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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339544/laxatives-do-not-improve-symptoms-of-opioid-induced-constipation-results-of-a-patient-survey
#1
Anton Emmanuel, Martin Johnson, Paula McSkimming, Sara Dickerson
Introduction.:  Laxatives are commonly used to treat opioid-induced constipation, the commonest and most bothersome complication of opioids. However, laxatives have a nonspecific action and do not target underlying mechanisms of opioid-induced constipation; their use is associated with abdominal symptoms that negatively impact quality of life. Objective.:  To assess the effects of laxatives in patients taking opioids for chronic pain. Methods...
October 8, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337444/female-functional-constipation-is-associated-with-overactive-bladder-symptoms-and-urinary-incontinence
#2
Takahiro Maeda, Masuomi Tomita, Atsushi Nakazawa, Gen Sakai, Shinsuke Funakoshi, Akari Komatsuda, Yujiro Ito, Hirohiko Nagata, Nobuhiro Tsukada, So Nakamura
This noninterventional cross-sectional study aims to assess the association between functional constipation (FC) and urinary symptoms in female patients with no treatment for urination and defecation. The Rome III criteria for evaluation of defecation, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) for evaluation of urinary symptoms, and clinical features were investigated in 145 female patients. Latent FC and moderate to severe overactive bladder (OAB) were defined on the basis of positivity for two or more of the Rome III criteria and an OABSS ≥ 6 with OABSS Q3 ≥ 2, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323272/constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-females-have-normal-colonic-barrier-and-secretory-function
#3
Stephanie A Peters, Shoko Edogawa, Wendy J Sundt, Roy B Dyer, Daniel A Dalenberg, Amelia Mazzone, Ravinder J Singh, Natalie Moses, Thomas C Smyrk, Christopher Weber, David R Linden, Wallace K MacNaughton, Jerrold R Turner, Michael Camilleri, David A Katzka, Gianrico Farrugia, Madhusudan Grover
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is associated with changes in intestinal barrier and secretory function. METHODS: A total of 19 IBS-C patients and 18 healthy volunteers (all females) underwent saccharide excretion assay (0.1 g (13)C mannitol and 1 g lactulose), measurements of duodenal and colonic mucosal barrier (transmucosal resistance (TMR), macromolecular and Escherichia coli Bio-Particle translocation), mucosal secretion (basal and acetylcholine (Ach)-evoked short-circuit current (Isc)), in vivo duodenal mucosal impedance, circulating endotoxins, and colonic tight junction gene expression...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320888/mutual-reinforcement-of-pathophysiological-host-microbe-interactions-in-intestinal-stasis-models
#4
Ketrija Touw, Daina L Ringus, Nathaniel Hubert, Yunwei Wang, Vanessa A Leone, Anuradha Nadimpalli, Betty R Theriault, Yong E Huang, Johnathan D Tune, Paul B Herring, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, Eugene B Chang
Chronic diseases arise when there is mutual reinforcement of pathophysiological processes that cause an aberrant steady state. Such a sequence of events may underlie chronic constipation, which has been associated with dysbiosis of the gut. In this study we hypothesized that assemblage of microbial communities, directed by slow gastrointestinal transit, affects host function in a way that reinforces constipation and further maintains selection on microbial communities. In our study, we used two models - an opioid-induced constipation model in mice, and a humanized mouse model where germ-free mice were colonized with stool from a patient with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in humans...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318209/end-of-life-care-managing-common-symptoms
#5
REVIEW
Ross H Albert
Physicians should be proficient at managing symptoms as patients progress through the dying process. When possible, proactive regimens that prevent symptoms should be used, because it is generally easier to prevent than to treat an acute symptom. As swallowing function diminishes, medications are typically administered sublingually, transdermally, or via rectal suppository. Opiates are the medication of choice for the control of pain and dyspnea, which are common symptoms in the dying process. Delirium and agitation may be caused by reversible etiologies, which should be identified and treated when feasible...
