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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528362/budesonide-fluticasone-propionate-and-azithromycin-do-not-modulate-the-membrane-vesicle-release-by-thp-1-macrophages-and-respiratory-pathogens-during-macrophage-infection
#1
Charlotte Volgers, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience exacerbations and it is estimated that up to 50% of these exacerbations are associated with bacterial infections. The mainstay treatment for these infection-related exacerbations constitutes the administration of glucocorticoids, alone or in combination with antibiotics. A recent line of evidence demonstrates that many hormones including the steroid beclomethasone can also directly affect bacterial growth, virulence, and antibiotic resistance...
May 20, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528112/microencapsulation-and-characterization-of-liposomal-vesicles-using-a-supercritical-fluid-process-coupled-with-vacuum-driven-cargo-loading
#2
Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S H Rizvi
A new technique of liposomal microencapsulation, consisting of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion of the supercritical solution and vacuum-driven cargo loading, was successfully developed. It is a continuous flow-through process without usage of any toxic organic solvent. For use as a coating material, the solubility of soy phospholipids in supercritical carbon dioxide was first determined using a dynamic equilibrium system and the data was correlated with the Chrastil model with good agreement...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527761/bead-based-flow-cytometry-for-semi-quantitative-analysis-of-complex-membrane-vesicle-populations-released-by-bacteria-and-host-cells
#3
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
During infection, the release of nano-sized membrane vesicle is a process which is common both for bacteria and host cells. Host cell-derived membrane vesicles can be involved in innate and adaptive immunity whereas bacterial membrane vesicles can contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. To study the contribution of both membrane vesicle populations during infection is highly complicated as most vesicles fall within a similar size range of 30-300nm. Specialized techniques for purification are required and often no single technique complies on its own...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527445/conformations-and-orientational-ordering-of-semiflexible-polymers-in-spherical-confinement
#4
Andrey Milchev, Sergei A Egorov, Arash Nikoubashman, Kurt Binder
Semiflexible polymers in lyotropic solution confined inside spherical nanoscopic "containers" with repulsive walls are studied by molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory, as a first step to model confinement effects on stiff polymers inside of miniemulsions, vesicles, and cells. It is shown that the depletion effects caused by the monomer-wall repulsion depend distinctly on the radius R of the sphere. Further, nontrivial orientational effects occur when R, the persistence length ℓp, and the contour length L of the polymers are of similar magnitude...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527044/endocytic-vesicle-rupture-is-a-conserved-mechanism-of-cellular-invasion-by-amyloid-proteins
#5
William P Flavin, Luc Bousset, Zachary C Green, Yaping Chu, Stratos Skarpathiotis, Michael J Chaney, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ronald Melki, Edward M Campbell
Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526861/shedding-of-host-autophagic-proteins-from-the-parasitophorous-vacuolar-membrane-of-plasmodium-berghei
#6
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Mariana De Niz, Livia Niklaus, Monica Prado, Nina Eickel, Volker T Heussler
The hepatic stage of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is accompanied by an autophagy-mediated host response directly targeting the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) harbouring the parasite. Removal of the PVM-associated autophagic proteins such as ubiquitin, p62, and LC3 correlates with parasite survival. Yet, it is unclear how Plasmodium avoids the deleterious effects of selective autophagy. Here we show that parasites trap host autophagic factors in the tubovesicular network (TVN), an expansion of the PVM into the host cytoplasm...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526567/synergistic-effects-of-polymyxin-and-ionic-liquids-on-lipid-vesicle-membrane-stability-and-aggregation
#7
Sylvia L Hanna, Jenny L Huang, Alana J Swinton, Gregory A Caputo, Timothy D Vaden
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated for potential antibacterial and antibiotic applications due to their ability to destabilize and permeabilize the lipid bilayers in cell membranes. Bacterial assays have shown that combining ILs with antibiotics can provide a synergistic enhancement of their antibacterial activities. We have characterized the mechanism by which the conventional ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF4) enhance the lipid membrane permeabilization of the well-known antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB)...
