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David H Root, Shiliang Zhang, David J Barker, Jorge Miranda-Barrientos, Bing Liu, Hui-Ling Wang, Marisela Morales
For decades, it has been thought that glutamate and GABA are released by distinct neurons. However, some mouse neurons innervating the lateral habenula (LHb) co-release glutamate and GABA. Here, we mapped the distribution of neurons throughout the rat brain that co-express vesicular transporters for the accumulation of glutamate (VGluT2) or GABA (VGaT) and for GABA synthesis (GAD). We found concentrated groups of neurons that co-express VGluT2, VGaT, and GAD mRNAs within subdivisions of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), entopeduncular (EPN), and supramammillary (SUM) nuclei...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Stefan Kuczera, Luigi Gentile, Timothy Brox, Ulf Olsson, Claudia Schmidt, Petrik Galvosas
The formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) in the lyotropic lamellar phase of the system triethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C10 E3 )/water is investigated under Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) using spatially resolved rheo-NMR spectroscopy and a combination of rheo-small angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and conventional rheology. Recent advances in rheo-NMR hardware development facilitated the application of LAOS deformations in high-field NMR magnets. For the range of investigated strain amplitudes (10-50) and frequencies (1 and 2 rad/s) MLV formation is observed in all NMR and most SALS experiments...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Heorhii V Humeniuk, Arnulf Rosspeintner, Giuseppe Licari, Vasyl Kilin, Luigi Bonacina, Eric Vauthey, Naomi Sakai, Stefan Matile
Bent N,N'-diphenyl-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazine amphiphiles are introduced as mechanosensitive membrane probes that operate by an unprecedented mechanism, namely, unbending in the excited state as opposed to the previously reported untwisting in the ground and twisting in the excited state. Their dual emission from bent or "closed" and planarized or "open" excited states is shown to discriminate between micelles in water and monomers in solid-ordered (So ), liquid-disordered (Ld ) and bulk membranes...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Min Zeng, Meng Huo, Yujun Feng, Jinying Yuan
ABC triblock copolymer assemblies with reversible "breathing" behaviors based on poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]-b-poly(benzyl methacrylate)-b-poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (POEGMA-b-PBnMA-b-PDEA) are fabricated via one-pot sequential reverisble addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization. Using a POEGMA as the macromolecular chain transfer agent, chain extension with BnMA and DEA is conducted in ethanol, where PBnMA acts as the core-forming block, and the PDEA block endows the solvophilicity and CO2 -responsiveness...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Gaëlle Mellot, Patricia Beaunier, Jean-Michel Guigner, Laurent Bouteiller, Jutta Rieger, François Stoffelbach
The influence of the macromolecular reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (macro-RAFT) agent architecture on the morphology of the self-assemblies obtained by aqueous RAFT dispersion polymerization in polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is studied by comparing amphiphilic AB diblock, (AB)2 triblock, and triarm star-shaped (AB)3 copolymers, constituted of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAc = A) and diacetone acrylamide (DAAm = B). Symmetrical triarm (AB)3 copolymers could be synthesized for the first time in a PISA process...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Matias Fingermann, Lucía Avila, Maria Belén De Marco, Luciana Vázquez, Darío Nicolás Di Biase, Andrea Verónica Müller, Mirta Lescano, José Christian Dokmetjian, Sonsire Fernández Castillo, José Luis Pérez Quiñoy
Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause the severe Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxins are protein toxins that bind and kill microvascular cells, damaging vital organs. No specific therapeutics or vaccines have been licensed for use in humans yet. The most common route of infection is by consumption of dairy or farm products contaminated with STEC. Domestic cattle colonized by STEC strains represent the main reservoir, and thus a source of contamination. Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMV) obtained after detergent treatment of gram-negative bacteria have been used over the past decades for producing many licensed vaccines...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Deborah L M Rupert, Mokhtar Mapar, Ganesh Vilas Shelke, Karin Norling, Mathias Elmeskog, Jan O Lotvall, Stephan Block, Marta Bally, Björn Agnarsson, Fredrik Höök
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are generating a growing interest due to the key roles they play in various biological processes and because of their potential use as biomarkers in clinical diagnostics and as efficient carriers in drug-delivery and gene-therapy applications. Their full exploitation, however, depends critically on the possibility to classify them into different sub-populations, a task that in turn relies on efficient means to identify their unique biomolecular and physical signatures. Due to the large heterogeneity of EV samples, such information remains rather elusive and there is accordingly a need for new and complementary characterization schemes that can help expanding the library of distinct EV features...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Joykrishna Dey, Rita Ghosh, Rita Das Mahapatra
The design and synthesis of biocompatible surfactants are important for a wide range of applications in cosmetics, personal care products, and nanomedicines. This feature article summarizes our studies over the past 8 years on the design, synthesis, surface activity, and self-assembly of a series of unconventional low-molecular-mass amphiphiles containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail or spacer and different ionic or zwitterionic head groups, including carboxylate, sulfonate, and quaternary ammonium salts...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Elham Hosseini Beheshti, Georges Emile Raymond Grau
More than seventy years ago Chargaff and West reported the presence of platelet-derived particles in normal plasma. Since then, an enormous number of studies have aimed at characterising the diversity of extracellular vesicles (EV) and understanding their role in biological and pathological processes, both as elements of communication vesicles and as biological transporters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 20, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
E Ferreira, R M Porter
Large bone defects remain a tremendous clinical challenge. There is growing evidence in support of treatment strategies that direct defect repair through an endochondral route, involving a cartilage intermediate. While culture-expanded stem/progenitor cells are being evaluated for this purpose, these cells would compete with endogenous repair cells for limited oxygen and nutrients within ischaemic defects. Alternatively, it may be possible to employ extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by culture-expanded cells for overcoming key bottlenecks to endochondral repair, such as defect vascularization, chondrogenesis, and osseous remodelling...