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316763/serotonin-transporter-gene-slc6a4-polymorphism-and-mucosal-serotonin-levels-in-southeastern-iranian-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Mojgan Mohammadi, Hossein Tahmasebi Abdar, Hamid Reza Mollaei, Hossein Hajghani, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mohammad Mahdi Hayatbakhsh
BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive system disorder with an unknown etiology. Serotonin has a key role in the secretion and motility of the intestine. Polymorphism in serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT or SLC6A4) gene may have a functional role in the gut of patients with IBS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphism and IBS and to detect the correlation between rectal serotonin levels and IBS sub-types. METHODS SLC6A4 gene polymorphism in 131 patients with IBS and 211 healthy controls were analysed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) curve technique...
January 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315268/sigma-1-receptor-antagonists-a-new-class-of-neuromodulatory-analgesics
#7
Cristina Sánchez-Fernández, José Manuel Entrena, José Manuel Baeyens, Enrique José Cobos
The sigma-1 receptor is a unique ligand-operated chaperone present in key areas for pain control, in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Sigma-1 receptors interact with a variety of protein targets to modify their function. These targets include several G-protein-coupled receptors such as the μ-opioid receptor, and ion channels such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Sigma-1 antagonists modify the chaperoning activity of sigma-1 receptor by increasing opioid signaling and decreasing NMDAR responses, consequently enhancing opioid antinociception and decreasing the sensory hypersensitivity that characterizes pathological pain conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295896/assessing-the-colonic-microbiome-hydrogenogenic-and-hydrogenotrophic-genes-transit-and-breath-methane-in-constipation
#8
P G Wolf, G Parthasarathy, J Chen, H M O'Connor, N Chia, A E Bharucha, H Rex Gaskins
BACKGROUND: Differences in the gut microbiota and breath methane production have been observed in chronic constipation, but the relationship between colonic microbiota, transit, and breath tests remains unclear. METHODS: In 25 healthy and 25 constipated females we evaluated the sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, abundance of hydrogenogenic FeFe (FeFe-hydA) and hydrogenotrophic (methyl coenzyme M reductase A [mrcA] and dissimilatory sulfite reductase A [dsrA]) genes with real-time qPCR assays, breath hydrogen and methane levels after oral lactulose, and colonic transit with scintigraphy...
March 13, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295051/six-out-of-ten-women-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-complain-of-distressful-sexual-dysfunction-a-case-control-study
#9
Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Roberta Scano, Alessandra Graziottin, Federico Dehò, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
Uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are common among reproductive-aged women. We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction (FSD) in a cohort of women with rUTIs and compare their psychometric scores to those of matched controls. Data from 147 rUTIs women and 150 healthy controls were analysed. Participants completed the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (SDS). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models tested prevalence and predictors of distressful FSD...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290970/severe-systemic-lead-toxicity-resulting-from-extra-articular-retained-shrapnel-presenting-as-jaundice-and-hepatitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Ian A Grasso, Matthew R Blattner, Tyler Short, John W Downs
INTRODUCTION: Despite greater than 60,000 nonfatal firearm injuries per year in the United States, retained shrapnel is a relatively rare cause of systemic lead toxicity with less than 100 cases reported in the medical literature since 1867. While intra-articular retained shrapnel as a cause of lead toxicity is well-described, extra-articular fragments are less well known to cause symptomatic disease. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old man initially presented with abdominal pain, constipation, jaundice, and elevated liver transaminases approximately 3 weeks after suffering a left lower extremity injury during athletic activity...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290468/ageing-with-neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction
#11
S D Nielsen, P M Faaborg, N B Finnerup, P Christensen, K Krogh
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study with postal survey. OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in the patterns of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and bowel management in a population of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) followed for two decades. SETTING: Members of the Danish SCI Association. METHODS: In 1996, a validated questionnaire on bowel function was sent to the members of the Danish SCI Association (n=589). The same questionnaire was sent to all the surviving members in 2006 (n=284) and in 2015 (n=178)...
