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Giuseppe Tarantini, Daisuke Ueshima, Gianpiero D'Amico, Giulia Masiero, Giuseppe Musumeci, Gregg W Stone, Sorin J Brener
BACKGROUND: The use of the potent oral P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has a favorable net clinical effect compared with clopidogrel and is recommended as first-line therapy. However, the impact of these agents on ischemic and bleeding events in elderly ACS patients is not well defined. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles comparing potent P2Y12 inhibitors to clopidogrel in elderly and nonelderly patients (defined according to each study) with ACS in terms of efficacy (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and safety (major bleeding) end points...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
Mohsen Yaghoubi, Kerry Mansell, Hassanali Vatanparastc, Megan Steeves, Wu Zeng, Marwa Farag
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of pharmacy-based interventions on clinical outcomes associated with diabetes-related complications as well as on nonclinical outcomes in people with diabetes. METHODS: We searched 4 main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) for studies that considered clinical and nonclinical outcomes of pharmacy-based interventions among people with diabetes...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Zilin Sun, Martina Zügel, Jürgen M Steinacker, Uwe Schumann
Vigorous to maximal aerobic interval training (INT) has received remarkable interest in improving cardiometabolic outcomes for type 2 diabetes patients recently, yet with inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was aimed to quantify its effectiveness in type 2 diabetes. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searches of 3 databases to October 2017, which evaluated the effects of INT with a minimal training duration of 8 weeks vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or non-exercise training (NET) among type 2 diabetes patients on outcomes including cardiorespiratory fitness, glycemic control, body composition, blood pressure, and lipid profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Tetsuya Higuchi, Yoshito Tsushima
Fluorine-18 (18F)/Iodine-131 (131I)-labeled (4-Fluoro-3-iodobenzyl)guanidine (FIBG) have been a promising yet unattainable derivative of radioiodine-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), because of the complex radiofluorination method. Here, we proposed a 2-step radiosynthetic method for 18F-FIBG, and evaluated the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of 18F-FIBG and 131I-FIBG in a pheochromocytoma model (PC-12). Methods:18F-FIBG was prepared from a (mesityl)(aryl)iodonium salt precursor in the presence of a copper-catalyst...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Decai Gao, Lei Zhang, Jun Liu, Bo Peng, Zhenzhen Fan, Weiwei Dai, Ping Jiang, Edith Bai
Altered freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) patterns due to global climate change may affect nitrogen (N) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the general responses of soil N pools and fluxes to different FTC patterns are still poorly understood. Here, we compiled data of 1519 observations from 63 studies and conducted a meta-analysis of the responses of 17 variables involved in terrestrial N pools and fluxes to FTC. Results showed that under FTC treatment, soil NH4+ , NO3- , NO3- leaching, and N2 O emission significantly increased by 18...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
Sierra Cheng, Mahin Qureshi, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Adam Haynes, Kelvin Kw Chan
Background: Whether patients with excellent and reduced performance status (PS) derive different net clinical benefit from novel anticancer systemic therapies on clinical trials is unclear. Materials and methods: A systematic review was conducted of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) cited for drug approvals between 2006 and August 2015 by the Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency and Health Canada. Included studies had overall survival (OS) and/or progression-free survival (PFS) primary endpoints...
2017: ESMO Open
Angus Jm Watson, Jonathan Cook, Jemma Hudson, Mary Kilonzo, Jessica Wood, Hanne Bruhn, Steven Brown, Brian Buckley, Finlay Curran, David Jayne, Malcolm Loudon, Ramesh Rajagopal, Alison McDonald, John Norrie
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhoids are a benign anorectal condition and are highly prevalent in the UK population. Treatments involve clinic-based procedures and surgery. The surgical procedures available include stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) and traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH), and over 25,000 operations are performed for haemorrhoids annually in the UK. The disease is therefore important both to patients and to health service commissioners. Debate remains as to which of these surgical procedures is the most clinically effective and cost-effective...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
José A López-López, Jonathan A C Sterne, Howard H Z Thom, Julian P T Higgins, Aroon D Hingorani, George N Okoli, Philippa A Davies, Pritesh N Bodalia, Peter A Bryden, Nicky J Welton, William Hollingworth, Deborah M Caldwell, Jelena Savović, Sofia Dias, Chris Salisbury, Diane Eaton, Annya Stephens-Boal, Reecha Sofat
Objective To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of direct acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for patients with atrial fibrillation.Design Systematic review, network meta-analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Data sources Medline, PreMedline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library.Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Published randomised trials evaluating the use of a DOAC, vitamin K antagonist, or antiplatelet drug for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.Results 23 randomised trials involving 94 656 patients were analysed: 13 compared a DOAC with warfarin dosed to achieve a target INR of 2...
November 28, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rohit P Ojha, Bradford E Jackson, Yan Lu, Mandy Burton, Somer E Blair, Brooke MacDonald, Tzu-Chun Chu, Kari Teigen, Melissa Acosta
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review published literature to assess study-level sources of heterogeneity in participation and retention for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted exclusively at safety-net institutions, which are primary sources of care for underserved populations. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify phase III RCTs of any topic conducted exclusively at safety-net institutions in the United States through October 15, 2016...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Natapong Kosachunhanun, Pitthaporn Chotikanokrat, Unchalee Permsuwan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the financial consequences of different adoption rate of Biphasic Insulin Aspart (BIAsp) 30 instead of Biphasic Human Insulin (BHI) 30 for people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Thailand from the payer's perspective. METHODS: The Excel-based International T2DM Budget Impact Model over a three-year period was used. The cohort was the T2DM patients who received treatment from government hospitals under the Universal Health Coverage Scheme. Demographic, the adverse events, and the costs were derived from published studies in Thailand...