April 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Rinse Jaarsma, Albertus H de Boer
Potato is an important cultivated crop species and since it is moderately salt sensitive there is a need to develop more salt tolerant cultivars. A high activity of Na+ transport across the tonoplast in exchange for H+ is essential to reduce Na+ toxicity. The proton motive force (PMF) generated by the V-H+ -ATPase and the V-H+ -PPase energizes the Na+ (K+ )/H+ antiport. We compared the activity, gene expression, and protein levels of the vacuolar proton pumps and the Na+ /H+ antiporters in two potato cultivars ( Solanum tuberosum ) contrasting in their salt tolerance (cv...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gorjana Rackov, Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) - including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies - have received much scientific attention last decade as mediators of a newly discovered cell-to-cell communication system, acting at short and long distances. EVs carry biologically active molecules, thus providing signals that influence a spectrum of functions in recipient cells during various physiological and pathological processes. Recent findings point to EVs as very attractive immunomodulatory therapeutic agents, vehicles for drug delivery and diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in liquid biopsies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dominik Egger, Carla Tripisciano, Viktoria Weber, Massimo Dominici, Cornelia Kasper
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as primary candidates for cell-based therapies due to their multiple effects in regenerative medicine. Pre-conditioning of MSCs under physiological conditions—such as hypoxia, three-dimensional environments, and dynamic cultivation—prior to transplantation proved to optimize their therapeutic efficiency. When cultivated as three-dimensional aggregates or spheroids, MSCs display increased angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects as well as improved stemness and survival rates after transplantation, and cultivation under dynamic conditions can increase their viability, proliferation, and paracrine effects, alike...
June 19, 2018: Bioengineering
Sara Charmsaz, Maria Prencipe, Maeve Kiely, Graham P Pidgeon, Denis M Collins
Conventional therapies for cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain a mainstay in treatment, but in many cases a targeted approach is lacking, and patients can be vulnerable to drug resistance. In recent years, novel concepts have been emerging to improve the traditional therapeutic options in cancers with poor survival outcomes. New therapeutic strategies involving areas like energy metabolism and extracellular vesicles along with advances in immunotherapy and nanotechnology are driving the next generation of cancer treatments...
June 19, 2018: Cancers
Myron G Best, Pieter Wesseling, Thomas Wurdinger
Liquid biopsies represent a potential revolution in cancer diagnostics as a noninvasive method for detecting and monitoring diseases, complementary to or even replacing current tissue biopsy approaches. Several blood-based biosources and biomolecules, such as cell-free DNA and RNA, proteins, circulating tumor cells, and extracellular vesicles, have been explored for molecular test development. We recently discovered the potential of tumor-educated blood platelets (TEP) as a noninvasive biomarker trove for RNA biomarker panels...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Research
Robert M DeKroon, Harsha P Gunawardena, Rachel Edwards, Nancy Raab-Traub
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoproteins latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A constitutively activate multiple signaling pathways, and both have been shown to interact with cellular ubiquitin ligases and affect cellular ubiquitination. To detect the LMP1- and LMP2A-mediated effects on the global cellular proteome, epithelial cell lines expressing LMP1 or LMP2A were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. To identify proteins whose ubiquitination is affected by the viral proteins, the cells were cultured in the presence and absence of deubiquitinase (DUB) and proteasome inhibitors...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Skye Marshall, Patrick H Kelly, Brajesh K Singh, R Marshall Pope, Peter Kim, Bayan Zhanbolat, Mary E Wilson, Chaoqun Yao
BACKGROUND: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Symptomatic leishmaniasis causes considerable human morbidity in endemic regions. The Leishmania spp. evade host microbicidal mechanisms partially through virulence-associated proteins such as the major surface protease (MSP or GP63), to inactivate immune factors in the host environment...
June 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Samih Mohamed-Ahmed, Inge Fristad, Stein Atle Lie, Salwa Suliman, Kamal Mustafa, Hallvard Vindenes, Shaza B Idris
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been introduced as an alternative to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for cell-based therapy. However, different studies comparing ASCs and BMSCs have shown conflicting results. In fact, harvesting ASCs and BMSCs from different individuals might influence the results, making comparison difficult. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize donor-matched ASCs and BMSCs in order to investigate proliferation, differentiation potential and possible effects of donor variation on these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Diana Edwar Aziz, Aly Ahmed Abdelbary, Abdelhalim Ibrahim Elassasy
BACKGROUND: Niosomes are surfactant-based vesicular nanosystems that proved their efficiency in transdermal delivery by overcoming skin inherent anatomic barrier; startum corneum. Central composite design is an efficient tool for developing and optimizing niosomal formulations using fewer experiments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to prepare niosomes as a transdermal delivery system of diacerein using film hydration technique, employing central composite design, for avoiding its oral gastrointestinal problems...
June 18, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Ziyan Yu, Wenting Yu, Jia Liu, Danhong Wu, Chunxia Wang, Jinsong Zhang, Jiangyue Zhao
Objective To investigate the influence of Msx2 conditional gene knockout during lens development in mice. Methods Lens-specific Msx2 knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system. The eyes of Msx2 conditional knockout ( Msx2CKO) and wild-type ( Msx2WT) mice were examined during embryonic and early postnatal periods using histological, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA microarray analyses. Results Msx2CKO mice exhibited small lens formation and microphthalmia after birth, while Msx2CKO embryos exhibited a persistent lens stalk, small lens formation, and microphthalmia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
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