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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631197/prioritizing-future-research-on-allopurinol-and-febuxostat-for-the-management-of-gout-value-of-information-analysis
#1
Eric Jutkowitz, Fernando Alarid-Escudero, Hyon K Choi, Karen M Kuntz, Hawre Jalal
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the value of conducting additional research and reducing uncertainty regarding the cost effectiveness of allopurinol and febuxostat for the management of gout. METHODS: We used a previously developed Markov model that evaluated the cost effectiveness of nine urate-lowering strategies: no treatment, allopurinol-only fixed dose (300 mg), allopurinol-only dose escalation (up to 800 mg), febuxostat-only fixed dose (80 mg), febuxostat-only dose escalation (up to 120 mg), allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy fixed dose, allopurinol-febuxostat sequential therapy dose escalation, febuxostat-allopurinol sequential therapy fixed dose, and febuxostat-allopurinol sequential therapy dose escalation...
June 19, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629510/screening-strategies-for-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#2
Nicky J Welton, Alexandra McAleenan, Howard Hz Thom, Philippa Davies, Will Hollingworth, Julian Pt Higgins, George Okoli, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Gene Feder, Diane Eaton, Aroon Hingorani, Christopher Fawsitt, Trudie Lobban, Peter Bryden, Alison Richards, Reecha Sofat
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent AF-related stroke has been shown to be cost-effective. A national screening programme for AF may prevent AF-related events, but would involve a substantial investment of NHS resources. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of screening tests for AF, update a systematic review of comparative studies evaluating screening strategies for AF, develop an economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies and review observational studies of AF screening to provide inputs to the model...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624178/liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-liver-metastases-from-neuroendocrine-tumors-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#3
Dimitrios Moris, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Eliza W Beal, Evangelos Felekouras, Spiridon Vernadakis, John J Fung, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation to treat neuroendocrine tumors, especially in the setting of diffuse liver involvement not amenable to operative resection remains controversial. We sought to perform a systematic review of the current literature to summarize data on patients undergoing liver transplantation with neuroendocrine tumors liver metastases as the indication. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines...
June 14, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619779/multiple-health-behaviour-change-interventions-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-primary-care-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Samah Alageel, Martin C Gulliford, Lisa McDermott, Alison J Wright
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether multiple health behaviour change (MHBC) interventions are effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in primary care. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of MHBC interventions on CVD risk and CVD risk factors; the study also evaluated associations of theoretical frameworks and intervention components with intervention effectiveness. METHODS: The search included randomised controlled trials of MHBC interventions aimed at reducing CVD risk in primary prevention population up to 2017...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611337/braf-mutation-is-associated-with-poor-clinicopathological-outcomes-in-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Yujie Li, Weier Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The clinical relevance of the BRAF mutation in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains controversial. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the precise relationship of BRAF mutation to clinicopathological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the electronic databases, including PubMed, the Web of Knowledge, and the China Journal Net was performed between January 2005 and December 2015. Outcomes of interest included gender, tumor site, tumor differentiation, node involvement, tumor size, and AJCC stage...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606108/detection-of-gene-environment-interactions-in-the-presence-of-linkage-disequilibrium-and-noise-by-using-genetic-risk-scores-with-internal-weights-from-elastic-net-regression
#6
Anke Hüls, Katja Ickstadt, Tamara Schikowski, Ursula Krämer
BACKGROUND: For the analysis of gene-environment (GxE) interactions commonly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to characterize genetic susceptibility, an approach that mostly lacks power and has poor reproducibility. One promising approach to overcome this problem might be the use of weighted genetic risk scores (GRS), which are defined as weighted sums of risk alleles of gene variants. The gold-standard is to use external weights from published meta-analyses. METHODS: In this study, we used internal weights from the marginal genetic effects of the SNPs estimated by a multivariate elastic net regression and thereby provided a method that can be used if there are no external weights available...
