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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431468/sorption-and-spatial-distribution-of-protein-globules-in-charged-hydrogel-particles
#1
Irene Adroher-Benítez, Arturo Moncho-Jorda, Joachim Dzubiella
We have theoretically studied the uptake of a non-uniformly charged biomolecule, suitable to represent a globular protein or a drug, by a charged hydrogel carrier in the presence of a 1:1 electrolyte. Based on the analysis of a physical interaction Hamilto- nian including monopolar, dipolar and Born (self-energy) contributions derived from linear electrostatic theory of the unperturbed homogeneous hydrogel, we have identi- fied five different sorption states of the system, from complete repulsion of the molecule to its full sorption deep inside the hydrogel, passing through meta- and stable sur- face adsorption states...
April 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427389/defining-micro-epidemiology-for-malaria-elimination-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Kristien Verdonck, Susanna Hausmann-Muela, Charlotte Gryseels, Joan Muela Ribera, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Malaria risk can vary markedly between households in the same village, or between villages, but the determinants of this "micro-epidemiological" variation in malaria risk remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors that explain fine-scale variation in malaria risk across settings and improve definitions and methods for malaria micro-epidemiology. METHODS: A systematic review of studies that examined risk factors for variation in malaria infection between individuals, households, clusters, hotspots, or villages in any malaria-endemic setting was conducted...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409276/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-post-operative-adverse-effects-associated-with-mosquito-net-mesh-in-comparison-to-commercial-hernia-mesh-for-inguinal-hernia-repair-in-low-income-countries
#3
REVIEW
T Patterson, P Currie, S Patterson, P Patterson, C Meek, R McMaster
PURPOSE: Abdominal wall hernia is a common surgical condition, with more than 20 million estimated to be repaired each year. Mesh repair is the standard for most repairs; however, the mesh material itself may be a barrier to care, the cost prohibitively high for some populations and healthcare systems. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to produce a pooled comparison between the adverse event rate associated with mosquito net mesh and commercial hernia mesh. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA guidelines...
April 13, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404575/dietary-protein-and-bone-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-from-the-national-osteoporosis-foundation
#4
Marissa M Shams-White, Mei Chung, Mengxi Du, Zhuxuan Fu, Karl L Insogna, Micaela C Karlsen, Meryl S LeBoff, Sue A Shapses, Joachim Sackey, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Background: Considerable attention has recently focused on dietary protein's role in the mature skeleton, prompted partly by an interest in nonpharmacologic approaches to maintain skeletal health in adult life.Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of dietary protein intake alone and with calcium with or without vitamin D (Ca±D) on bone health measures in adults.Design: Searches across 5 databases were conducted through October 2016 including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies examining 1) the effects of "high versus low" protein intake or 2) dietary protein's synergistic effect with Ca±D intake on bone health outcomes...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402955/antiproliferative-effect-of-somatostatin-analogs-in-advanced-gastro-entero-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Elettra Merola, Francesco Panzuto, Gianfranco Delle Fave
A meta-analysis has systematically investigated the antineoplastic efficacy and safety of somatostatin analogs (SSAs) in advanced gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the hazard ratio (HR) for disease progression (DP) were evaluated. Response rate and risk ratio (RR) for adverse events were also analyzed. A total of 289 patients (143 receiving SSAs vs. 146 placebo) were evaluated from two RCTs. A significant benefit from SSAs in terms of disease control was observed (HR 0...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394712/smoking-alcohol-and-family-history-of-cancer-as-risk-factors-for-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Sven-Petter Haugvik, Ibrahim Basim Ibrahim, Per Hedenström, Roberto Valente, Alastair J Hayes, Darko Siuka, Ivar Prydz Gladhaug, Gabriele Capurso
OBJECTIVES: Risk factors for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are not well understood. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify risk factors for SI-NET and to further assess these by meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and abstracts from the ENETS and NANETS were searched for studies published until May 2015. Eligible studies were selected according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Seven studies evaluating six individual populations were included (study accrual period 1980-2012) in the meta-analysis, involving 765 (range 17-325) cases and 502,282 (range 52-498,376) controls...
