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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679854/thymol-attenuates-the-worsening-of-atopic-dermatitis-induced-by-staphylococcus-aureus-membrane-vesicles
#1
Hyo Il Kwon, Na Hee Jeong, So Hyun Jun, Joo Hee Son, Shukho Kim, Hyejin Jeon, Sun Chul Kang, Sang Hyun Kim, Je Chul Lee
Staphylococcus aureus membrane vesicles (MVs) aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD) through the delivery of bacterial effector molecules to host cells and the stimulation of inflammatory responses. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of thymol, a phenolic monoterpene found in essential oils derived from plants, on the worsening of AD induced by S. aureus MVs both in vitro and in vivo. The sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of thymol disrupted S. aureus MVs. Intact S. aureus MVs induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokine (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) genes in cultured keratinocytes, whereas thymol-treated S...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679684/expression-profile-and-reproductive-regulation-of-apgwamide-in-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#2
Kyeong Seop Kim, Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Neuropeptides in the central nervous system regulate reproductive activities in vertebrates. Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), a neuromediator expressed in the neural ganglia of mollusks, controls sexual maturation and reproduction. To clarify the role of APGWamide in sexual behavior regulation and gamete cell maturation in mollusks, we cloned the cDNA of APGWamide precursor (Hdh-APGWamide) and examined the spatiotemporal expression of the transcript in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The 222-amino acid sequence of the precursor deduced from the cDNA sequence showed typical features of gastropod APGWamide precursors...
April 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679665/comparison-of-exosomes-and-ferritin-protein-nanocages-for-the-delivery-of-membrane-protein-therapeutics
#3
Eunji Cho, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Dong-Hwee Kim, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types that play an important role in intercellular communication. Due to the characteristic of transferring their biomacromolecules, exosomes have potential as a new alternative for delivering protein therapeutics. Here, we investigate whether exosomes provide crucial advantages over other nanoparticles, in particular protein nanocage formulations, as a delivery system for membrane protein therapeutics. We characterized membrane-scaffold-based exosomes and protein-scaffold-based ferritin nanocages, both harboring SIRPα (signal regulatory protein α), an antagonist of CD47 on tumor cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679565/activation-of-tlr3-and-its-adaptor-ticam-1-increases-mir-21-levels-in-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-human-cells
#4
Yoshimi Fukushima, Masaaki Okamoto, Kana Ishikawa, Takahisa Kouwaki, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizes viral RNAs and trigger the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a PRR, recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in endolysosomes, whereas cytoplasmic dsRNA is sensed by another PRR, MDA5. TLR3 and MDA5 utilize TICAM-1 and MAVS, respectively, to trigger the signal for inducing innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes and microvesicles; an accumulating body of evidence has shown that EVs delivers functional RNA, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to other cells and thus mediate intercellular communications...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679260/slow-release-of-hiv-1-protein-nef-from-vesicle-like-structures-is-inhibited-by-cytosolic-calcium-elevation-in-single-human-microglia
#5
Matjaž Stenovec, Eva Lasič, Pia Pužar Dominkuš, Saša Trkov Bobnar, Robert Zorec, Metka Lenassi, Marko Kreft
Once infected by HIV-1, microglia abundantly produce accessory protein Nef that enhances virus production and infectivity, but little is known about its intracellular compartmentalization, trafficking mode(s), and release from microglia. Here, we transfected immortalized human microglia with a plasmid encoding Nef tagged with green fluorescent protein (Nef.GFP) to biochemically and microscopically identify Nef.GFP-associated cellular compartments and examine their mobility and Nef release from cultured cells...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679068/profiling-of-179-mirna-expression-in-blood-plasma-of-lung-cancer-patients-and-cancer-free-individuals
#6
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Evgeny S Morozkin, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Y Rykova, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Aleksandr A Zheravin, Oksana A Pashkovskaya, Evgeny A Pokushalov, Valentin V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Lung cancer is one of major cancers, and survival of lung cancer patients is dictated by the timely detection and diagnosis. Cell-free circulating miRNAs were proposed as candidate biomarkers for lung cancer. These RNAs are frequently deregulated in lung cancer and can persist in bodily fluids for extended periods of time, shielded from degradation by membrane vesicles and biopolymer complexes. To date, several groups reported the presence of lung tumour-specific subsets of miRNAs in blood. Here we describe the profiling of blood plasma miRNAs in lung cancer patients, healthy individuals and endobronchitis patients using miRCURY LNA miRNA qPCR Serum/Plasma Panel (Exiqon)...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679042/effect-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-galleria-mellonella-on-molecular-models-of-leishmania-membrane-thermotropic-and-fluorescence-anisotropy-study
#7
