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Benlei Li, Dong Fang, Cheng Qian, Hongliang Feng, Yanggan Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive evaluations regarding the benefits of tolvaptan in the treatment of hyponatremia are lacking. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients with hyponatremia. METHODS: Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between their respective inception dates and 31 April 2016. Summary relative risks (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or randomized-effects models, depending on the degree of heterogeneity noted among the studies included in the analysis...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Joseph A LaManna, Thomas E Martin
Understanding the causes underlying changes in species diversity is a fundamental pursuit of ecology. Animal species richness and composition often change with decreased forest structural complexity associated with logging. Yet differences in latitude and forest type may strongly influence how species diversity responds to logging. We performed a meta-analysis of logging effects on local species richness and composition of birds across the world and assessed responses by different guilds (nesting strata, foraging strata, diet, and body size)...
October 10, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Andrew Vickers, Emily A Vertosick, Daniel D Sjoberg, Monique J Roobol, Freddie Hamdy, David Neal, Anders Bjartell, Jonas Hugosson, Jenny L Donovan, Arnauld Villers, Stephen Zappala, Hans Lilja
PURPOSE: The four-kallikrein panel, commercially available as the 4Kscore™, is a reflex test for prostate cancer early detection that has been extensively validated in multiple international cohorts. It has been suggested that use of such reflex tests be limited to those with PSA less than 10 ng/mL and negative DRE. We aimed to determine the value of the panel in men outside this "diagnostic grey zone". METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from prior studies on the four-kallikrein panel...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Urology
Reed A Siemieniuk, Thomas Agoritsas, Veena Manja, Tahira Devji, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Lehana Thabane, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk of perioperative death. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis DATA SOURCES:  Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. STUDY SELECTION:  Randomized trials of TAVI compared with SAVR in patients with a mean perioperative risk of death <8%...
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Philip G Joseph, Guillaume Pare, Senay Asma, James C Engert, Salim Yusuf, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) risk varies by ethnicity, although the influence of genetic factors remains unclear. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the association between 25 coronary artery disease (CAD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and MI across 6 ethnic groups. METHODS: We studied 8556 participants in the INTERHEART case-control study from 6 ethnic groups: Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, Arabs, Latin Americans, and Africans...
June 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Wei Wei, Yu-Tao Xiang
OBJECTIVE: This is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) and Chinese (WanFang Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, and China Journal Net) databases were systematically and independently searched by two authors from their inception until 1 March 2016. Weighted and standard mean differences (SMDs), risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
U Lalo, O Palygin, A Verkhratsky, S G N Grant, Y Pankratov
Recent studies highlighted the importance of astrocyte-secreted molecules, such as ATP, for the slow modulation of synaptic transmission in central neurones. Biophysical mechanisms underlying the impact of gliotransmitters on the strength of individual synapse remain, however, unclear. Here we show that purinergic P2X receptors can bring significant contribution to the signalling in the individual synaptic boutons. ATP released from astrocytes facilitates a recruitment of P2X receptors into excitatory synapses by Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism...
2016: Scientific Reports
David Méndez, Jamie Tam, Gary A Giovino, Alexander Tsodikov, Kenneth E Warner
INTRODUCTION: We examine the trajectory of adult smoking prevalence in the US over the period 1990 - 2014 to investigate whether the smoking cessation rate has changed during this period. METHODS: We employ a dynamic model of smoking prevalence, and data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate the adult cessation rate in six-year intervals. We use weighted non-linear least squares to perform the estimation...
September 15, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Hoi Lun Cheng, Mazen Amatoury, Katharine Steinbeck
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. DESIGN: Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kang-Ling Wang, Robert Giugliano, Shinya Goto, Chun-Chih Chiu, Chun-Yi Lin, En-Yu Lai, Chern-En Chiang
BACKGROUND: Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicated that standard dose non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were more compelling, low-dose NOACs are commonly used in clinical practice in Asia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative therapeutic benefits and risks of standard vs low-dose NOACs in Asian patients enrolled in contemporary RCTs. METHODS: We performed a prespecified meta-analysis of 3155 Asian patients with NOACs in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) and ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) trials...
