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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784823/continuous-intrathecal-orexin-delivery-inhibits-cataplexy-in-a-murine-model-of-narcolepsy
#1
Mahesh K Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Aya Imanishi, Takashi Kanbayashi, Tadashi Ichikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782907/analgesic-effect-of-intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-on-neuropathic-pain-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients
#2
Hatice Kumru, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Markus Kofler, Joan Vidal
BACKGROUND: GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782398/benefit-and-harm-of-adding-epinephrine-to-a-local-anesthetic-for-neuraxial-and-locoregional-anesthesia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-with-trial-sequential-analyses
#3
Clément Tschopp, Martin R Tramèr, Alexis Schneider, Maroun Zaarour, Nadia Elia
BACKGROUND: This systematic review examines the benefit and harm of adding epinephrine to local anesthetics for epidural, intrathecal, or locoregional anesthesia. METHODS: We searched electronic databases to October 2017 for randomized trials comparing any local anesthetic regimen combined with epinephrine, with the same local anesthetic regimen without epinephrine, reporting on duration of analgesia, time to 2 segments regression, or any adverse effects. Trial quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and a random-effects model was used...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782380/negative-modulation-of-spinal-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-mediated-antinociception-by-the-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-at-selective-doses-of-pentazocine
#4
Douglas L Robinson, Subodh Nag, Sukhbir S Mokha
The mixed-action κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, pentazocine, binds to both KOR and the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). Racemic (±)-pentazocine and (-)-pentazocine, each administered systemically, have been shown to produce antinociception in various animal models. In contrast, racemic (±)-pentazocine failed to produce antinociception when administered intrathecally (i.t.). However, whether spinal activation of KOR and MOR by (-)-pentazocine produces antinociception and the relative contribution of KOR and MOR in mediating antinociception remain unknown...
May 18, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781566/the-5-ht7-receptor-is-up-regulated-in-onuf-s-nucleus-in-rats-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jianshu Ni, Nailong Cao, Xiaohu Wang, Changsheng Zhan, Jiemin Si, Baojun Gu, Karl-Erik Andersson
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of intrathecal 5-HT7 agonist administration on voiding function in urethane-anesthetized rat, and the change of 5-HT7 receptor expression in lumbosacral cord Onuf's nucleus after SCI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into spinally intact (SI) group and SCI group (n=16 each). Eight weeks after transection, half of the rats underwent continuous cystometry under urethane anesthetization, and the 5-HT7 selective agonist LP44 was given intrathecally...
May 21, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780163/heteromerization-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-and-cholecystokinin-b-receptor-through-the-third-transmembrane-domain-of-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-contributes-to-the-anti-opioid-effects-of-cholecystokinin-octapeptide
#6
Yin Yang, Qian Li, Qi-Hua He, Ji-Sheng Han, Li Su, You Wan
Activation of the cholecystokinin type B receptor (CCKBR) by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) inhibits opioid analgesia. Chronic opiate treatment leads to an increase in the CCK-8 concentration and thus enhances the antagonism of CCK-8 against opioid analgesia; the underlying molecular mechanisms remain of great interest. In the present study, we validated the colocalization of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and CCKBR in pain signal transmission-related spinal cord dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats...