Isabel Andrea Patiño-Márquez, Marcela Manrique-Moreno, Edwin Patiño-González, Małgorzata Jemioła-Rzemińska, Kazimierz Strzałka
Antimicrobial peptides are molecules of natural origin, produced by organisms such as insects, which have focused attention as potential antiparasitic agents. They can cause the death of parasites such Leishmania by interacting with their membrane. In this study, additional information was obtained on how the anionic peptide 2 and cecropin D-like peptide derived from Galleria mellonella interact with liposomes that mimic the composition of the Leishmania membrane. In order to do this, lipid bilayers consisting of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dimyristoylphosphatidylserine, and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol were constructed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679002/self-replication-of-dna-by-its-encoded-proteins-in-liposome-based-synthetic-cells
#8
Pauline van Nies, Ilja Westerlaken, Duco Blanken, Margarita Salas, Mario Mencía, Christophe Danelon
Replication of DNA-encoded information and its conversion into functional proteins are universal properties of life. In an effort toward the construction of a synthetic minimal cell, we implement here the DNA replication machinery of the Φ29 virus in a cell-free gene expression system. Amplification of a linear DNA template by self-encoded, de novo synthesized Φ29 proteins is demonstrated. Complete information transfer is confirmed as the copied DNA can serve as a functional template for gene expression, which can be seen as an autocatalytic DNA replication cycle...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678959/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-content-in-bioactive-lipid-mediators-more-than-a-sack-of-microrna
#9
Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678958/cholesterol-and-the-journey-of-extracellular-vesicles
#10
Frank W Pfrieger, Nicolas Vitale
Eukaryotic cells employ distinct means to release specific signals and material. Research within the last decade has identified different types of membrane-enclosed structures collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs) as one of them. EVs fall in two categories depending on their subcellular origin. Exosomes are generated within the endosomal system and reach the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Microvesicles or microparticles are generated by shedding of the plasma membrane...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678957/a-new-role-for-extracellular-vesicles-how-small-vesicles-can-feed-tumors-big-appetite
#11
Ikrame Lazar, Emily Clement, Camille Attane, Catherine Muller, Laurence Nieto
Cancer cells must adapt their metabolism in order to meet the energy requirements for cell proliferation, survival in nutrient-deprived environments and dissemination. In particular, fatty acid metabolism is emerging as a critical process for tumors. Fatty acid metabolism can be modulated through intrinsic changes in gene expression or signaling between tumor cells, but also in response to signals from the surrounding microenvironment. Among these signals, extracellular vesicles could play an important role in fatty acid metabolism remodeling...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678733/pharmacokinetics-of-lipid-drug-conjugates-loaded-into-liposomes
#12
REVIEW
Rea D Signorell, Paola Luciani, Davide Brambilla, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Drugs that are neither lipophilic nor suitable for encapsulation via remote loading procedures are generally characterized by low entrapment efficiencies and poor retention in liposomes. One approach to circumvent this problem consists in covalently linking a lipid to the drug molecule in order to permit its insertion into the vesicle membrane. The nature of the conjugated lipid and linker, as well as the composition of the liposomal bilayer were found to have a profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties and biodistribution of the encapsulated drugs as well as on their biological activity...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678717/a-tandem-mass-tag-tmt-proteomic-analysis-during-the-early-phase-of-experimental-pancreatitis-reveals-new-insights-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#13
Violeta García-Hernández, Carmen Sánchez-Bernal, Domitille Schvartz, José J Calvo, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Jesús Sánchez-Yagüe
Changes in the protein expression occurring within the initiation phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) might be vital in the development of this complex disease. However, the exact mechanisms involved in the onset of AP remains elusive and most of our knowledge about the pathobiology of AP comes from animal models. We performed in a rat pancreatitic model a high-throughput shotgun proteomic profiling of the soluble and whole membrane fractions from the pancreas during the early phase of cerulein (Cer)-induced AP...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678671/the-development-of-oocytes-in-the-ovary-of-a-parthenogenetic-tick-haemaphysalis-longicornis
#14
Ryo Mihara, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Yasuyuki Abe, Tomohide Matsuo, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Suguru Kawano, Kozo Fujisaki, Hiroshi Suzuki
Haemaphysalis longicornis is an important vector of various pathogens in domestic animals and humans. The tick is a unique species with bisexual and parthenogenetic races. Although mating induces oocyte development, it is possible in the parthenogenetic race to complete oogenesis without copulation. Here we examined the developmental process of oocytes from unfed to the oviposition period in parthenogenetic H. longicornis. We classified the developmental stages of oocytes into five stages: stage I, germinal vesicle occupies more than half of the cytoplasm; stage II, germinal vesicle occupies less than half of the cytoplasm; stage III, germinal vesicle migrates from the center in the oocyte to the vicinity of the pedicel cells; stage IV, the cytoplasm is filled with yolk granules of various sizes; stage V, the cytoplasm is occupied by large yolk granules...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678545/preparation-of-drug-loaded-small-unilamellar-liposomes-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#15