September 8, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Natriuretic Peptides Studies Collaboration
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment. METHODS: In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes, with no language restrictions...
October 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Jonathan Ka-Ming Ho, Janita Pak-Chun Chau, Nancy Man-Ching Cheung
BACKGROUND: The Ottawa Ankle Rules provide guidelines for clinicians on the recommendation of radiographic tests to verify fractures in patients with ankle injuries. The use of the Ottawa Ankle Rules by emergency nurses has been suggested to minimise unnecessary radiographic-test requests and reduce patients' length of stay in emergency departments. However, the findings of studies in this area are inconsistent. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted to synthesise the most accurate evidence available on the extent to which emergency nurses' use of the Ottawa Ankle Rules to initiate radiographic tests improves healthcare outcomes for patients with ankle injuries...
November 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Guo-Min Song, Yong-Hong Deng, Ying-Hui Jin, Jian-Guo Zhou, Xu Tian
BACKGROUND: Previous incomplete studies investigating the potential of chewing gum (CG) in patients undergoing colorectal resection did not obtain definitive conclusions. This updated meta-analysis was therefore conducted to evaluate the effect and safety of CG versus standard postoperative care protocols (SPCPs) after colorectal surgery. RESULTS: Total 26 RCTs enrolling 2214 patients were included in this study. The CG can be well-tolerated by all patients. Compared with SPCPs, CG was associated with shorter time to first flatus (weighted mean difference (WMD) -12...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Zarko Alfirevic, Edna Keeney, Therese Dowswell, Nicky J Welton, Nancy Medley, Sofia Dias, Leanne V Jones, Gillian Gyte, Deborah M Caldwell
BACKGROUND: More than 150,000 pregnant women in England and Wales have their labour induced each year. Multiple pharmacological, mechanical and complementary methods are available to induce labour. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of labour induction methods and, data permitting, effects in different clinical subgroups. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review using Cochrane methods. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register was searched (March 2014)...
August 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Pravesh Kumar Bundhun, Chandra Mouli Yanamala, Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the adverse clinical outcomes associated with a short and a prolonged duration of Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy (DAPT) in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) after undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). METHODS: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for studies comparing the short and prolonged DAPT use in patients with DM. Adverse outcomes were considered as the clinical endpoints in this analysis...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Colin Angus, Chloe Thomas, Peter Anderson, Petra S Meier, Alan Brennan
BACKGROUND: Screening and Brief Interventions for alcohol are an effective public health measure to tackle alcohol-related harm, however relatively few countries across the European Union (EU) have implemented them widely. This may be due to a lack of understanding of the specific financial implications of such policies within each country. METHODS: A novel 'meta-modelling' approach was developed based on previous SBI cost-effectiveness models for four EU countries...
August 23, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Mads Mansø, Max Koole, Maarten Mulder, Ignacio J Olavarria-Contreras, Cecilie Lindholm Andersen, Martyn Jevric, Søren Lindbæk Broman, Anders Kadziola, Ole Hammerich, Herre S J van der Zant, Mogens Brøndsted Nielsen
Development of molecules that can switch between redox states with paired and unpaired electrons is important for molecular electronics and spintronics. In this work, a selection of redox-active indenofluorene-extended tetrathiafulvalenes (IF-TTFs) with thioacetate end groups was prepared from a readily obtainable dibromo-functionalized IF-TTF building block using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki reaction. The end groups served as electrode anchoring groups for single-molecule conductance studies, and the molecules were subjected to mechanically controlled break-junction measurements with gold contacts and to low-bias charge transport measurements in gated three-terminal electromigration junctions...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Thomas S Churcher, Natalie Lissenden, Jamie T Griffin, Eve Worrall, Hilary Ranson
Long lasting pyrethroid treated bednets are the most important tool for preventing malaria. Pyrethroid resistant Anopheline mosquitoes are now ubiquitous in Africa, though the public health impact remains unclear, impeding the deployment of more expensive nets. Meta-analyses of bioassay studies and experimental hut trials are used to characterise how pyrethroid resistance changes the efficacy of standard bednets, and those containing the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and assess its impact on malaria control...
2016: ELife
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