiwei) is an orally available Tibetan analgesic herb widely prescribed in China. Shanzhiside methylester (SM) is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. This study aims to evaluate the signal mechanisms underlying SM anti-allodynia, determine the ability of SM to induce anti-allodynic tolerance, and illustrate the interactions between SM and morphine, or SM and β-endorphin, in anti-allodynia and anti-allodynic tolerance...
February 2016: Neuropharmacology
Chinwendu Onwubiko, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Historically, computed tomography (CT) scans of injured children obtained at referring emergency departments were not reinterpreted by trauma center radiologists at our institution, creating a dilemma for trauma physicians: rescan, use the outside interpretation, or interpret scans themselves. In 2010, our radiologists began reinterpreting all referring hospital trauma CT scans; this study examines the effect of that change. METHODS: Transferred patients who had undergone an abdomen/pelvis CT (CTAP) scan between December 2010 and December 2012 were identified in our trauma registry...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jian-Ping Jiang, Yan Fu, Fen-Juan Hu, Yan-Guo Hong
This study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the modulation effect of activation of spinal Mas-related gene C (MrgC) receptors on hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar ( injection of (Tyr6)-γ2-MSH-6-12 (MSH) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Paw withdrawal latency test and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) administration of MSH or BAM8-22, two selective agonists of MrgC receptor, in hyperalgesia in rats. The results showed that i.t. administration of MSH inhibited acute hyperalgesic response induced by i...
August 25, 2015: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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