May 11, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526137/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-autoimmunity-and-lupus-nephritis
#8
S K Devarapu, G Lorenz, O P Kulkarni, H-J Anders, S R Mulay
Autoimmunity involves immune responses directed against self, which are a result of defective self/foreign distinction of the immune system, leading to proliferation of self-reactive lymphocytes, and is characterized by systemic, as well as tissue-specific, inflammation. Numerous mechanisms operate to ensure the immune tolerance to self-antigens. However, monogenetic defects or genetic variants that weaken immune tolerance render susceptibility to the loss of immune tolerance, which is further triggered by environmental factors...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526116/allelopathic-interactions-between-the-macroalga-hizikia-fusiformis-harvey-and-the-harmful-blooms-forming-dinoflagellate-karenia-mikimotoi
#9
Zengling Ma, Mingjiang Wu, Lidong Lin, Ronald W Thring, Hengguo Yu, Xu Zhang, Min Zhao
The effects of algal blooms on seaweeds have been rarely studied, although harmful algal blooms (HABs) are now normally regarded as worldwide incidents. In the present study, the effects of dense Karenia mikimotoi cells on the growth and photosynthesis of Hizikia fusiformis, a common and commercially cultivated macroalga in coastal waters of the East China Sea (ECS), were studied to understand the possible consequences when the mariculture encountered a dense harmful algal bloom. Furthermore, the counteraction of the latter on the growth and photosynthetic activities of K...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525316/er-assembly-of-snare-complexes-mediating-formation-of-partitioning-membrane-in-arabidopsis-cytokinesis
#10
Matthias Karnahl, Misoon Park, Ulrike Mayer, Ulrike Hiller, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed cis-SNARE complexes...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524456/endothelial-microparticles-released-by-activated-protein-c-protect-beta-cells-through-epcr-par1-and-annexin-a1-fpr2-pathways-in-islets
#11
Guillaume Kreutter, Mohamad Kassem, Ali El Habhab, Philippe Baltzinger, Malak Abbas, Julie Boisrame-Helms, Lamia Amoura, Jean Peluso, Blandine Yver, Zobairi Fatiha, Geneviève Ubeaud-Sequier, Laurence Kessler, Florence Toti
Islet transplantation is associated with early ischaemia/reperfusion, localized coagulation and redox-sensitive endothelial dysfunction. In animal models, islet cytoprotection by activated protein C (aPC) restores islet vascularization and protects graft function, suggesting that aPC triggers various lineages. aPC also prompts the release of endothelial MP that bear EPCR, its specific receptor. Microparticles (MP) are plasma membrane procoagulant vesicles, surrogate markers of stress and cellular effectors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524263/development-of-enzyme-loaded-polyion-complex-vesicle-picsome-thermal-stability-of-enzyme-in-picsome-compartment-and-effect-of-coencapsulation-of-dextran-on-enzyme-activity
#12
Hengmin Tang, Yuki Sakamura, Takeshi Mori, Yoshiki Katayama, Akihiro Kishimura
Applications of enzymes are intensively studied, particularly for biomedical applications. However, encapsulation or immobilization of enzymes without deactivation and long-term use of enzymes are still at issue. This study focuses on the polymeric vesicles "PICsomes" for encapsulation of enzymes to develop a hecto-nanometer-scaled enzyme-loaded reactor. The catalytic activity of a PICsome-based enzyme nanoreactor is carefully examined to clarify the effect of compartmentalization by PICsome. Encapsulation by PICsome provides a stability enhancement of enzymes after 24 h incubation at 37 °C, which is particularly helpful for maintaining the high effective concentration of β-galactosidase...