November 25, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Werner Hacke, Patrick Lyden, Jonathan Emberson, Colin Baigent, Lisa Blackwell, Gregory Albers, Erich Bluhmki, Thomas Brott, Geoffrey Cohen, Stephen M Davis, Geoffrey A Donnan, James C Grotta, George Howard, Markku Kaste, Masatoshi Koga, Rüdiger von Kummer, Maarten G Lansberg, Richard I Lindley, Jean-Marc Olivot, Mark Parsons, Peter Ag Sandercock, Danilo Toni, Kazunori Toyoda, Nils Wahlgren, Joanna M Wardlaw, William N Whiteley, Gregory Del Zoppo, Kennedy R Lees
Background The recommended maximum age and time window for intravenous alteplase treatment of acute ischemic stroke differs between the Europe Union and United States. Aims We compared the effects of alteplase in cohorts defined by the current Europe Union or United States marketing approval labels, and by hypothetical revisions of the labels that would remove the Europe Union upper age limit or extend the United States treatment time window to 4.5 h. Methods We assessed outcomes in an individual-patient-data meta-analysis of eight randomized trials of intravenous alteplase (0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
I J Lean, M B de Ondarza, C J Sniffen, J E P Santos, K E Griswold
Meta-analytic methods were used to determine statistical relationships between metabolizable AA supplies and milk protein yield, milk protein percentage, and milk yield in lactating dairy cows. Sixty-three research publications (258 treatment means) were identified through a search of published literature using 3 search engines and met the criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) version 6.5 was used to determine dietary nutrient parameters including metabolizable AA...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Zachary Klaassen, Karan Arora, Hanan Goldberg, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Christopher J D Wallis, Rashid K Sayyid, Neil E Fleshner, Antonio Finelli, Alexander Kutikov, Philippe D Violette, Girish S Kulkarni
PURPOSE: Radical cystectomy (RC) is an inherently morbid procedure. The purpose of this review is to assess the timing and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), review current guideline recommendations, and provide evidence for considering extended VTE prophylaxis among all patients undergoing RC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search of available literature for RC and VTE, focusing on: incidence and timing, evidence supporting extended VTE prophylaxis (among RC and abdominal surgical oncology patients), current guideline recommendations, safety considerations, and direct oral anticoagulants...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Urology
Rosanne J H C G Beijers, Stephanie M D Huysmans, Coby van de Bool, Boris R M Kingma, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Steven J R Meex, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many COPD patients have a reduced exercise capacity and mechanical efficiency and are at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess acute and 7-days effects of dietary nitrate on mechanical efficiency, exercise performance and cardiac biomarkers in patients with COPD. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized cross-over placebo controlled trial included 20 mild-to-moderate COPD patients (66.6 ± 7.5 years) with moderate exercise impairments and decreased mechanical efficiency, normal BMI (26 ± 3 kg/m(2)) but high prevalence of abdominal obesity (83...
October 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
J A C Vargas, A K Almeida, A P Souza, M H M R Fernandes, K T Resende, I A M A Teixeira
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex on the net requirements of growth for Ca (NCa), P (NP), Na (NNa), K (NK), and Mg (NMg) in Saanen goats from 5 to 45 kg BW, with or without consideration of the degree of maturity. A database containing 209 individual records for Saanen goats (69 castrated males, 71 intact males, and 69 females) was generated from 6 comparative slaughter studies. Total amounts of Ca, P, Na, K, and Mg in the body were fitted to logarithmized allometric equations using empty BW (EBW) or degree of maturity (EBW/mature EBW) as regressors...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Michael Pugliese, Dylan Johnson, Dar Dowlatshahi, Tim Ramsay
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing global epidemic limiting the ability of millions to function independently due to post-stroke deficits and complications. Although specialized stroke rehabilitation improves the recovery of functional abilities, accessing rehabilitation services has become increasingly challenging as the number of stroke survivors continues to increase and rehabilitation resources remain scarce. Mobile tablet-based therapies (MTBTs) may be a resource-efficient platform for providing stroke rehabilitation services...
November 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Rita Pasion, Ana R Gonçalves, Carina Fernandes, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Fernando Barbosa, João Marques-Teixeira
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies) and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Travis M Howard, Aakash A Bavishi, Neil J Stone
Lifestyle medication is the cornerstone of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). When this is not sufficient in reducing risk, statin therapy is first line. HOPE-3 was a randomized controlled trial of rosuvastatin vs placebo, which demonstrated a significant net benefit in a lower risk population without known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. There were many novel characteristics about this trial that should not be overlooked. It contained a diverse population and was the first trial to base inclusion solely on easily ascertainable metabolic risk factors...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Dimin Fan, Ying Lan, Paul G Tratnyek, Richard L Johnson, Jan Filip, Denis M O'Carroll, Ariel Nunez Garcia, Abinash Agrawal
Iron-based materials used in water treatment and groundwater remediation-especially micro- and nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI)-can be more effective when modified with lower-valent forms of sulfur (i.e., "sulfidated"). Controlled sulfidation for this purpose (using sulfide, dithionite, etc.) is the main topic of this review, but insights are derived by comparison with related and comparatively well-characterized processes such as corrosion of iron in sulfidic waters and abiotic natural attenuation by iron sulfide minerals...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Lena Schulte-Uebbing, Wim de Vries
Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may increase net primary productivity in N-limited terrestrial ecosystems and thus enhance the terrestrial carbon (C) sink. To assess the magnitude of this N-induced C sink, we performed a meta-analysis on data from forest fertilization experiments to estimate N-induced C sequestration in aboveground tree woody biomass, a stable C pool with long turnover times. Our results show that boreal and temperate forests responded strongly to N addition and sequestered on average an additional 14 and 13 kg C per kg N in aboveground woody biomass, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
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