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PARP1 parylation

Lisa Rank, Sebastian Veith, Eva C Gwosch, Janine Demgenski, Magdalena Ganz, Marjolijn C Jongmans, Christopher Vogel, Arthur Fischbach, Stefanie Buerger, Jan M F Fischer, Tabea Zubel, Anna Stier, Christina Renner, Michael Schmalz, Sascha Beneke, Marcus Groettrup, Roland P Kuiper, Alexander Bürkle, Elisa Ferrando-May, Aswin Mangerich
Genotoxic stress activates PARP1, resulting in the post-translational modification of proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). We genetically deleted PARP1 in one of the most widely used human cell systems, i.e. HeLa cells, via TALEN-mediated gene targeting. After comprehensive characterization of these cells during genotoxic stress, we analyzed structure-function relationships of PARP1 by reconstituting PARP1 KO cells with a series of PARP1 variants. Firstly, we verified that the PARP1\E988K mutant exhibits mono-ADP-ribosylation activity and we demonstrate that the PARP1\L713F mutant is constitutively active in cells...
September 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Jing Lu, Renwei Zhang, Huiqi Hong, Zuolong Yang, Duanping Sun, Shuya Sun, Xiaolei Guo, Jiantao Ye, Zhuoming Li, Peiqing Liu
The Forkhead box-containing protein, O subfamily 3 (FoxO3) transcription factor negatively regulates myocardial hypertrophy, and its transcriptional activity is finely conditioned by diverse posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. Here, we introduce a novel modification of the FoxO3 protein in cardiomyocytes: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). This process catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) and their subsequent attachment to target proteins by PARPs...
October 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
K Martin-Hernandez, J-M Rodriguez-Vargas, V Schreiber, F Dantzer
Cell response to genotoxic stress requires a complex network of sensors and effectors from numerous signaling and repair pathways, among them the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays a central role. PARP1 is catalytically activated in the setting of DNA breaks. It uses NAD(+) as a donor and catalyses the synthesis and subsequent covalent attachment of branched ADP-ribose polymers onto itself and various acceptor proteins to promote repair. Its inhibition is now considered as an efficient therapeutic strategy to potentiate the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy and radiation or to exploit synthetic lethality in tumours with defective homologous recombination mediated repair...
September 23, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
S N Khodyreva, O I Lavrik
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) of proteins is one of the immediate cell responses to DNA damage and is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). When bound to damaged DNA, some members of the PARP family are activated and use NAD^(+) as a source of ADP to catalyze synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) covalently attached to a target protein. PAR synthesis is considered as a mechanism that provides a local signal of DNA damage and modulates protein functions in response to genotoxic agents. PARP1 is the best-studied protein of the PARP family and is widely known аs a regulator of repair of damaged bases and single-strand nicks...
July 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Harald Schuhwerk, Reham Atteya, Kanstantsin Siniuk, Zhao-Qi Wang
Despite more than 50 years of research, the vast majority of the biology of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) still remains a gross mystery. Originally described to be a part of the DNA repair machinery, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is synthesized immediately by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs, also known as ARTDs) upon DNA damage and then rapidly removed by degrading enzymes. PAR provides a delicate and spatiotemporal interaction scaffold for numerous target proteins. Thus, the multifaceted PARylation system, consisting of PAR itself and its synthesizers and erasers, plays diverse roles in the DNA damage response (DDR), in DNA repair, transcription, replication, chromatin remodelling, metabolism and cell death...
September 21, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Subhendu K Das, Ishita Rehman, Arijit Ghosh, Souvik Sengupta, Papiya Majumdar, Biman Jana, Benu Brata Das
Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) is essential for removing the DNA supercoiling generated during replication and transcription. Anticancer drugs like camptothecin (CPT) and its clinical derivatives exert their cytotoxicity by reversibly trapping Top1 in covalent complexes on the DNA (Top1cc). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyses the addition of ADP-ribose polymers (PAR) onto itself and Top1. PARP inhibitors enhance the cytotoxicity of CPT in the clinical trials. However, the molecular mechanism by which PARylation regulates Top1 nuclear dynamics is not fully understood...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Elena Matveeva, John Maiorano, Qingyang Zhang, Abdallah M Eteleeb, Paolo Convertini, Jing Chen, Vittoria Infantino, Stefan Stamm, Jiping Wang, Eric C Rouchka, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Specialized chromatin structures such as nucleosomes with specific histone modifications decorate exons in eukaryotic genomes, suggesting a functional connection between chromatin organization and the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Through profiling the functional location of Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase, we observed that it is associated with the nucleosomes at exon/intron boundaries of specific genes, suggestive of a role for this enzyme in alternative splicing. Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase has previously been implicated in the PARylation of splicing factors as well as regulation of the histone modification H3K4me3, a mark critical for co-transcriptional splicing...
2016: Cell Discovery
Kayla A Martin, Lena N Lupey, Italo Tempera
UNLABELLED: The latent infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with 1% of human cancer incidence. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) that mediate EBV replication during latency. In this study, we detail the mechanisms that drive cellular PARylation during latent EBV infection and the effects of PARylation on host gene expression and cellular function. EBV-infected B cells had higher PAR levels than EBV-negative B cells...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Rajib Ghosh, Sanchita Roy, Johan Kamyab, Francoise Dantzer, Sonia Franco
In mammalian cells, chromatin poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) at sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two highly related enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2. However, enzyme-specific genetic interactions with other DSB repair factors remain largely undefined. In this context, it was previously shown that mice lacking PARP1 and H2AX, a histone variant that promotes DSB repair throughout the cell cycle, or the core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku80 are not viable, while mice lacking PARP1 and the noncore NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs are severely growth retarded and markedly lymphoma-prone...
