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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156272/a-quantitative-assessment-of-distributions-and-sources-of-tropospheric-halocarbons-measured-in-singapore
#1
Sayantan Sarkar, Wei Hong Fan, Shiguo Jia, Donald R Blake, Jeffrey S Reid, Puji Lestari, Liya E Yu
This work reports the first ground-based atmospheric measurements of 26 halocarbons in Singapore, an urban-industrial city-state in Southeast (SE) Asia. A total of 166 whole air canister samples collected during two intensive 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) campaigns (August-October 2011 and 2012) were analyzed for C1-C2 halocarbons using gas chromatography-electron capture/mass spectrometric detection. The halocarbon dataset was supplemented with measurements of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, sulfur gases and carbon monoxide to better understand sources and atmospheric processes...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#2
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148106/epidemiology-of-donors-and-recipients-lessons-from-the-scandat-database
#3
REVIEW
G Edgren, H Hjalgrim
With the development of several 'vein-to-vein' databases, which capture data on the entire donor-recipient continuum and link this data to health outcomes, there has been an increasing number of studies investigating the health effects of all aspects of the practice of transfusion medicine. The Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database is one of several such databases, which includes all electronically available data on blood donors, donations and transfusions since the late 1960s in Sweden and the early 1980s in Denmark...
November 16, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145727/directly-observing-micelle-fusion-and-growth-in-solution-by-liquid-cell-transmission-electron-microscopy
#4
Lucas R Parent, Evangelos Bakalis, Abelardo Ramírez-Hernández, Jacquelin K Kammeyer, Chiwoo Park, Juan de Pablo, Francesco Zerbetto, Joseph P Patterson, Nathan C Gianneschi
Amphiphilic small molecules and polymers form commonplace nanoscale macromolecular compartments and bilayers, and as such are truly essential components in all cells and in many cellular processes. The nature of these architectures, including their formation, phase changes, and stimuli-response behaviors, is necessary for the most basic functions of life, and over the past half-century, these natural micellar structures have inspired a vast diversity of industrial products, from biomedicines to detergents, lubricants, and coatings...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122804/the-messages-presented-in-online-electronic-cigarette-promotions-and-discussions-a-scoping-review-protocol
#5
Kahlia McCausland, Bruce Maycock, Jonine Jancey
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122724/detection-of-new-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-with-cardiac-implanted-electronic-devices-and-factors-associated-with-transition-to-higher-device-detected-atrial-fibrillation-burden
#6
Giuseppe Boriani, Taya V Glotzer, Paul D Ziegler, Mirko De Melis, Lorenza Mangoni di S Stefano, Milan Sepsi, Maurizio Landolina, Maurizio Lunati, Thorsten Lewalter, A John Camm
BACKGROUND: In patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) detection of new atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke. OBJECTIVE: To characterize daily AF burden at first detection and the rate of temporal transition to higher device detected AF burden. METHODS: A pooled analysis of data from three prospective studies was analyzed and 6580 patients (mean age 68±12 years, 72% male) with no history of AF and no anticoagulants at baseline were identified...