April 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385176/meta-analysis-of-the-relative-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral%C3%A2-p2y12-inhibitors-in-patients-with-acute-coronary%C3%A2-syndrome
#7
Rahman Shah, Abdul Rashid, Inyong Hwang, Tai-Hwang M Fan, Rami N Khouzam, Guy L Reed
A cornerstone of medical therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is dual antiplatelet therapy, which includes aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that prasugrel and ticagrelor are superior to clopidogrel, but none directly compared these 3 commonly used oral P2Y12 inhibitors for safety and efficacy. Therefore, we performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs to compare the efficacies and safeties of 3 commonly used oral P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ACS...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370946/asymmetric-responses-of-primary-productivity-to-precipitation-extremes-a-synthesis-of-grassland-precipitation-manipulation-experiments
#8
Kevin R Wilcox, Zheng Shi, Laureano A Gherardi, Nathan P Lemoine, Sally E Koerner, David L Hoover, Edward Bork, Kerry M Byrne, James Cahill, Scott L Collins, Sarah Evans, Anna Katarina Gilgen, Petr Holub, Lifen Jiang, Alan K Knapp, Daniel LeCain, Junyi Liang, Pablo Garcia-Palacios, Josep Peñuelas, William T Pockman, Melinda D Smith, Shanghua Sun, Shannon R White, Laura Yahdjian, Kai Zhu, Yiqi Luo
Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased inter-annual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP...
April 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370885/mortality-effect-of-icd-in-primary-prevention-of-nonischemic-cardiomyopathy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Faraz Khan Luni, Hemindermeet Singh, Abdur R Khan, Sonia A Malik, Owais Khawaja, Haris Riaz, Wade Lee, Ameer Kabour, Mark Richards, Johan Aasbo
INTRODUCTION: Implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is controversial in view of the recent DANISH trial which suggested no benefit with ICD for primary prevention in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP). METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized control trials studying the role of ICD in primary prevention of SCD in patients with NICMP. Only six studies were identified after the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369148/right-atrial-volume-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#10
Alexander Ivanov, Ambreen Mohamed, Ahmed Asfour, Jean Ho, Saadat A Khan, Onn Chen, Igor Klem, Kumudha Ramasubbu, Sorin J Brener, John F Heitner
BACKGROUND: Right Atrial Volume Index (RAVI) measured by echocardiography is an independent predictor of morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of RAVI assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF and to assess its additive contribution to the validated Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic heart failure (MAGGIC) score. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 243 patients (mean age 60 ± 15; 33% women) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% measured by CMR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359986/diagnostic-accuracy-of-ultrasonography-for-detecting-nasogastric-tube-ngt-placement-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Tian Lin, Wendy Gifford, Yutao Lan, Xiuqun Qin, Xuelian Liu, Juan Wang, Biping Yang, Tianhui You, Ken Chen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detecting correct nasogastric tube (NGT) placement in adults compared to X-ray as the reference standard. METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, searched in the literature between 1961 and 2015. We included studies which compared the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography detection for NGT placement with X-ray in adult patients who were undergoing NGT placement for any reason in any care setting...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355041/clozapine-augmentation-with-antiepileptic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Wei Zheng, Yu-Tao Xiang, Xin-Hu Yang, Ying-Qiang Xiang, Jose de Leon
OBJECTIVE: To meta-analyze randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to augment clozapine therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. DATA SOURCES: The search included databases in English (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) and in Chinese (China Journal Net [CJN], WanFang, and China Biology Medicine [CBM]) and references from retrieved articles...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334395/pore-guis-for-parallel-and-real-time-processing-of-minion-sequence-data
#13
Robert Stewart, Mick Watson
Motivation: Oxford Nanopore's MinION device has matured rapidly and is now capable of producing over one million reads and several gigabases of sequence data per run. The nature of the MinION output requires new tools that are easy to use by scientists with a range of computational skills and which enable quick and simple QC and data extraction from MinION runs. Results: We have developed two GUIs for the R package poRe that allow parallel and real-time processing of MinION datasets...