Vincenzo De Leo, Silvia Ruscigno, Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Francesco Milano, Delia Mandracchia, Roberto Comparelli, Stefano Castellani, Angela Agostiano, Giuseppe Trapani, Lucia Catucci, Massimo Conese
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of liposome formulation on the ability of vesicles to penetrate a pathological mucus model obtained from COPD affected patients in order to assess the potential of such vesicles for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases by inhalation. Therefore, Small Unilamellar Liposomes (PLAIN-LIPOSOMEs), Pluronic® F127-surface modified liposomes (PF-LIPOSOMEs) and PEG 2000PE-surface modified liposomes (PEG-LIPOSOMEs) were prepared using the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678180/emerging-role-of-exosome-derived-long-non-coding-rnas-in-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Zhenqiang Sun, Shuaixi Yang, Quanbo Zhou, Guixian Wang, Junmin Song, Zhen Li, Zhiyong Zhang, Jizhong Xu, Kunkun Xia, Yuan Chang, Jinbo Liu, Weitang Yuan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by many cell types and have been attributed for their roles in many diseases including cancer. Exosomes secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells are critical mediators of intercellular communication in tumor microenvironments. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are selectively sorted into exosomes and can regulate cancer onset and progression in a variety of ways. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of exosomal lncRNAs and their dysregulation in multiple types of cancer...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678140/using-nanosims-coupled-with-microfluidics-to-visualize-the-early-stages-of-coral-infection-by-vibrio-coralliilyticus
#17
E Gibbin, A Gavish, I Domart-Coulon, E Kramarsky-Winter, O Shapiro, A Meibom, A Vardi
BACKGROUND: Global warming has triggered an increase in the prevalence and severity of coral disease, yet little is known about coral/pathogen interactions in the early stages of infection. The point of entry of the pathogen and the route that they take once inside the polyp is currently unknown, as is the coral's capacity to respond to infection. To address these questions, we developed a novel method that combines stable isotope labelling and microfluidics with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), to monitor the infection process between Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus under elevated temperature...
April 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677633/differences-in-the-bovine-milk-whey-proteome-between-early-pregnancy-and-the-estrous-cycle
#18
D Johnston, I Malo Estepa, H A Ebhardt, M A Crowe, M G Diskin
Current bovine pregnancy detection methods are not reliable until at least day 28 post artificial insemination (AI). The bovine estrous cycle is approximately 21 days; consequently, producers miss an opportunity to rebreed at the next estrous event. Therefore, commercial interest exists for the discovery of novel biomarkers of pregnancy which could reliably detect pregnancy status at or before day 21 of pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to use liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to perform a global, label-free, proteomics study on (i) milk whey and (ii) extracellular vesicle (EV) enriched milk whey samples, from day 21 of pregnancy, compared with day 21 of the estrous cycle, in order to identify potential protein biomarkers of early pregnancy...
April 12, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676587/a-potential-role-for-exosomal-tctp-export-in-vascular-remodeling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Elisabet Ferrer, Benjamin J Dunmore, Dhiya Hassan, Mark L Ormiston, Stephen Moore, John Deighton, Lu Long, Xu Dong Yang, Duncan J Stewart, Nicholas W Morrell
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary vascular cells. Increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic mediator, has recently been demonstrated in patients with hereditary PAH (HPAH) although its role in the pathobiology of PAH remains unclear. Silencing of TCTP in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from control subjects led to significant changes in morphology, cytoskeletal organization, increased apoptosis and decreased directionality during migration...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676464/the-endosomal-recycling-of-fgsnc1-by-fgsnx41-fgsnx4-heterodimer-is-essential-for-polarized-growth-and-pathogenicity-in-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Wenhui Zheng, Yahong Lin, Wenqin Fang, Xu Zhao, Yi Lou, Guanghui Wang, Huawei Zheng, Qifu Liang, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Stefan Olsson, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang
Endosomal sorting machineries regulate the transport of their cargoes among intracellular compartments. However, the molecular nature of such intracellular trafficking processes in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of two sorting nexin proteins and their cargoes in endosomal recycling in Fusarium graminearum using high-resolution microscopy and high-throughput co-immunoprecipitation strategies. We show that the sorting nexins, FgSnx41 and FgSnx4, interact with each other and assemble into a functionally interdependent heterodimer through their respective BAR domains...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
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