May 21, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777135/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subtype-2b-antagonist-ro-25-6981-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-inhibiting-postsynaptic-density-95-expression
#7
Ling-Er Huang, Shao-Hui Guo, Lalita Thitiseranee, Yan Yang, Yan-Feng Zhou, Yong-Xing Yao
Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic scaffolding protein that plays a crucial role in the development of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To address the role of PSD-95 in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) -mediated chronic pain, we investigated the relationship between PSD-95 activation and NR2B function in the spinal cord, by using a rat model of sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). We demonstrate that the expression levels of total PSD-95 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as phosphorylated NR2B, PSD-95, and CREB, in the spinal dorsal horn, and the interaction of NR2B with PSD-95 were increased in the CCI animals...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776484/corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-brain-and-blocking-spinal-descending-signals-induce-hyperalgesia-in-the-latent-sensitization-model-of-chronic-pain
#8
Wenling Chen, Yvette Taché, Juan Carlos Marvizón
Latent sensitization is a model of chronic pain in which an injury triggers a period of hyperalgesia followed by an apparent recovery, but in which pain sensitization persists but is suppressed by opioid and adrenergic receptors. One important characteristic of latent sensitization is that hyperalgesia can be triggered by acute stress. To determine whether the effect of stress is mimicked by the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brain, rats with latent sensitization induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) in one hind paw were given an intracerebroventricular (i...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776458/hydrocephalus-after-intrathecal-administration-of-dextran-to-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#9
Jason P Dufour, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kathrine P Falkenstein, Robert V Blair, Elizabeth S Didier, Nadia Slisarenko, Kenneth C Williams, Marcelo J Kuroda
Dextrans have been used extensively as medical therapies and labeling agents in biomedical research to investigate theblood-brain barrier and CSF flow and absorption. Adverse effects from dextrans include anaphylactic reaction and dilation ofthe cerebral ventricles due to administration into the subarachnoid space. This retrospective study describes 51 rhesus macaques(Macaca mulatta) that received dextran intrathecally. The purpose of intrathecal administration was to enable detection oflong-lived, dextran-labeled macrophages and to study monocyte-macrophage turnover in the CNS of SIV- or SHIV- infectedand uninfected animals by using immunofluorescence...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776427/rheumatoid-meningitis-developed-in-patient-with-stable-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-myasthenia-gravis-detailed-analysis-of-intracranial-inflammation-using-flow-cytometry
#10
Miki Oono, Yoshimasa Fujita, Nobuaki Uchida, Ukichiro Kawai, Michiyo Fujita-Nakata, Megumi Nakanishi, Mitsuru Sanada, Shigemi Nagayama, Makoto Matsui
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is a rare disorder that often develops during a remission phase of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is the first study to demonstrate differences in regard to immunological disturbance between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a patient with RM using flow cytometry. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman with RA and generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) developed RM during a remission phase. Although both RA and MG were stable and well controlled, she noticed fever, headache, and transient sensory disturbance...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775134/csf-inflammatory-biomarkers-responsive-to-treatment-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-capture-residual-inflammation-associated-with-axonal-damage
#11
Jeppe Romme Christensen, Mika Komori, Marina Rode von Essen, Rikke Ratzer, Lars Börnsen, Bibi Bielekova, Finn Sellebjerg
BACKGROUND: Development of treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenged by the lack of sensitive and treatment-responsive biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To validate the responsiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory biomarkers to treatment with natalizumab and methylprednisolone in progressive MS and to examine the relationship between CSF inflammatory and tissue damage biomarkers. METHODS: CSF samples from two open-label phase II trials of natalizumab and methylprednisolone in primary and secondary progressive MS...
May 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773484/the-effect-of-a-single-intraoperative-dose-of-intravenous-dexamethasone-8-mg-on-post-cesarean-delivery-analgesia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
U Ituk, K Thenuwara
BACKGROUND: A single perioperative dose of dexamethasone has been shown to improve postoperative analgesia and reduce opioid consumption. However, this analgesic and opioid sparing effect has not been well assessed as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen in women post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Healthy women having cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo after delivery and clamping of the umbilical cord...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772841/the-effect-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-in-spinal-cord-injury-treatment-is-dose-dependent-and-can-be-facilitated-by-repeated-application
#13
Petr Krupa, Irena Vackova, Jiri Ruzicka, Kristyna Zaviskova, Jana Dubisova, Zuzana Koci, Karolina Turnovcova, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Sarka Kubinova, Svatopluk Rehak, Pavla Jendelova
Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs) were used for the treatment of the ischemic-compression model of spinal cord injury in rats. To assess the effectivity of the treatment, different dosages (0.5 or 1.5 million cells) and repeated applications were compared. Cells or saline were applied intrathecally by lumbar puncture for one week only, or in three consecutive weeks after injury. Rats were assessed for locomotor skills (BBB, rotarod, flat beam) for 9 weeks. Spinal cord tissue was morphometrically analyzed for axonal sprouting, sparing of gray and white matter and astrogliosis...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772245/ape1-ref-1-redox-function-contributes-to-inflammatory-pain-sensitization