March 9, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319436/estimating-the-risks-of-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-evidence-from-modern-radiation-doses-to-the-lungs-and-heart-and-from-previous-randomized-trials
#14
Carolyn Taylor, Candace Correa, Frances K Duane, Marianne C Aznar, Stewart J Anderson, Jonas Bergh, David Dodwell, Marianne Ewertz, Richard Gray, Reshma Jagsi, Lori Pierce, Kathleen I Pritchard, Sandra Swain, Zhe Wang, Yaochen Wang, Tim Whelan, Richard Peto, Paul McGale
Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291727/bivalirudin-versus-heparin-in-women-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#15
Marwan Saad, Ramez Nairooz, Ahmed Rashed, Hesham K Abdelaziz, Amgad Mentias, J Dawn Abbott
BACKGROUND: The anticoagulant of choice during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in women is not well established. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted for trials that randomized patients undergoing PCI to bivalirudin versus heparin, and reported outcomes of interest in women. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios (RR) were calculated. Main outcome was net adverse clinical events (NACE) at 30-days. Other outcomes included major adverse cardiac events (MACE), all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and major bleeding at 30-days...
February 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288746/population-coverage-of-artemisinin-based-combination-treatment-in-children-younger-than-5-years-with-fever-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-africa-2003-2015-a-modelling-study-using-data-from-national-surveys
#16
Adam Bennett, Donal Bisanzio, Joshua O Yukich, Bonnie Mappin, Cristin A Fergus, Michael Lynch, Richard E Cibulskis, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Ewan Cameron, Peter W Gething, Thomas P Eisele
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the most effective treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. A commonly used indicator for monitoring and assessing progress in coverage of malaria treatment is the proportion of children younger than 5 years with reported fever in the previous 14 days who have received an ACT. We propose an improved indicator that incorporates parasite infection status (as assessed by a rapid diagnostic test [RDT]), which is available in recent household surveys...
April 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284499/the-optimal-discontinuation-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-drug-eluting-stents-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#17
Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jingxue Fang, Yang Liu, Tong An, Meijuan Zou, Gang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for patients with drug-eluting stents (DES) implantation. Nevertheless, optimal discontinuation of DAPT remains a controversy. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate optimal discontinuation of DAPT in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES. METHODS: We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279251/oral-anticoagulants-for-primary-prevention-treatment-and-secondary-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolic-disease-and-for-prevention-of-stroke-in-atrial-fibrillation-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#18
Jonathan Ac Sterne, Pritesh N Bodalia, Peter A Bryden, Philippa A Davies, Jose A López-López, George N Okoli, Howard Hz Thom, Deborah M Caldwell, Sofia Dias, Diane Eaton, Julian Pt Higgins, Will Hollingworth, Chris Salisbury, Jelena Savović, Reecha Sofat, Annya Stephens-Boal, Nicky J Welton, Aroon D Hingorani
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), but anticoagulation is underused in clinical care. The risk of venous thromboembolic disease during hospitalisation can be reduced by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH): warfarin is the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant for treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Warfarin-related bleeding is a major reason for hospitalisation for adverse drug effects. Warfarin is cheap but therapeutic monitoring increases treatment costs...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279072/aspirin-in-older-adults
#19
Mandi Sehgal, Sarah K Wood, Joseph G Ouslander, Charles H Hennekens
In the treatment or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is general consensus that the absolute benefits of aspirin far outweigh the absolute risks. Despite evidence from randomized trials and their meta-analyses, older adults, defined as aged 65 years or older, are less likely to be prescribed aspirin than their middle-aged counterparts. In primary prevention, the optimal utilization of aspirin is widely debated. There is insufficient randomized evidence among apparently healthy participants at moderate to high risk of a first CVD event, so general guidelines seem premature...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260723/evidence-based-carotid-interventions-for-stroke-prevention-state-of-the-art-review
#20
Dylan R Morris, Kengo Ayabe, Takashi Inoue, Nobuyuki Sakai, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday, Shinya Goto
Carotid artery stenosis is responsible for between 10-20% of all ischaemic strokes. Interventions, such as carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting, effectively reduce the risk of stroke in selected individuals. This review describes the history of carotid interventions, and summarises reliable evidence on the safety and efficacy of these interventions gained from large randomised clinical trials.Early trials comparing carotid endarterectomy to medical therapy alone in symptomatic patients, and asymptomatic patients, demonstrated that endarterectomy halved the risk of stroke and perioperative death in these two unique populations...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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