June 12, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586300/assessment-of-the-clinical-utility-of-adding-common-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genetic-scores-to-classical-risk-factor-algorithms-in-coronary-heart-disease-risk-prediction-in-uk-men
#7
Katherine E Beaney, Jackie A Cooper, Fotios Drenos, Steve E Humphries
BACKGROUND: Risk prediction algorithms for coronary heart disease (CHD) are recommended for clinical use. However, their predictive ability remains modest and the inclusion of genetic risk may improve their performance. METHODS: QRISK2 was used to assess CHD risk using conventional risk factors (CRFs). The performance of a 19 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) gene score (GS) for CHD including variants identified by genome-wide association study and candidate gene studies (weighted using the results from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D meta-analysis) was assessed using the second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHSII) of 2775 healthy UK men (284 cases)...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584909/a-review-of-phosphate-binders-in-chronic-kidney-disease-incremental-progress-or-just-higher-costs
#8
REVIEW
Wendy L St Peter, Lori D Wazny, Eric Weinhandl, Katie E Cardone, Joanna Q Hudson
As kidney disease progresses, phosphorus retention also increases, and phosphate binders are used to treat hyperphosphatemia. Clinicians prescribe phosphate binders thinking that reducing total body burden of phosphorus may decrease risks of mineral and bone disorder, fractures, cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and mortality. Recent meta-analyses suggest that sevelamer use results in lower mortality than use of calcium-containing phosphate binders. However, studies included in meta-analyses show significant heterogeneity, and exclusion or inclusion of specific studies alters results...
June 5, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583792/role-of-palliative-resection-of-the-primary-tumour-in-advanced-pancreatic-and-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumours-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
L M Almond, J Hodson, S J Ford, D Gourevitch, K J Roberts, T Shah, J Isaac, A Desai
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact on overall survival following palliative surgery to remove the primary lesion in unresectable metastatic small intestinal (SI-NET) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (P-NET). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to identify articles comparing patients undergoing palliative primary tumour resection without metastatectomy vs. no resection...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579855/thromboprophylaxis-with-apixaban-in-patients-undergoing-major-orthopedic-surgery-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Caldeira, Filipe B Rodrigues, Fausto J Pinto, Joaquim J Ferreira, João Costa
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of orthopedic surgery, and until recently, few antithrombotic compounds were available for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. The introduction of the non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including apixaban, has extended the therapeutic armamentarium in this field. Therefore, estimation of NOAC net clinical benefit in comparison with the established treatment is needed to inform clinical decision making...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574704/how-does-recycling-of-livestock-manure-in-agroecosystems-affect-crop-productivity-reactive-nitrogen-losses-and-soil-carbon-balance
#11
Longlong Xia, Shu Kee Lam, Xiaoyuan Yan, Deli Chen
Recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems to partially substitute synthetic fertilizer nitrogen (N) input is recommended to alleviate the environmental degradation associated with synthetic N fertilization, which may also affect food security and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, how substituting livestock manure for synthetic N fertilizer affects crop productivity (crop yield; crop N uptake; N use efficiency), reactive N (Nr) losses (ammonia (NH3) emission, N leaching and runoff), GHG (methane, CH4; and nitrous oxide, N2O; carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agroecosystems is not well understood...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562283/effectiveness-of-tympanostomy-tubes-for-otitis-media-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Dale W Steele, Gaelen P Adam, Mengyang Di, Christopher H Halladay, Ethan M Balk, Thomas A Trikalinos
CONTEXT: Tympanostomy tube placement is the most common ambulatory surgery performed on children in the United States. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to synthesize evidence for the effectiveness of tympanostomy tubes in children with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in Medline, the Cochrane Central Trials Registry and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
May 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558095/economic-evaluation-of-quality-improvement-interventions-designed-to-prevent-hospital-readmission-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Teryl K Nuckols, Emmett Keeler, Sally Morton, Laura Anderson, Brian J Doyle, Joshua Pevnick, Marika Booth, Roberta Shanman, Aziza Arifkhanova, Paul Shekelle
Importance: Quality improvement (QI) interventions can reduce hospital readmission, but little is known about their economic value. Objective: To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to reduce readmissions. Data Sources: Databases searched included PubMed, Econlit, the Centre for Reviews & Dissemination Economic Evaluations, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, and Worldcat (January 2004 to July 2016)...