May 19, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524163/dsdna-containing-exosomes-the-culprit-in-chemotherapy-induced-diarrhea
#13
Paul Kurywchak, Raghu Kalluri
Chemotherapy is a predominant strategy to treat cancer and is often associated with toxicities like severe diarrhea that puts patients at additional risk and can hinder treatment strategies. Lian et al. recently explored the immune-mediated mechanisms of Irinotecan-induced diarrhea in colorectal cancer and found that double-stranded DNA in small vesicles can launch inflammation pathways in immune cells through the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522698/oligogalacturonic-acid-inhibits-vascular-calcification-by-two-mechanisms-inhibition-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-osteogenic-conversion-and-interaction-with-collagen
#15
Ahmed Hodroge, Eric Trécherel, Marjorie Cornu, Walaa Darwiche, Ali Mansour, Katia Ait-Mohand, Thomas Verissimo, Cathy Gomila, Carole Schembri, Sophie Da Nascimento, Redouan Elboutachfaiti, Agnès Boullier, Emmanuel Lorne, Josiane Courtois, Emmanuel Petit, Sylvestre Toumieux, José Kovensky, Pascal Sonnet, Ziad A Massy, Saïd Kamel, Claire Rossi, Jérôme Ausseil
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Calcification of the vessel wall is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients having many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification is actively regulated by inductive and inhibitory mechanisms (including vascular smooth muscle cell adaptation) and results from an active osteogenic process. During the calcification process, extracellular vesicles (also known as matrix vesicles) released by vascular smooth muscle cells interact with type I collagen and then act as nucleating foci for calcium crystallization...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522593/small-gtpase-rab1b-is-associated-with-atg9a-vesicles-and-regulates-autophagosome-formation
#16
Soichiro Kakuta, Junji Yamaguchi, Chigure Suzuki, Mitsuho Sasaki, Saiko Kazuno, Yasuo Uchiyama
ATG9 is a membrane protein that is essential for autophagy and is considered to be directly involved in the early steps of autophagosome formation. Yeast Atg9 is mainly localized to small vesicles (Atg9 vesicles), whereas mammalian ATG9A is reportedly localized to the trans-Golgi network, the endosomal compartment, and other unidentified membrane structures. To dissect the ATG9A-containing membranes, we examined the subcellular localization of ATG9A and performed immunoisolation of those membranes. ATG9A-green fluorescent protein in human culture cells was observed as numerous puncta that move rapidly throughout the cytoplasm...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522426/polymer-coated-mucoadhesive-liposomes-intended-for-the-management-of-xerostomia
#17
Małgorzata I Adamczak, Ørjan G Martinsen, Gro Smistad, Marianne Hiorth
The aim of this work was to prepare and test different pharmaceutical formulations in respect of their potential in relieving dry mouth symptom. Since many of the products available on the market provide only temporary relief to the patients, there is need for new formulations able to retain on the oral mucosa. The prolonged moisture protection could be achieved by combining mucoadhesive materials, such as polymers containing hydrogen bonding groups, with vesicles capable of releasing hydration medium from the inner compartment...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522423/sertaconazole-nitrate-loaded-nanovesicular-systems-for-targeting-skin-fungal-infection-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#18
Menna M Abdellatif, Islam A Khalil, Mahmoud A F Khalil
The aim of this study was to develop different vesicular systems for sertaconazole nitrate and evaluate the ability of targeting deep skin layers to treat dermal fungal infection. Therefore, different phospholipid based nanovesicles, namely liposomes, glycerosomes, transferosmes and ethosomes were prepared and in-vitro evaluated for morphology, entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and zeta potential value, followed by ex-vivo evaluation through skin penetration and permeation. The selected vesicular formula was incorporated into gel base system and assessed by ex-vivo permeation visualization study using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522322/imaging-macropinosomes-during-shigella-infections
#19
REVIEW
Noelia Lopez-Montero, Yuen-Yan Chang, Anna Sartori-Rupp, Sonja Kühn, Jost Enninga
Macropinocytosis is the uptake of extracellular fluid within vesicles of varying size that takes place during numerous cellular processes in a large variety of cells. A growing number of pathogens, including viruses, parasites, and bacteria are known to induce macropinocytosis during their entry into targeted host cells. We have recently discovered that the human enteroinvasive, bacterial pathogen Shigella causes in situ macropinosome formation during its entry into epithelial cells. These infection-associated macropinosomes are not generated to ingest the bacteria, but are instead involved in Shigella's intracellular niche formation...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522212/bioengineering-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-vaccine-platform
#20
REVIEW
Matthias J H Gerritzen, Dirk E Martens, René H Wijffels, Leo van der Pol, Michiel Stork
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally non-replicating, highly immunogenic spherical nanoparticles derived from Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs from pathogenic bacteria have been successfully used as vaccines against bacterial meningitis and sepsis among others and the composition of the vesicles can easily be engineered. OMVs can be used as a vaccine platform by engineering heterologous antigens to the vesicles. The major advantages of adding heterologous proteins to the OMV are that the antigens retain their native conformation, the ability of targeting specific immune responses, and a single production process suffices for many vaccines...
May 15, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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