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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053961/maturation-of-xenopus-laevis-oocytes-under-cadmium-and-lead-exposures-cell-biology-investigations
#1
Sylvain Slaby, Julie Hanotel, Guillaume Marchand, Arlette Lescuyer, Jean-François Bodart, Alain Leprêtre, Sébastien Lemière, Matthieu Marin
Since amphibians are recognised as good models to assess the quality of environments, only few studies have dealt with the impacts of chemical contaminants on their gametes, while toxic effects at this stage will alter all the next steps of their life cycle. Therefore, we propose to investigate the oocyte maturation of Xenopus laevis in cadmium- and lead-contaminated conditions. The impacts of cadmium and lead ions were explored on events involved in the hormone-dependent process of maturation. In time-course experiments, cadmium, at the highest concentration, delayed and prevented the germinal vesicle breakdown...
October 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053949/unpackaging-the-roles-of-streptomyces-natural-products
#2
Christophe Jacob, Kira J Weissman
Streptomyces are the principle source of antibiotics in clinical use, but what the bacteria use these molecules for remains largely a mystery. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Hoefler et al. (2017) demonstrate a direct link between biosynthesis of the polyketide linearmycins and extracellular membrane vesicles.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053921/integrated-kidney-exosome-analysis-ikea-for-the-detection-of-kidney-transplant-rejection
#3
Jongmin Park, Hsing-Ying Lin, Jean Pierre Assaker, Sangmoo Jeong, Chen-Han Huang, Ahmed Kurdi, Kyungheon Lee, Kyle Fraser, Changwook Min, Siawosh Eskandari, Sujit Routray, Bakhos A Tannous, Reza Abdi, Leonardo Riella, Anil Chandraker, Cesar M Castro, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee, Jamil R Azzi
Kidney transplant patients require life-long surveillance to detect allograft rejection. Repeated biopsy, albeit the clinical gold standard, is an invasive procedure with the risk of complications and comparatively high cost. Conversely, serum creatinine or urinary proteins are non-invasive alternatives, but are late markers with low specificity. We here report a new urine-based platform to detect kidney transplant rejection. Termed iKEA (integrated kidney exosome analysis), the approach detects extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells into urine; we reasoned that T cells, attacking kidney allografts, would shed EVs, which in turn can be used as surrogate marker for inflammation...
October 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053817/autophagic-flux-is-required-for-the-synthesis-of-triacylglycerols-and-ribosomal-protein-turnover-in-chlamydomonas
#4
Inmaculada Couso, María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Enrique Martínez-Force, Hee-Sik Kim, Yonghua He, James G Umen, José L Crespo, Peter Bozhkov
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that allows cells to recycle unneeded or damaged material to maintain cellular homeostasis. This highly dynamic process is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which engulf and deliver the cargo to the vacuole. Flow of material through the autophagy pathway and its degradation in the vacuole is known as autophagic flux, and reflects the autophagic degradation activity. A number of assays have been developed to determine autophagic flux in yeasts, mammals, and plants, but it has not been examined yet in algae...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053652/a-report-on-the-clinical-pathological-correlations-of-788-gingival-lesion
#5
A Gambino, M Carbone, R Broccoletti, P Carcieri, D Conrotto, M Carrozzo, P-G Arduino
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of a variety of non-plaque related gingival diseases have become an integrated aspect of everyday dentistry. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between clinical appearance and histopathological features of gingival lesions in a large Northern Italian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 788 cases of gingival and alveolar mucosal biopsies was set up. Statistical analysis was performed by calculating the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (C...
October 20, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053069/detection-of-glioblastoma-in-biofluids
#6
Javier M Figueroa, Bob S Carter
The detection of glioblastoma (GBM) in biofluids offers potential advantages over existing paradigms for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of glial tumors. Biofluid-based detection of GBM focuses on detecting tumor-specific biomarkers in the blood and CSF. Current clinical research concentrates on studying 3 distinct tumor-related elements: extracellular macromolecules, extracellular vesicles, and circulating tumor cells. Investigations into these 3 biological classifications span the range of locales for tumor-specific biomarker discovery, and combined, have the potential to significantly impact GBM diagnosis, monitoring for treatment response, and surveillance for recurrence...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052840/crowd-sourcing-of-membrane-fission-how-crowding-of-non-specialized-membrane-bound-proteins-contributes-to-cellular-membrane-fission
#7
REVIEW
Marco M Manni, Jure Derganc, Alenka Čopič
Fission of cellular membranes is ubiquitous and essential for life. Complex protein machineries, such as the dynamin and ESCRT spirals, have evolved to mediate membrane fission during diverse cellular processes, for example, vesicle budding. A new study suggests that non-specialized membrane-bound proteins can induce membrane fission through mass action due to protein crowding. Because up to 2/3 of the mass of cellular membranes is contributed by proteins, membrane protein crowding is an important physiological parameter...