September 2016: DNA Repair
Antonella Sistigu, Gwenola Manic, Florine Obrist, Ilio Vitale
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a members of family of enzymes that catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and/or mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation (MARylation), two post-translational protein modifications involved in crucial cellular processes including (but not limited to) the DNA damage response (DDR). PARP1, the most abundant family member, is a nuclear protein that is activated upon sensing distinct types of DNA damage and contributes to their resolution by PARylating multiple DDR players. Recent evidence suggests that, along with DDR, activated PARP1 mediates a series of prosurvival and proapoptotic processes aimed at preserving genomic stability...
March 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Huiting Wei, Xiaochun Yu
Protein poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a widespread post-translational modification at DNA lesions, which is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification regulates a number of biological processes including chromatin reorganization, DNA damage response (DDR), transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and mitosis. PARP1, functioning as a DNA damage sensor, can be activated by DNA lesions, forming PAR chains that serve as a docking platform for DNA repair factors with high biochemical complexity...
June 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Lea Schaaf, Matthias Schwab, Christoph Ulmer, Simon Heine, Thomas E Mürdter, Jens O Schmid, Georg Sauer, Walter E Aulitzky, Heiko van der Kuip
Although hyperthermia offers clinical appeal to sensitize cells to chemotherapy, this approach has been limited in terms of long-term outcome as well as economic and technical burden. Thus, a more detailed knowledge about how hyperthermia exerts its effects on chemotherapy may illuminate ways to improve the approach. Here, we asked whether hyperthermia alters the response to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage and whether this mechanism is involved in its sensitizing effect in BRCA-competent models of ovarian and colon cancer...
May 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Fenqing Shang, Jiao Zhang, Zhao Li, Jin Zhang, Yanjun Yin, Yaqiong Wang, Traci L Marin, Brendan Gongol, Han Xiao, You-Yi Zhang, Zhen Chen, John Y-J Shyy, Ting Lei
Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs), diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity...
2016: PloS One
Maria V Sukhanova, Sanae Abrakhi, Vandana Joshi, David Pastre, Mikhail M Kutuzov, Rashid O Anarbaev, Patrick A Curmi, Loic Hamon, Olga I Lavrik
PARP1 and PARP2 are implicated in the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) after detection of DNA damage. The specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 interaction with long DNA fragments containing single- and/or double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in combination with biochemical approaches. Our data show that PARP1 localizes mainly on DNA breaks and exhibits a slight preference for nicks over DSBs, although the protein has a moderately high affinity for undamaged DNA...
April 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Bing Wang, Daniel Chu, Ying Feng, Yuqiao Shen, Mika Aoyagi-Scharber, Leonard E Post
We discovered and developed a novel series of tetrahydropyridophthlazinones as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 inhibitors. Lead optimization led to the identification of (8S,9R)-47 (talazoparib; BMN 673; (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one). The novel stereospecific dual chiral-center-embedded structure of this compound has enabled extensive and unique binding interactions with PARP1/2 proteins. (8S,9R)-47 demonstrates excellent potency, inhibiting PARP1 and PARP2 enzyme activity with Ki = 1...
January 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sonja J Gill, Jon Travers, Irina Pshenichnaya, Fiona A Kogera, Syd Barthorpe, Tatiana Mironenko, Laura Richardson, Cyril H Benes, Michael R Stratton, Ultan McDermott, Stephen P Jackson, Mathew J Garnett
Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant pediatric bone tumor with a poor prognosis for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Ewing's sarcoma cells are acutely hypersensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition and this is being evaluated in clinical trials, although the mechanism of hypersensitivity has not been directly addressed. PARP inhibitors have efficacy in tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations, which confer deficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). This drives dependence on PARP1/2 due to their function in DNA single-strand break (SSB) repair...
2015: PloS One
Hye Ran Lee, Mukesh Kumar Gupta, Duk Hyeon Kim, Jeong Ho Hwang, Bumsup Kwon, Hoon Taek Lee
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) prevents apoptosis through its involvement in pro-survival autophagy in cultured cells; whether or not the same is true for pre-implantation embryos has not yet been documented. In this study, we investigated the participation of PARylation and autophagy in in vitro porcine pre-implantation embryo development. The transcript levels of autophagy-related genes and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme required for PARylation, were transiently up-regulated by fertilization, decreased at the late 1-cell stage, and maintained until the blastocyst stage...
January 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Malgorzata Debiak, Kirsten Lex, Viviane Ponath, Waltraud Burckhardt-Boer, Horst Thiermann, Dirk Steinritz, Annette Schmidt, Aswin Mangerich, Alexander Bürkle
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy...
February 26, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Kayla A Martin, Matteo Cesaroni, Michael F Denny, Lena N Lupey, Italo Tempera
Posttranslational modifications, such as poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), regulate chromatin-modifying enzymes, ultimately affecting gene expression. This study explores the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on global gene expression in a lymphoblastoid B cell line. We found that inhibition of PARP catalytic activity with olaparib resulted in global gene deregulation, affecting approximately 11% of the genes expressed. Gene ontology analysis revealed that PARP could exert these effects through transcription factors and chromatin-remodeling enzymes, including the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2...
December 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Narasimharao Nalabothula, Taha Al-jumaily, Abdallah M Eteleeb, Robert M Flight, Shao Xiaorong, Hunter Moseley, Eric C Rouchka, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and gene expression. PARP1 interactions with chromatin architectural multi-protein complexes (i.e. nucleosomes) alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in gene expression. Chromatin structure impacts gene regulatory processes including transcription, splicing, DNA repair, replication and recombination. It is important to delineate whether PARP1 randomly associates with nucleosomes or is present at specific nucleosome regions throughout the cell genome...
2015: PloS One
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