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Ebenezer O Oluwole, Linda Skaal
BACKGROUND: There is significantly high contraceptive knowledge in South Africa, but the uptake of contraceptives is average to low with resultant soaring of unplanned pregnancy and rising statistics of termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. This study aimed to establish the contraceptive practices among women in the South African population seeking TOP in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women seeking TOP in a women's clinic...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Hyun Jung Kim, Hyungwoo Kim, Myeong Ho Jung, Young Kyu Kwon, Byung Joo Kim
Berberine is traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders. The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract, which are responsible for the production of gut movements. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine on pacemaker potentials (PPs) in cultured ICC clusters from the mouse small intestine, and sought to identify the receptors involved and the underlying mechanisms of action. All experiments were performed on cultured ICCs, and a whole‑cell patch‑clamp configuration was used to record PPs from ICC clusters (current clamp mode)...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Atso Raasmaja, Pia Bäckström, Ville Oinio, Mikko Airavaara, Petteri Piepponen, Kalervo Kiianmaa
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens shell is a key brain area mediating the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH). Previously, it has been shown that the density of μ-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell is higher in alcohol-preferring Alko Alcohol (AA) rats than in alcohol-avoiding Alko Non-Alcohol rats. In addition, EtOH releases opioid peptides in the nucleus accumbens and opioid receptor antagonists are able to modify EtOH intake, all suggesting an opioidergic mechanism in the control of EtOH consumption...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Meng-Yun Dou, Hao Wu, Hai-Juan Zhu, Shi-Yun Jin, Ye Zhang, Shu-Fang He
Remifentanil preconditioning has been demonstrated to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rat hearts, while the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the protective effects of remifentanil against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in adult rat cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involving opioid receptors and downstream phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with remifentanil at different concentrations and then subjected to 90min hypoxia followed by 120min reoxygenation...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yuri Kiguchi, Yuri Aono, Yuriko Watanabe, Seiko Yamamoto-Nemoto, Kunihiko Shimizu, Takehiko Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kosuge, John L Waddington, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito, Tadashi Saigusa
Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens express delta- and mu-opioid receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. Delta- and mu-opioid receptors are divided into delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors and mu1- and mu2-opioid receptors, respectively. We analysed the roles of delta- and mu-opioid receptor subtypes in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Other than naloxonazine, given intraperitoneally, delta- and mu-opioid receptor ligands were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Graeme Birdsey, Tamaryn L Crankshaw, Sean Mould, Serela S Ramklass
OBJECTIVES: Provision of objective, evidence-based counselling in the context of induced abortion services is considered global good practice. However, there is limited understanding over the counselling needs of women accessing abortion services, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to explore the content and quality of pre-abortion counselling amongst women accessing an abortion service in South Africa as well as client experience of the counselling process. Perceptions of nurse counsellors were also sought...
July 8, 2016: Contraception
Cristina G Macedo, Leticia E Fanton, Luana Fischer, Claudia Herrera Tambeli
AIMS: To investigate whether the protective effect of testosterone on the development of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) nociception in male rats is mediated by the activation of central opioid mechanisms. METHODS: Experiments were performed on 156 male Wistar rats. A pharmacologic approach was used to assess the ability of opioid receptor antagonists infused into the dorsal portion of the brainstem and adjacent to the caudal component (subnucleus caudalis) of the spinal trigeminal nucleus to block the protective effect of testosterone in male rats...
2016: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Hai Tian, Yueming Xu, Fucun Liu, Guowei Wang, Sanjue Hu
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), mainly characterized by short-term decline of learning and memory, occurs after operations under anesthesia. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are highly expressed in interneurons of hippocampus, and is believed to be critical for the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity between hippocampal neurons. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fentanyl, a strong agonist of MOR and often used for anesthesia and analgesia in clinical settings, on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer-collateral CA1 pathway during acute exposure and washout in vitro...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jian-Tong Shen, Yun-Sheng Li, Zhi-Qiu Xia, Shi-Hong Wen, Xi Yao, Wen-Jing Yang, Cai Li, Ke-Xuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can cause a high rate of mortality in the perioperative period. Remifentanil has been reported to provide protection for organs against I/R injury. We hypothesized that remifentanil preconditioning would attenuate the small intestinal injury induced by intestinal I/R. METHODS: We used both an in vivo rat model of intestinal I/R injury and a cell culture model using IEC-6 cells (the rat intestinal epithelial cell line) subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)...
February 2016: Surgery
Jhonatan Christian Maraschin, Marcel Pereira Rangel, Antonio Joaquim Bonfim, Mariana Kitayama, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Hélio Zangrossi, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi
Reported evidence indicates that endogenous opioid peptides regulate the expression of escape behavior in rats, a panic-related defensive response, through μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG). These peptides are rapidly catabolized by degrading enzymes, including neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). Opiorphin is a peptide inhibitor of both NEP and APN and potentiates the action of endogenous enkephalins. This study evaluated the effects of intravenous and intra-dPAG administration of opiorphin on escape responses in the elevated T-maze and in a dPAG electrical stimulation test in rats...
