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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927012/fiber-patterns-in-young-adults-living-in-different-environments-usa-spain-and-tunisia-anthropometric-and-lifestyle-characteristics
#1
María José García-Meseguer, Amalia Delicado-Soria, Ramón Serrano-Urrea
Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic diseases linked to economic development. The aim of this work was to characterize patterns of fiber intake among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), the University of Carthage (Tunisia), and Florida International University (USA)...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926990/implementing-a-health-and-wellbeing-programme-for-children-in-early-childhood-a-preliminary-study
#2
Karen Munday, Megan Wilson
In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family's ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic) kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated...
September 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926965/glycemic-responses-glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-values-of-some-street-foods-prepared-from-plantain-musa-spp-aab-genome-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#3
Camille Adam Kouamé, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Denis Yao N'dri, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare Pereko, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Abodo Jacko Rhedoor, Georges N'guessan Amani
The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage)...
September 16, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926949/influence-of-freeze-drying-and-oven-drying-post-blanching-on-the-nutrient-composition-of-the-edible-insect-ruspolia-differens
#4
Forkwa Tengweh Fombong, Mik Van Der Borght, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016...
September 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926888/-accelerated-transepithelial-corneal-collagen-cross-linking-for-progressive-keratoconus-with-a-thin-cornea-one-year-results
#5
Z R Lin, H P Wu, S R Luo, Z S Liu, N Dong, X M Shang, Z W Xie, L Yan, X Fang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of keratoconic eyes with a thin cornea treated with accelerated transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (A-TE-CXL) within 1 year. Methods: Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with progressive keratoconus with a minimum corneal thickness from 380 μm to 420 μm (including the epithelium) were included in this prospective, nonrandomized clinical study and treated with A-TE-CXL. Scoring of pain and foreign body sensation, slit lamp examination, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected distance visual acuity, corneal topography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, in vivo corneal confocal microscopy and endothelial cell count were assessed before surgery and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively...
September 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926767/stabilization-of-t4-bacteriophage-at-acidic-and-basic-ph-by-adsorption-on-paper
#6
Abigail Meyer, Melissa Greene, Chad Kimmelshue, Rebecca Cademartiri
Bacteriophages find applications in agriculture, medicine, and food safety. Many of these applications can expose bacteriophages to stresses that inactivate them including acidic and basic pH. Bacteriophages can be stabilized against these stresses by materials including paper, a common material in packaging and consumer products. Combining paper and bacteriophages creates antibacterial materials, which can reduce the use of antibiotics. Here we show that adsorption on paper protects T4, T5, and T7 bacteriophage from acidic and basic pH...
September 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926730/impact-of-evolocumab-treatment-on-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemic-patients-withdrawing-from-regular-apheresis
#7
Masa-Aki Kawashiri, Atsushi Nohara, Toshinori Higashikata, Hayato Tada, Chiaki Nakanishi, Hirofumi Okada, Tetsuo Konno, Kenji Sakata, Kenshi Hayashi, Akihiro Inazu, Hiroshi Mabuchi, Masakazu Yamagishi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis has been used to treat refractory hyperlipidemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Evolocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor used in clinical settings, can reduce LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by >70%. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of evolocumab on withdrawal from regular LDL apheresis in patients with heterozygous FH (HeFH). METHODS: Eleven patients with HeFH undergoing biweekly LDL apheresis were enrolled and were subsequently switched to a biweekly subcutaneous injection of 140 mg of evolocumab...
September 9, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926701/forensic-sampling-and-analysis-from-a-single-substrate-for-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-followed-by-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#8
Patrick W Fedick, Brandon J Bills, Nicholas E Manicke, R Graham Cooks
Sample preparation is the most common bottle-neck in the analysis and processing of forensic evidence. Time-consuming steps in many forensic tests involve complex separations such as liquid and gas chromatography or various types of extraction techniques, typically coupled with mass spectrometry (e.g. LC-MS). Ambient ionization ameliorates these slow steps by reducing or even eliminating sample preparation. While some ambient ionization techniques have been adopted by the forensic community, there is significant resistance to discarding chromatography as most forensic analyses require both an identification and a confirmation technique...