May 30, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549707/interventions-for-treating-sarcopenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-studies
#14
Yoshihiro Yoshimura, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Minoru Yamada, Hunkyung Kim, Atsushi Harada, Hidenori Arai
BACKGROUND: Much interest has been focused on interventions for treating sarcopenia; however, the effects have gained little evidence. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of exercise, nutritional, drug, and combinational interventions for treating sarcopenia in older people. METHOD: We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed, the Cochrane Library of Cochrane Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Ichushi-Web for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from January 2000 to December 2016...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549073/repeated-measurements-of-blood-pressure-and-cholesterol-improves-cardiovascular-disease-risk-prediction-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#15
Ellie Paige, Jessica Barrett, Lisa Pennells, Michael Sweeting, Peter Willeit, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Vilmundur Gudnason, Børge G Nordestgaard, Bruce M Psaty, Uri Goldbourt, Lyle G Best, Gerd Assmann, Jukka T Salonen, Paul J Nietert, Wm Monique Verschuren, Eric J Brunner, Richard A Kronmal, Veikko Salomaa, Stephan Jl Bakker, Gilles R Dagenais, Shinichi Sato, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Johann Willeit, Altan Onat, Agustin Gómez de la Cámara, Ronan Roussel, Henry Völzke, Rachel Dankner, Robert W Tipping, Tom W Meade, Chiara Donfrancesco, Lewis H Kuller, Annette Peters, John Gallacher, Daan Kromhout, Hiroyasu Iso, Matthew Knuiman, Edoardo Casiglia, Maryam Kavousi, Luigi Palmieri, Johan Sundström, Barry R Davis, Inger Njølstad, David Couper, John Danesh, Simon G Thompson, Angela Wood
The added value of incorporating information from repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction has not been rigorously assessed. We used data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration on 191,445 adults (38 cohorts from across 17 countries with data from 1962-2014) with > 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537580/effects-of-supplementation-with-quercetin-on-plasma-c-reactive-protein-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
M Mohammadi-Sartang, Z Mazloom, S Sherafatmanesh, M Ghorbani, Donya Firoozi
Promising experimental studies suggest that quercetin has potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the results of current clinical trials on quercetin's effects on the C-reactive protein (CRP), a sensitive inflammatory biomarker, are ambiguous. We conducted a meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to resolve this inconsistency and quantify the net effect of quercetin on circulating CRP concentrations. A systematic search was performed in several databases including SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline and Google Scholar until 16 June 2016...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514316/new-idea-for-treatment-strategies-for-barcelona-clinic-liver-cancer-stages-based-on-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Kun Li, Hai-Tao Wang, Yu-Kun He, Tao Guo
BACKGROUND: Currently, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging (BCLC) system still remains controversies in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. We are trying to determine the best therapeutic strategy for each BCLC stage through a network meta-analysis and provide a new treatment idea. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases and extracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared various strategies...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513103/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-interval-training-versus-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-body-adiposity
#18
REVIEW
S E Keating, N A Johnson, G I Mielke, J S Coombes
Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg)...
May 17, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500779/beyond-nutrients-a-meta-analysis-of-the-diverse-effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-plants-and-soils
#19
Camille S Delavaux, Lauren M Smith-Ramesh, Sara E Kuebbing
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase plant fitness under certain environmental conditions. Among the mechanisms that may drive this mutualism, the most studied is provisioning of nutrients by AMF in exchange for carbon from plant hosts. However, AMF may also provide a suite of non-nutritional benefits to plants including improved water uptake, disease resistance, plant chemical defense, soil aggregation, and allelochemical transport and protection. Here, we use a meta-analysis of 93 studies to assess the relative effect of AMF on nutritional and non-nutritional factors that may influence plant fitness...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469496/use-and-misuse-of-aspirin-in-primary-cardiovascular-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Sergio Coccheri
The use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events in healthy or apparently healthy people is a widely debated topic. Many arguments indicate that "primary prevention" is only a conventional definition and that the transition from primary to secondary prevention represents a continuum of increasing levels of CV risk. Although there are no direct proofs of a different efficacy of aspirin at different CV risk levels, in low-risk populations aspirin will appear to be less efficient...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
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