February 2016: Neuropharmacology
Camila Marroni Roncon, Rafael Carvalho Almada, Jhonatan Christian Maraschin, Elisabeth Aparecida Audi, Hélio Zangrossi, Frederico Guilherme Graeff, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Previously reported results have shown that the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on escape behavior, interpreted as a panicolytic-like effect, is blocked by pretreatment with either the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or the 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) antagonist WAY100635 via injection into the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG). Additionally, reported evidence indicates that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) interacts with the 5-HT1A-R in the dPAG. In the present work, pretreatment of the dPAG with the selective MOR blocker CTOP antagonized the anti-escape effect of chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
Katharina J Gerhold, Ruth Drdla-Schutting, Silke D Honsek, Liesbeth Forsthuber, Jürgen Sandkühler
Due to its distinct pharmacological profile and lower incidence of adverse events compared with other opioids, buprenorphine is considered a safe option for pain and substitution therapy. However, despite its wide clinical use, little is known about the synaptic effects of buprenorphine in nociceptive pathways. Here, we demonstrate dose-dependent, bimodal effects of buprenorphine on transmission at C-fiber synapses in rat spinal cord dorsal horn in vivo. At an analgesically active dose of 1500 μg·kg(-1), buprenorphine reduced the strength of spinal C-fiber synapses...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ying-Biao Chen, Fen-Sheng Huang, Ban Fen, Jun-Bin Yin, Wei Wang, Yun-Qing Li
The function of the urinary bladder is partly controlled by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN). Our recent work demonstrated that endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-immunoreactive (IR) terminals form synapses with μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-expressing PPNs in the rat SPN. Here, we examined the effects of EM-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of the PPNs in young rats (24-30 days old) using a whole-cell patch-clamp approach. PPNs were identified by retrograde labeling with the fluorescent tracer tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR)...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nobuhiro Watanabe, Mathieu Piché, Harumi Hotta
BACKGROUND: In anesthetized rats and conscious humans, a gentle touch using a soft disc covered with microcones (with a texture similar to that of a finger), but not with a flat disc, inhibits nociceptive somatocardiac reflexes. Such an inhibitory effect is most reliably evoked when touch is applied to the skin ipsilateral and closest to nociceptive inputs. However, the mechanism of this inhibition is not completely elucidated. We aimed to clarify the types of cutaneous afferent fibers and spinal opioid receptors that contribute to antinociceptive effects of microcone touch...
2015: Molecular Pain
Michele Fraga de Santana, Adriana Gibara Guimarães, Danielle Oliveira Chaves, Juliane Cabral Silva, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Waldecy de Lucca Júnior, Jamylle Nunes de Souza Ferro, Emiliano de Oliveira Barreto, Flávia Evangelista dos Santos, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares, Cristiane Flora Villarreal, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior
CONTEXT: Pain corresponds to the most frequent reason for visits to physicians, and its control by conventional drugs is accompanied by several side effects, making treatment difficult. For this reason, new chemical entities derived from natural products still hold great promise for the future of drug discovery to pain treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory profiles of p-cymene (PC), a monocyclic monoterpene, and its possible mechanisms of action...
2015: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mingyan Guo, Dexiong Cao, Siyu Zhu, Ganglan Fu, Qiang Wu, Jianjun Liang, Minghui Cao
Alterations in glutamate transporter expression are closely related to opiate addition behavior, but the role of opioid receptors is unclear. In this study, we used primary cultures of hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats to study the effects of chronic exposure to morphine on excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3) expression and the roles of µ opioid receptor (MOR), δ opioid receptor (DOR), and κ opioid receptor (KOR) in the morphine-dependent alterations in EAAT3 expression. The results showed that the EAAT3 protein and mRNA expression levels decreased significantly after chronic exposure to morphine (10μmol/L) for 48h, whereas the concentration of extracellular glutamate increased...
December 2, 2015: Brain Research
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
Ejaculation is controlled by a spinal ejaculation generator located in the lumbosacral spinal cord, consisting in male rats of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their inter-spinal projections to autonomic and motor centers. LSt cells co-express several neuropeptides, including gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and enkephalin. We previously demonstrated in rats that GRP regulates ejaculation by acting within the lumbosacral spinal cord. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that enkephalin controls ejaculation by acting on mu (MOR) or delta opioid receptors (DOR) in LSt target areas...
2015: PloS One
Mindy Johnson, Mingtao Liu, Elaine Struble, Kanthi Hettiarachchi
Unlike linear peptides, analysis of cyclic peptides containing disulfide bonds is not straightforward and demands indirect methods to achieve a rigorous proof of structure. Three peptides that belong to this category, p-Cl-Phe-DPDPE, DPDPE, and CTOP, were analyzed and the results are presented in this paper. The great potential of two dimensional NMR and ESI tandem mass spectrometry was harnessed during the course of peptide characterizations. A new RP-HPLC method for the analysis of trifluoroacetic acid is also presented...
May 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Nobuhiro Watanabe, Mathieu Piché, Harumi Hotta
BACKGROUND: In anesthetized rats and conscious humans, a gentle touch using a soft disc covered with microcones (with a texture similar to that of a finger), but not with a flat disc, inhibits nociceptive somatocardiac reflexes. Such an inhibitory effect is most reliably evoked when touch is applied to the skin ipsilateral and closest to nociceptive inputs. However, the mechanism of this inhibition is not completely elucidated. We aimed to clarify the types of cutaneous afferent fibers and spinal opioid receptors that contribute to antinociceptive effects of microcone touch...
December 2015: Molecular Pain
Chao-Ling Qu, Fu-Quan Huo, Fen-Sheng Huang, Jing-Shi Tang
Previous studies have indicated that mu-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) are involved in antinociception in tail flick tests and GABAergic neurons or terminals express mu-opioid receptors in the VLO. The current study examined the effect of selective mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO on the GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in the VLO in rats using the whole-cell patch clamp. The results demonstrated that 5 μM DAMGO application into the rat VLO slices significantly reduced the GABAergic mIPSCs frequency, without any effect on its amplitude, and this effect of DAMGO was reversed by pretreatment with selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist 1 μM CTOP...
April 10, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
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