November 6, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118098/x-ray-free-electron-laser-opportunities-for-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Robert K Y Cheng, Rafael Abela, Michael Hennig
Past decades have shown the impact of structural information derived from complexes of drug candidates with their protein targets to facilitate the discovery of safe and effective medicines. Despite recent developments in single particle cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography has been the main method to derive structural information. The unique properties of X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) with unmet peak brilliance and beam focus allow X-ray diffraction data recording and successful structure determination from smaller and weaker diffracting crystals shortening timelines in crystal optimization...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116789/hydration-and-ion-pairing-in-aqueous-mg-2-and-zn-2-solutions-force-field-description-aided-by-neutron-scattering-experiments-and-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#8
Elise Duboue-Dijon, Philip E Mason, Henry E Fischer, Pavel Jungwirth
Magnesium and zinc dications possess the same charge and have an almost identical size. Yet, they behave very differently in aqueous solutions and play distinct biological roles. It is thus crucial to identify the origins of such different behaviors and to assess to what extent they can be captured by force field molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we combine neutron scattering experiments in a specific mixture of H2O and D2O (the so-called null water) with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to probe the difference in the hydration structure and ion pairing properties of chloride solutions of the two cations...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108805/stroke-risk-is-low-after-urgently-treated-transient-ischemic-attack
#9
Thea Vigen, Bente Thommessen, Ole Morten Rønning
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, the approach to patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) has shifted from treating only patients considered at high risk of recurrent stroke, to referring all patients with TIA to urgent assessment and immediate initiation of preventive treatment. The data on how this change has influenced the stroke rate after TIA are limited. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to identify the incidence of stroke recurrence after TIA. Second, we wanted to evaluate the ABCD2 score as a predictor of recurrent stroke...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106897/estimation-and-validation-of-spatio-temporal-parameters-for-sprint-running-using-a-radio-based-tracking-system
#10
Thomas Seidl, Daniel Linke, Martin Lames
Spatio-temporal parameters like step length, step frequency and ground contact time are directly related to sprinting performance. There is still a lack of knowledge, however, on how these parameters interact. Recently, various algorithms for the automatic detection of step parameters during sprint running have been presented which have been based on data from motion capture systems, video cameras, opto-electronic systems or Inertial measurement units. However, all of these methods suffer from at least one of the following shortcomings: they are (a) not applicable for more than one sprinter simultaneously, (b) only capable of capturing a small volume or (c) do not provide accurate spatial parameters...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106360/complications-in-the-90-day-postoperative-period-following-kidney-transplant-and-the-relationship-of-the-charlson-comorbidity-index
#11
Max A Levine, Trevor Schuler, Sita Gourishankar
INTRODUCTION: Renal transplant experiences widespread success, but little is published regarding the postoperative complications. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is a system of mortality risk assessment. Our purpose is to assess the 90-day postoperative complications after renal transplantation. The secondary objective is to clarify whether CCI predicts complications. We hypothesized increased CCI corresponds to worse complication on the Clavien scale. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of renal recipients at our institution (2011-2013), who were ≥18 years old and received complete follow up...
November 1, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102999/prospective-cohort-study-to-investigate-the-burden-and-transmission-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-care-homes-a-study-protocol
#12
Thomas Inns, Anna Pulawska-Czub, John P Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M Read, Nicholas J Beeching, David J Allen, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups, but illness is more severe and causes excess mortality in the elderly, particularly those in long-term care. The total burden of norovirus disease in the elderly in the UK is poorly defined; no current surveillance programmes systematically or accurately quantify norovirus infection in those living in care homes. The aim of this study is to evaluate an enhanced surveillance system for acute gastroenteritis among the elderly in care homes...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101151/laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-ivcm-for-evaluating-human-corneal-sub-basal-nerve-plexus-parameters-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#13
Manikkuwadura Eranda Harshan De Silva, Alexis Ceecee Zhang, Amalia Karahalios, Holly Rose Chinnery, Laura Elizabeth Downie
INTRODUCTION: Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) enables non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the cornea. In recent years, there has been a vast increase in researchers using laser scanning IVCM to image and quantify corneal nerve parameters. However, a range of methodological approaches have been adopted. The primary aim of this systematic review is to critically appraise the reported method(s) of primary research studies that have used laser scanning IVCM to quantify corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) parameters in humans, and to examine corneal nerve parameters in healthy individuals...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100722/measurement-of-the-electron-capture-probabilities-of-55-fe-with-a-metallic-magnetic-calorimeter
#14
M Loidl, M Rodrigues, R Mariam
The ratios of the electron capture probabilities PK, PL and PM of (55)Fe have been measured with a metallic magnetic calorimeter, a specific type of cryogenic detector. The (55)Fe source was enclosed in the detector absorber, whose dimensions were chosen such that the detection efficiency for Mn K X-rays was larger than 99.99%. Since all electrons and photons emitted by the source are absorbed in the detector, the detection efficiency is virtually 100% for K, L and M captures. The energy threshold was low enough to allow for clear separation of the M captures (~ 80eV) from noise...