March 14, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289979/association-of-rigid-compulsive-behavior-with-functional-constipation-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Sarah Marler, Bradley J Ferguson, Evon Batey Lee, Brittany Peters, Kent C Williams, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Pat Levitt, Kara Gross Margolis, David Q Beversdorf, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As hypothesized, FC was associated with parent ratings on the Repetitive Behavior Scales-Revised (RBS-R) Compulsive, Ritualistic, and Sameness subscales in the overall population...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289649/hypothermia-presenting-in-wernicke-encephalopathy-a-case-report
#13
Seok Hyun Hong, Ju Sun Oh, Chang Hyun Lee, Jae Ho Oh
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neurologic disorder characterized by clinical symptoms, such as nystagmus, ataxia, and mental confusion. Hypothermia in patients with WE is a rare complication, and its pathogenic mechanism and therapy are yet to be ascertained. Herein, we presented a case of a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with WE 3 months earlier. We investigated the cause of hypothermia (35.0℃) that occurred after an enema (bowel emptying). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mammillary body and hypothalamus atrophy...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284822/-algorithms-and-urinary-incontinence-in-the-elderly-assessment-treatment-recommendations-and-levels-of-evidence-review
#14
P Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Search processing algorithms in a primary care setting, analyzing the specifics of care management for seniors suffering from urinary incontinence (UI), described the recommendations and levels of evidence of treatment. METHODS: A literature review carried out via PubMed(®) and websites of scientific societies with search keywords classified according to an algorithm. RESULTS: One hundred algorithms have been discovered in the field of evaluation and treatment of UI...
March 8, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284477/lactobacillus-casei-rhamnosus-lcr35-in-the-management-of-functional-constipation-in-children-a-randomized-trial
#15
Katarzyna Wojtyniak, Andrea Horvath, Piotr Dziechciarz, Hania Szajewska
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 (Lcr35) in the management of functional constipation in children. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 94 children aged <5 years with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria. Children were assigned to receive Lcr35 (8 × 10(8) colony-forming units, n = 46) or placebo (n = 48), twice daily, for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was treatment success, defined as 3 or more spontaneous stools per week, without episodes of fecal soiling, in the last week of the intervention...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277856/electrical-therapies-for-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders
#16
Jiande D Z Chen, Jieyun Yin, Wei Wei
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in clinical settings, including esophageal motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, post-operative ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea and constipation. While a number of drugs have been developed for treating GI motility disorders, few are currently available. Emerging electrical stimulation methods may provide new treatment options for these GI motility disorders...
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274109/what-is-new-in-rome-iv
#17
REVIEW
Max J Schmulson, Douglas Arnold Drossman
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women's health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273276/sim-brasil-study-women-s-gastrointestinal-health-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-impact-on-the-brazilian-women-quality-of-life
#18
Ana Paula Wolf Tasca Del'arco, Pamela Magalhães, Flávio Antônio Quilici
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms seem to affect more women, due to hormonal and emotional issues, impacting the quality of life. The emotional state can affect the bowel functioning through a bidirectional communication system between the gut and the brain involving the neuroendocrine system. Altered bowel functioning and gastrointestinal symptoms can alter quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The SIM study aimed to describe, characterize and quantify gastrointestinal symptoms reported by Brazilian women, their causes, feelings and impact...
February 23, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273275/assessing-the-sleep-quality-and-depression-anxiety-stress-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#19
Nadieh Baniasadi, Mohammad Moein Dehesh, Elham Mohebbi, Mahdy Hayatbakhsh Abbasi, Zohreh Oghabian
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS: In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling...
February 23, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271055/treatment-algorithm-for-chronic-idiopathic-constipation-and-constipation-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-derived-from-a-canadian-national-survey-and-needs-assessment-on-choices-of-therapeutic-agents
#20
Yvonne Tse, David Armstrong, Christopher N Andrews, Alain Bitton, Brian Bressler, John Marshall, Louis W C Liu
Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients' quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1) Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2) physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3) the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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