October 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052421/quantifying-solute-partitioning-in-phosphatidylcholine-membranes
#8
Christine A Gobrogge, Robert Allan Walker
Time resolved fluorescence measurements were used to characterize and quantify solute partitioning into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid vesicles as a function of solute concentration and temperature. The solutes, coumarin 152 (C152) and coumarin 461 (C461), both belong to a family of 7‑amino coumarin dyes that have distinctive fluorescence lifetimes in different solvation environments. The two solutes differ in the 4-position where C152 has a trifluoro methyl group in place of C461's -CH3 group...
October 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052144/the-effects-of-extracellular-serum-concentration-on-app-processing-in-npc1-deficient-app-overexpressing-n2a-cells
#9
M Maulik, D Vergote, G Phukan, J Chung, G Thinakaran, S Kar
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by a set of proteases including α-/β-/γ- and recently identified η-secretases, generating C-terminal fragments (CTFs) of varying lengths and amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are considered to play a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cellular cholesterol content/distribution can regulate the production/clearance of APP metabolites and hence modify AD pathology. To determine the functional relation between endosomal-lysosomal (EL) cholesterol sequestration and APP metabolism, we used our recently developed mouse N2a-ANPC cells that overexpress Swedish mutant human APP in the absence of cholesterol-trafficking Niemann-Pick type C1 (Npc1) protein...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052089/regulation-of-neurotransmitter-release-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-through-synapsin-phosphorylation
#10
An Liu, Ying Zhang, Lifang Han, Guiqin He, Wei Xie, Zikai Zhou, Zhengping Jia
Abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and aggregation of the Aβ peptide are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but the function of endogenous APP under normal physiological conditions remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated presynaptic changes in APP knockout (KO) mice. We demonstrate that both sucrose-induced neurotransmission and synaptic depletion in response to high frequency stimulation are significantly enhanced in APP KO compared to wild type littermates...
October 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051910/cednik-phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-additional-patient-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Tina Hsu, Carrie C Coughlin, Kristin G Monaghan, Elise Fiala, Robert C McKinstry, Alex R Paciorkowski, Marwan Shinawi
Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) is a t-SNARE protein that is implicated in intracellular vesicle fusion. Mutations in the SNAP29 gene have been associated with cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome (CEDNIK). In patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, mutations in SNAP29 on the nondeleted chromosome are linked to similar ichthyotic and neurological phenotypes. Here, the authors report a patient with cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome who presented with global developmental delay, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, optic nerve dysplasia, gaze apraxia, and dysmorphic features...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051527/micro-ribonucleic-acids-and-extracellular-vesicles-repertoire-in-the-spent-culture-media-is-altered-in-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#12
Masood Abu-Halima, Sebastian Häusler, Christina Backes, Tobias Fehlmann, Claudia Staib, Sigrun Nestel, Irina Nazarenko, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are class of small RNA molecules with major impact on gene regulation. We analyzed the potential of miRNAs secreted from pre-implantation embryos into the embryonic culture media as biomarkers to predict successful pregnancy. Using microarray analysis, we profiled the miRNome of the 56 spent culture media (SCM) after embryos transfer and found a total of 621 miRNAs in the SCM. On average, we detected 163 miRNAs in SCM of samples with failed pregnancies, but only 149 SCM miRNAs of embryos leading to pregnancies...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051391/trace-eyeblink-conditioning-is-associated-with-changes-in-synaptophysin-immunoreactivity-in-the-cerebellar-interpositus-nucleus-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Rui Li, Qi Li, Xiao-Lei Chu, Tao Tao, Lan Li, Cheng-Qi He, Fang-You Gao
Synaptic plasticity plays a role during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC). Synaptophysin (Syn) is a major integral transmembrane protein, located particularly in the synaptic vesicles, and is considered a molecular marker of synapses. In addition, Syn immunoreactivity is an important indicator of synaptic plasticity. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to assess changes in Syn expression in the cerebellar IN of guinea pigs exposed to TEBC and pseudoconditioning. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between Syn immunoreactivity and the percentage of trace-conditioned responses...