September 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926620/hunting-of-roe-deer-and-wild-boar-in-germany-is-non-lead-ammunition-suitable-for-hunting
#9
Annett Martin, Carl Gremse, Thomas Selhorst, Niels Bandick, Christine Müller-Graf, Matthias Greiner, Monika Lahrssen-Wiederholt
BACKGROUND: Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926610/image-similarity-evaluation-of-the-bulk-density-assigned-synthetic-ct-derived-from-mri-of-intracranial-regions-for-radiation-treatment
#10
Shin-Wook Kim, Hun-Joo Shin, Jin-Ho Hwang, Jin-Sol Shin, Sung-Kwang Park, Jin-Young Kim, Ki-Jun Kim, Chul-Seung Kay, Young-Nam Kang
OBJECTIVE: Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT). However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical practice due to its time-consuming nature. Therefore, we investigated an automatic anatomy segmentation method with the intention of providing the proper methodology to evaluate synthetic CT images for a radiation-dose calculation based on MR images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926298/association-between-coffee-consumption-and-circulating-levels-of-adiponectin-and-leptin
#11
Chang Beom Lee, Sung Hoon Yu, Na Yeon Kim, Seon Mee Kim, Sung Rae Kim, Seung Joon Oh, Sun Ha Jee, Jung Eun Lee
Coffee has been proposed to have benefits for chronic diseases; however, the relevant mechanism remains to be elucidated. We conducted a cross-sectional study and evaluated the levels of adiponectin and leptin in relation to coffee consumption. We included a total of 4406 individuals (men = 2587 and women = 1819) for adiponectin analysis and 2922 individuals (men = 1731 and women = 1191) for leptin analysis. Participants answered number of cups of coffee per week and types of coffee they consumed and their serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926213/whole-genome-amplification-and-sequencing-of-a-daphnia-resting-egg
#12
Justin B Lack, Lawrence J Weider, Punidan D Jeyasingh
Resting eggs banks are unique windows that allow us to directly observe shifts in population genetics, and phenotypes over time as natural populations evolve. Although a variety of planktonic organisms also produce resting stages, the keystone freshwater consumer, Daphnia, is a well-known model for paleogenetics and resurrection ecology. Nevertheless, paleogenomic investigations are limited largely because resting eggs do not contain enough DNA for genomic sequencing. In fact, genomic studies even on extant populations include a laborious preparatory phase of batch culturing dozens of individuals to generate sufficient genomic DNA...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926155/idna-screening-disease-vectors-as-vertebrate-samplers
#13
Arthur Kocher, Benoit De Thoisy, François Catzeflis, Sophie Valiere, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Blood meal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926116/a-molar-microwear-texture-analysis-of-pitheciid-primates
#14
Anna J Ragni, Mark F Teaford, Peter S Ungar
Dental microwear textures have been examined for a broad range of extant primates to assess their efficacy for reconstructing diets of fossil species. To date though, no dental microwear texture data have been published for pitheciid molars, despite reported variation in degree of sclerocarpy and, by extension, the fracture properties of foods these platyrrhines eat. While all pitheciids eat hard or tough seeds, Chiropotes and Pithecia have been documented to consume more than Callicebus. In this study, we explored whether measures of molar microwear texture complexity discriminate taxa following variation in reliance upon seeds, and whether dispersion among variables is greatest in Callicebus, which has the most variable diet...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926044/running-out-of-lithium-a-route-to-differentiate-between-capacity-losses-and-active-lithium-losses-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#15
Florian Holtstiege, Andrea Wilken, Martin Winter, Tobias Placke
Active lithium loss (ALL) resulting in a capacity loss (QALL), which is caused by lithium consuming parasitic reactions like SEI formation, is a major reason for capacity fading and, thus, for a reduction of the usable energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). QALL is often equated with the accumulated irreversible capacity (QAIC). However, QAIC is also influenced by non-lithium consuming parasitic reactions, which do not reduce the active lithium content of the cell, but induce a parasitic current. In this work, a novel approach is proposed in order to differentiate between QAIC and QALL...
September 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926033/working-towards-consensus-the-need-for-coordinated-policies-to-assist-control-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-emerging-disease-threats-in-south-east-asia
#16
I W Patrick, S Sovann, S Socheat
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease in South-East Asia. Its control has been a priority in the region for at least 20 years, with extensive institutional support and capacity-building being provided by the international community through the World Organisation for Animal Health. This paper describes the FMD control and eradication programme in the Mekong region (Myanmar, Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Vietnam) of South-East Asia and evaluates the FMD control programme in one of the region's countries, namely Cambodia...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926030/the-allocation-of-resources-for-animal-health
#17
K S Howe
Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926026/conceptual-models-underlying-economic-analysis-of-animal-health-and-welfare-with-the-inclusion-of-three-components-people-products-and-resources
#18
D A Hennessy
Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926025/animal-health-and-price-transmission-along-livestock-supply-chains
#19
M Aragrande, M Canali
Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926020/animal-health-economics-an-aid-to-decisionmaking-on-animal-health-interventions-case-studies-in-the-united-states-of-america
#20
T L Marsh, D Pendell, R Knippenberg
For animal disease events the outcomes and consequences often remain unclear or uncertain, including the expected changes in benefits (e.g. profit to firms, prices to consumers) and in costs (e.g. response, clean-up). Moreover, the measurement of changes in benefits and costs across alternative interventions used to control animal disease events may be inexact. For instance, the economic consequences of alternative vaccination strategies to mitigate a disease can vary in magnitude due to trade embargoes and other factors...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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