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Immo Kleinschmidt, John Bradley, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Charles Mbogo, Bashir Adam Ismail, Jude D Bigoga, Alioun Adechoubou, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Jackie Cook, Elfatih M Malik, Zinga José Nkuni, Michael Macdonald, Nabie Bayoh, Eric Ochomo, Etienne Fondjo, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Martin Akogbeto, Rajendra M Bhatt, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Dipak K Swain, Teresa Kinyari, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Achille Massougbodji, Mariam Okê-Sopoh, Aurore Ogouyemi-Hounto, Celestin Kouambeng, Mujahid Sheikhedin Abdin, Philippa West, Khalid Elmardi, Sylvie Cornelie, Vincent Corbel, Neena Valecha, Evan Mathenge, Luna Kamau, Jonathan Lines, Martin James Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. METHODS: This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Brunilda Alushi, Alexander Lauten, Salvatore Cassese, Roisin Colleran, Stefanie Schüpke, Himanshu Rai, Heribert Schunkert, Bernhard Meier, Ulf Landmesser, Adnan Kastrati
BACKGROUND: We performed an updated meta-analysis of all randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure with medical therapy for prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, and proceedings of international meetings for RCTs of patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO comparing percutaneous PFO closure versus medical therapy for prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Duk Hee Lee
Evidence has emerged that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can produce adverse effects, even at low doses that are assumed safe. However, systemic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on human studies, especially of EDCs with short half-lives, have demonstrated inconsistent results. Epidemiological studies have insuperable methodological limitations, including the unpredictable net effects of mixtures, non-monotonic dose-response relationships, the non-existence of unexposed groups, and the low reliability of exposure assessment...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kinley Wangdi, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Justin Clark, Jan J Barendregt, Michelle L Gatton, Cathy Banwell, Gerard C Kelly, Suhail A R Doi, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Malaria causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are several preventive measures that are currently employed, including insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets and insecticidal-treated bed nets), indoor residual spraying (IRS), prophylactic drugs (PD), and untreated nets (UN). However, it is unclear which measure is the most effective for malaria prevention. We therefore undertook a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of different preventive measures on incidence of malaria infection...
March 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jing-Jing Yu, Chan Zou, Wen-Yu Liu, Guo-Ping Yang
Objective: The main aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy and safety of dual versus single antiplatelet therapy for patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) after coronary intervention. Background: The optimal regimen remains controversial for patients taking OAC after coronary intervention. Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies including data of triple therapy (TT) versus OAC plus single antiplatelet therapy for patients requiring OAC after coronary intervention...
December 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
L Wynants, R D Riley, D Timmerman, B Van Calster
The use of data from multiple studies or centers for the validation of a clinical test or a multivariable prediction model allows researchers to investigate the test's/model's performance in multiple settings and populations. Recently, meta-analytic techniques have been proposed to summarize discrimination and calibration across study populations. Here, we rather consider performance in terms of net benefit, which is a measure of clinical utility that weighs the benefits of true positive classifications against the harms of false positives...
March 25, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Marco Proietti, Giulio Francesco Romiti, Imma Romanazzi, Alessio Farcomeni, Laila Staerk, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: Use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an inherited risk of bleeding. Benefits and risks of OAC restarting after a major bleeding are still uncertain. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of restarting OAC in AF patients after a major bleeding event. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting data about AF patients that sustained a major bleeding, reporting data on restarting or not restarting OAC therapy...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Gi-Geun Yang, Dohyeong Kim, Anh Pham, Christopher John Paul
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been widely used as an effective alternative to conventional insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for over a decade. Due to the growing number of field trials and interventions reporting the effectiveness of LLINs in controlling malaria, there is a need to systematically review the literature on LLINs and ITNs to examine the relative effectiveness and characteristics of both insecticide nettings. A systematic review of over 2000 scholarly articles published since the year 2000 was conducted...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Giorgio Treglia, Adriana Tamburello, Luca Giovanella
PURPOSE: Several articles have demonstrated the high diagnostic performance of somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). On the other hand, only a few studies have evaluated the detection rate (DR) of this imaging method in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the DR of somatostatin receptor PET or PET/CT in patients with recurrent MTC to add evidence-based data to this setting...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mads S Thomsen, Andrew H Altieri, Christine Angelini, Melanie J Bishop, Paul E Gribben, Gavin Lear, Qiang He, David R Schiel, Brian R Silliman, Paul M South, David M Watson, Thomas Wernberg, Gerhard Zotz
It has long been recognized that primary foundation species (FS), such as trees and seagrasses, enhance biodiversity. Among the species facilitated are secondary FS, including mistletoes and epiphytes. Case studies have demonstrated that secondary FS can further modify habitat-associated organisms ('inhabitants'), but their net effects remain unknown. Here we assess how inhabitants, globally, are affected by secondary FS. We extracted and calculated 2,187 abundance and 397 richness Hedges' g effect sizes from 91 and 50 publications, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Majed S Al Yami, Sawsan Kurdi, Ivo Abraham
Background: Standard-duration (7-10 days) thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, low dose unfractionated heparin, or fondaparinux in hospitalized medically ill patients is associated with ~50% reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. However, these patients remain at high risk for VTE post-discharge. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) apixaban, rivaroxaban and betrixaban have been evaluated for extended-duration (30-42 days) thromboprophylaxis in this population...