October 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051074/pairing-ultrasonography-with-endocrinology-to-elucidate-underlying-mechanisms-of-successful-pregnancy-in-the-northern-fur-seal-callorhinus-ursinus
#14
Michelle R Shero, Don R Bergfelt, J Ward Testa, Gregg P Adams
Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause...
October 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051057/mannheimia-haemolytica-a2-secretes-different-proteases-into-the-culture-medium-and-in-outer-membrane-vesicles
#15
Gerardo Ramírez Rico, Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Cynthia González-Ruíz, Sarahí Luna-Castro, Mireya de la Garza
Respiratory diseases in ruminants have a significantly negative impact on the worldwide economy. The bacterium Mannheimia haemolytica is involved in pneumonic infections in bovine and ovine. In gram-negative bacteria, six secretion systems related to the colonization process and host tissue damage have been reported. In addition, in the last two decades, the production of outer membrane vesicles has been studied as a different bacterial strategy to release virulence factors, such as exotoxins, lipopolysaccharides, and proteases...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051038/image-guided-radiation-therapy-strategies-for-pelvic-lymph-node-irradiation-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-motion-and-margins
#16
Lucy Kershaw, Laila van Zadelhoff, Wilma Heemsbergen, Floris Pos, Marcel van Herk
PURPOSE: To quantify the relative motion of the pelvic lymph nodes (LNs), seminal vesicles (SV) and prostate and define indicative margins for image-guided radiotherapy based on bony anatomy or prostate correction strategies for a 3 or 6 degrees-of-freedom couch. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nineteen patients had a planning computed tomography (CT) scan followed by a mean of 11 repeated CT scans during radiation therapy. The prostate, SV, and external and internal iliac LN regions on the left and right were outlined on each CT scan...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050472/peptide-mediated-membrane-transport-of-macromolecular-cargo-driven-by-membrane-asymmetry
#17
Xin Li, Jing Huang, Matthew A Holden, Min Chen
Pep-1 is a cell-penetrating peptide that represents a powerful strategy for delivering large, hydrophilic therapeutic molecules into cells. Model membranes, such as lipid vesicles and planar bilayers, have been useful for investigating the direct translocation of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we present a droplet interface bilayer-based approach to quantify pep-1-mediated β-galactosidase translocation. We found that β-galactosidase translocation is driven only by the negative transmembrane potential resulting from the asymmetric bilayers...
October 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050297/cytochalasin-b-induced-membrane-vesicles-convey-angiogenic-activity-of-parental-cells
#18
Marina O Gomzikova, Margarita N Zhuravleva, Regina R Miftakhova, Svetlana S Arkhipova, Vladimir G Evtugin, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Andrey P Kiyasov, Jenny L Persson, Nigel P Mongan, Richard G Pestell, Albert A Rizvanov
Naturally occurring extracellular vesicles (EVs) play essential roles in intracellular communication and delivery of bioactive molecules. Therefore it has been suggested that EVs could be used for delivery of therapeutics. However, to date the therapeutic application of EVs has been limited by number of factors, including limited yield and full understanding of their biological activities. To address these issues, we analyzed the morphology, molecular composition, fusion capacity and biological activity of Cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050192/-advances-in-research-of-exosomes-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
M Q Xu, X D Sun
Exosomes are small vesicles with a molecular diameter of 30 to 100 nm, which are secreted into the cell after the fusion of the multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes contain various molecular constituents of their cell origin, including proteins, microRNAs and lipids. Different cell-derived exosomes have different biological functions. Exosomes play a very important role in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The exosomes derived from the eye are involved in the processes of cell growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and immunosuppression by transferring contents to adjacent or distant cells...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050002/urinary-erythrocyte-derived-mirnas-emerging-role-in-iga-nephropathy
#20
Zhi-Yu Duan, Guang-Yan Cai, Ji-Jun Li, Ru Bu, Xiang-Mei Chen
Hematuria is one of the basic clinical manifestations of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Isolated microscopic hematuria or microscopic hematuria combined with proteinuria is risk factor for the long-term prognosis of IgAN. Current evidence of the consequences of glomerular hematuria rests on insights from basic research on the molecular mechanisms of hemoglobin and related reactive oxygen species-induced tubular injury as well as on the clinical evidence of macroscopic hematuria-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in IgAN...
October 19, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
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