#14
Amira Zaky, Rabia Bouali-Benazzouz, Alexandre Favereaux, Gianluca Tell, Marc Landry
Inflammatory pain is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), also called Redox Factor-1 (Ref-1), is constitutively expressed in the central nervous system and regulates various cellular functions including oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated APE1 modulation and associated pain behavior changes in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain in rats. In addition we tested the anti-inflammatory effects of E3330, a selective inhibitor of APE1-redox activity, in CFA pain condition...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770432/automated-mandatory-bolus-versus-basal-infusion-for-maintenance-of-epidural-analgesia-in-labour
#15
REVIEW
Ban Leong Sng, Yanzhi Zeng, Nurun Nisa A de Souza, Wan Ling Leong, Ting Ting Oh, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, Pryseley N Assam, Nian-Lin R Han, Edwin Sy Chan, Alex T Sia
BACKGROUND: Childbirth may cause the most severe pain some women experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour and is considered to be the reference standard. Traditionally epidural analgesia has been delivered as a continuous infusion via a catheter in the epidural space, with or without the ability for the patient to supplement the analgesia received by activating a programmable pump to deliver additional top-up doses, known as patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770252/utility-of-magnetic-resonance-cisternography-with-intrathecal-gadolinium-in-detection-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-fistula-associated-with-mondini-dysplasia-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-meningitis-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Enrique Caro-Osorio, Alba Espino-Ojeda, Lino Guevara-Maldonado, José C Herrea-Castro
Background: The intrathecal contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) is a diagnostic method that has been proven effective in selected patients with various disorders of the cerebrospinal system, including the detection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. The Mondini dysplasia is a malformation of the inner ear characterized by an incomplete cochlear development. The cerebrospinal fistula associated with Mondini dysplasia usually occurs in the first 5-10 years. Case Description: The case of a 34-year-old woman with CSF rhinorrhea and recurrent meningitis associated with CSF fistula into the right inner ear, which was detected by MRC with intrathecal gadolinium, is presented...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769505/efficacy-of-0-5-hyperbaric-bupivacaine-with-dexamethasone-versus-0-5-hyperbaric-bupivacaine-alone-in-spinal-anaesthesia-for-patient-undergoing-lower-abdominal-urological-and-lower-limb-orthopedic-surgeries
#17
M M Haque, M A Aleem, F H Haque, A B Siddique, R Afrose
Spinal anaesthesia with local anaesthetics has limited duration. Different additives have been used to prolong spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine in spinal anaesthesia specially whether it would prolong the duration of sensory block/ surgical analgesia and post-operative analgesia/pain free period or not. This randomized, prospective, double-blind, clinical study was conducted in the Department of Anaesthesia, Analgesia and Critical Care of Combined Military Hospital, Chittagong from October 2016 to August 2017...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769077/magnetic-field-distribution-modulation-of-intrathecal-delivered-ketorolac-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-conjugates-produce-excellent-analgesia-for-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#18
Ping-Ching Wu, Dar-Bin Shieh, Hung-Tsung Hsiao, Jeffery Chi-Fei Wang, Ya-Chi Lin, Yen-Chin Liu
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles have become one of the most promising among the potential materials used for biomedical applications. However, few researchers have focused on their effects on analgesia. Despite the fact that various nanoparticles have been evaluated for drug delivery and MRI imaging contrast enhancement in clinical settings, no reports have investigated the in vivo synergy of ketorolac iron-oxide nanoparticle conjugates to improve the analgesic effect. METHODS: Ketorolac conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Keto-SPIO) were synthesized via two-stage additions of protective agents and chemical co-precipitation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766026/development-of-intrathecal-aav9-gene-therapy-for-giant-axonal-neuropathy
#19
Rachel M Bailey, Diane Armao, Sahana Nagabhushan Kalburgi, Steven J Gray
An NIH-sponsored phase I clinical trial is underway to test a potential treatment for giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) using viral-mediated GAN gene replacement (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02362438). This trial marks the first instance of intrathecal (IT) adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer in humans. GAN is a rare pediatric neurodegenerative disorder caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes the gigaxonin protein. Gigaxonin is involved in the regulation, turnover, and degradation of intermediate filaments (IFs)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765818/targeted-epidural-blood-patch-treatment-for-refractory-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-in-china
#20
Fei-Fang He, Li Li, Min-Jun Liu, Tai-Di Zhong, Qiao-Wei Zhang, Xiang-Ming Fang
Objective  An epidural blood patch (EBP) is the mainstay of treatment for refractory spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). We evaluated the treatment efficacy of targeted EBP in refractory SIH. Methods  All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast and heavily T2-weighted spine MRI. Whole spine computed tomography (CT) myelography with non-ionic contrast was performed in 46 patients, and whole spine MR myelography with intrathecal gadolinium was performed in 119 patients...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
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