October 31, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098048/time-is-of-the-essence-an-observational-time-motion-study-of-internal-medicine-residents-while-they-are-on-duty
#15
Cameron W Leafloor, Erin Yiran Liu, Catherine C Code, Heather A Lochnan, Erin Keely, Deanna M Rothwell, Alan J Forster, Allen R Huang
Background: The effects of changes to resident physician duty hours need to be measureable. This time-motion study was done to record internal medicine residents' workflow while on duty and to determine the feasibility of capturing detailed data using a mobile electronic tool. Methods: Junior and senior residents were shadowed by a single observer during six-hour blocks of time, covering all seven days. Activities were recorded in real-time. Eighty-nine activities grouped into nine categories were determined a priori...
June 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096465/development-of-reactive-force-fields-using-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-simulation-minimally-biased-to-experimental-data
#16
Chen Chen, Christopher Arntsen, Gregory A Voth
Incorporation of quantum mechanical electronic structure data is necessary to properly capture the physics of many chemical processes. Proton hopping in water, which involves rearrangement of chemical and hydrogen bonds, is one such example of an inherently quantum mechanical process. Standard ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, however, do not yet accurately predict the structure of water and are therefore less than optimal for developing force fields. We have instead utilized a recently developed method which minimally biases AIMD simulations to match limited experimental data to develop novel multiscale reactive molecular dynamics (MS-RMD) force fields by using relative entropy minimization...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089191/a-multi-site-feasibility-study-to-assess-fever-and-wheezing-in-children-after-influenza-vaccines-using-text-messaging
#17
Melissa S Stockwell, Colin D Marchant, A Patrica Wodi, Elizabeth D Barnett, Karen R Broder, Kathleen Jakob, Paige Lewis, Meyer Kattan, Anne Marie Rezendes, Angela Barrett, Devindra Sharma, Nadira Fernandez, Philip LaRussa
BACKGROUND: Using text messaging for vaccine safety monitoring, particularly for non-medically attended events, would be valuable for pandemic influenza and emergency vaccination program preparedness. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of text messaging to evaluate fever and wheezing post-influenza vaccination in a prospective, observational, multi-site pediatric study. METHODS: Children aged 2-11 years old, with an emphasis on children with asthma, were recruited during the 2014-2015 influenza season from three community-based clinics in New York City, and during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons from a private practice in Fall River, Massachusetts...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084046/using-clinical-notes-and-natural-language-processing-for-automated-hiv-risk-assessment
#18
Daniel J Feller, Jason Zucker, Michael T Yin, Peter Gordon, Noémie Elhadad
OBJECTIVE: Universal HIV screening programs are costly, labor-intensive, and often fail to identify high-risk individuals. Automated risk assessment methods that leverage longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs) could catalyze targeted screening programs. While social and behavioral determinants of health are typically captured in narrative documentation, previous analyses have considered only structured EHR fields. We examined whether natural language processing (NLP) would improve predictive models of HIV diagnosis...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082631/comment-on-negative-ions-molecular-electron-affinity-and-orbital-structure-of-cata-condensed-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-by-rustem-v-khatymov-mars-v-muftakhov-pavel-v-shchukin
#19
Edward S Chen, Edward C M Chen
RATIONALE: The anion mass spectral lifetimes for several aromatic hydrocarbons reported in the subject article were related to significantly different electron affinities. The different values are rationalized using negative ion mass spectral data. METHODS: Electron affinities for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported from the temperature dependence of unpublished electron capture detector data. These are compared with published values and the largest values are assigned to the ground state...
October 29, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082409/low-temperature-kinetics-and-theoretical-studies-of-the-reaction-cn-ch3nh2-a-potential-source-of-cyanamide-and-methyl-cyanamide-in-the-interstellar-medium
#20
Chantal Sleiman, Gisèle El Dib, Marzio Rosi, Dimitrios Skouteris, Nadia Balucani, André Canosa
The reaction between cyano radicals (which are ubiquitous in interstellar clouds) and methylamine (a molecule detected in various interstellar sources) has been investigated in a synergistic experimental and theoretical study. The reaction has been found to be very fast in the entire range of temperatures investigated (23-297 K) by using a CRESU apparatus coupled to pulsed laser photolysis - laser induced fluorescence. The global experimental rate coefficient is given by In addition, dedicated electronic structure calculations of the underlying potential energy surface have been performed, together with capture theory and RRKM calculations...
October 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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