2018: Journal of Blood Medicine
Samyyia Abrar, Shahida Hussain, Rehan Ahmad Khan, Noor Ul Ain, Hayat Haider, Saba Riaz
Background: South-Asia is known as a hub for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Unfortunately, proper surveillance and documentation of MDR pathogens is lacking in Pakistan. The alarming increase in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a serious problem. From this perspective, we analysed published data regarding ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different regions of Pakistan. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Pakistan...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Marissa M Shams-White, Mei Chung, Zhuxuan Fu, Karl L Insogna, Micaela C Karlsen, Meryl S LeBoff, Sue A Shapses, Joachim Sackey, Jian Shi, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
BACKGROUND: Protein may have both beneficial and detrimental effects on bone health depending on a variety of factors, including protein source. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of animal versus plant protein intake on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and select bone biomarkers in healthy adults. METHODS: Searches across five databases were conducted through 10/31/16 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies in healthy adults that examined the effects of animal versus plant protein intake on 1) total body (TB), total hip (TH), lumbar spine (LS) or femoral neck (FN) BMD or TB BMC for at least one year, or 2) select bone formation and resorption biomarkers for at least six months...
2018: PloS One
P Cozannet, P G Lawlor, P Leterme, E Devillard, P A Geraert, F Rouffineau, A Preynat
A meta-analysis was performed on 8 trials, which included a total of 992 parity 1 to 8 lactating sows, to evaluate the effects of feeding xylanase which is the main enzyme activity present in the enzymatic complex (Rovabio® Excel, Adisseo, France) supplement throughout lactation on the following sow performance factors: body weight loss, feed intake, backfat depth and piglet growth. Even a short period of enzyme supplementation during lactation led to a reduction in body weight loss of approximately 3 kg per sow (P = 0...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Michael Tadman, Philip Charlton, Bahram Jafar-Mohammadi, Denis Talbot, Ashley B Grossman
OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are being seen increasingly frequently, and recent data show that long-acting somatostatin analogues have become a major initial treatment, regardless of whether the tumors are functioning or not. However, test dosing with subcutaneous (sc) octreotide is usually advised to assess longer-term tolerability, although this advice is mainly based on results with functioning tumors. The aim of the study was to assess the value of an initiating test dose of sc octreotide on the prediction of subsequent adverse events after treatment with the long-acting analogue...
February 2018: Endocrine Practice
Ahmad Jayedi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Existing evidence suggests a link between acid-forming potential of diet and type 2 diabetes. But the degree of the associations and shape of the dose-response relations across different indices of diet-dependent acid load and risk of type 2 diabetes and potential confounding by sex have not been established. We aimed to test the dose-response association of different measures of dietary acid load and risk of incident type 2 diabetes, with considering the sex as a potential confounder...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Xiaofeng Zhao, Yinghua Zhang, Hong Li, Qian Liu, Qingqing Zhang, Hengfen Li
BACKGROUND: The G1287A polymorphism (rs5569) in exon 9 of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene has been associated with schizophrenia in several populations. However, the results are conflicting. Moreover, few studies have investigated the relationship between the G1287A polymorphism and schizophrenia among the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A case-control study was designed to explore whether the G1287A genetic variant is related to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population...
February 12, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Margaux L Sadoine, Audrey Smargiassi, Valéry Ridde, Lucy S Tusting, Kate Zinszer
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is driven by multiple factors, including complex and multifaceted connections between malaria transmission, socioeconomic conditions, climate and interventions. Forecasting models should account for all significant drivers of malaria incidence although it is first necessary to understand the relationship between malaria burden and the various determinants of risk to inform the development of forecasting models. In this study, the associations between malaria risk, environmental factors, and interventions were evaluated through a systematic review...
February 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Cheryl Neslusan, Anna Teschemaker, Michael Willis, Pierre Johansen, Lien Vo
INTRODUCTION: Agents that inhibit sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), including canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are approved in the United States for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibition lowers blood glucose by increasing urinary glucose excretion, which leads to a mild osmotic diuresis and a net loss of calories that are associated with reductions in body weight and blood pressure. This analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg versus dapagliflozin 10 mg in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin in the United States...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Marta F Maia, Merav Kliner, Marty Richardson, Christian Lengeler, Sarah J Moore
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death across endemic regions. Considerable success against malaria has been achieved within the past decade mainly through long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). However, elimination of the disease is proving difficult as current control methods do not protect against mosquitoes biting outdoors and when people are active. Repellents may provide a personal protection solution during these times. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of topical repellents, insecticide-treated clothing, and spatial repellents on malaria transmission...
February 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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