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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872051/management-of-mild-hypertension-in-adults
#1
REVIEW
Anthony J Viera, Emily M Hawes
Elevated blood pressure is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects one in three adults. Blood pressure lowering drugs substantially reduce the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and premature death, but most clinical trials showing benefits have primarily included patients with moderate to severe hypertension, known cardiovascular disease, or elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. The benefits of treating mild hypertension in patients without cardiovascular disease are less clear, but recent meta-analyses offer some insights...
November 21, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862911/effect-of-post-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-bivalirudin-infusion-on-net-adverse-clinical-events-and-mortality-a-comprehensive-pairwise-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Rahman Shah, Khalid Matin, Kelly C Rogers, Sunil V Rao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacies of various post-percutaneous coronary intervenetion (PCI) bivalirudin doses on net adverse clinical events (NACEs) and mortality. BACKGROUND: In primary PCI, lower risk of bleeding with bivalirudin (vs. unfractionated heparin [UFH]) is counterbalanced by an increased risk of acute stent thrombosis (ST). Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a recent meta-analysis suggest that acute ST risk may be eliminated without compromising the bleeding benefit, but only if the full dose, not a low dose, of bivalirudin is continued post-PCI...
November 10, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859190/estimating-local-biodiversity-change-a-critique-of-papers-claiming-no-net-loss-of-local-diversity
#3
Andrew Gonzalez, Bradley J Cardinale, Ginger R H Allington, Jarrett Byrnes, K Arthur Endsley, Daniel G Brown, David U Hooper, Forest Isbell, Mary I O'Connor, Michel Loreau
Global species extinction rates are orders of magnitude above the background rate documented in the fossil record. However, recent data syntheses have found mixed evidence for patterns of net species loss at local spatial scales. For example, two recent data meta-analyses have found that species richness is decreasing in some locations and is increasing in others. When these trends are combined, these papers argued there has been no net change in species richness, and suggested this pattern is globally representative of biodiversity change at local scales...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858141/diet-dependent-acid-load-and-type-2-diabetes-pooled-results-from-three-prospective-cohort-studies
#4
Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Yanping Li, Mu Chen, Gary C Curhan, Josiemer Mattei, Vasanti S Malik, John P Forman, Oscar H Franco, Frank B Hu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Studies suggest a potential link between low-grade metabolic acidosis and type 2 diabetes. A western dietary pattern increases daily acid load but the association between diet-dependent acid load and type 2 diabetes is still unclear. This study aimed to assess whether diet-dependent acid load is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We examined the association between energy-adjusted net endogenous acid production (NEAP), potential renal acid load (PRAL) and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (A:P) on incident type 2 diabetes in 67,433 women from the Nurses' Health Study, 84,310 women from the Nurses' Health Study II and 35,743 men from the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study who were free from type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline...
November 17, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857002/reviewing-outcomes-of-psychological-interventions-with-torture-survivors-conceptual-methodological-and-ethical-issues
#5
Nimisha Patel, Amanda C de C Williams, Blerina Kellezi
BACKGROUND: Torture survivors face multiple problems, including psychological difficulties, whether they are refugees or remain in the country where they were tortured. Provision of rehabilitation varies not only with the needs of survivors and resources available, but also with service models, service provider preferences and the local and country context. Despite increasing efforts in research on effectiveness of psychological interventions with torture survivors, results are inconclusive...
2016: Torture: Quarterly Journal on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855401/systematic-review-and-net-work-meta-analysis-of-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-interventions
#6
Mengyuan Jiang, Pan Chen, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGH) is a serious medical condition which affects a large number of individuals. Endoscopic therapy accompanied by medication is a standard approach that is used to improve the prognosis of UGH patients and a few medications have been developed including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA), somatostatin analogues and tranexamic acid. This study is set to compare the efficacy and safety of various medical interventions that are used to manage upper gastrointestinal bleeding...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846641/prevalence-and-prognostic-implications-of-coronary-artery-calcification-in-low-risk-women-a-meta-analysis
#7
Maryam Kavousi, Chintan S Desai, Colby Ayers, Roger S Blumenthal, Matthew J Budoff, Amir-Abbas Mahabadi, M Arfan Ikram, Aad van der Lugt, Albert Hofman, Raimund Erbel, Amit Khera, Marie H Geisel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Nils Lehmann, Udo Hoffmann, Christopher J O'Donnell, Joseph M Massaro, Kiang Liu, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Hongyan Ning, Oscar H Franco, Philip Greenland
Importance: The role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing for guiding preventive strategies among women at low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk based on the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association CVD prevention guidelines is unclear. Objective: To assess the potential utility of CAC testing for CVD risk estimation and stratification among low-risk women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Women with 10-year atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk lower than 7...
November 22, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832660/global-overexpression-of-et-1-decreases-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-et-1-transgenic-mice
#8
Yong Ping Lu, Oleg Tsuprykov, Nicolas Vignon-Zellweger, Susi Heiden, Berthold Hocher
BACKGROUND/AIMS: ET-1 has independent effects on blood pressure regulation in vivo, it is involved in tubular water and salt excretion, promotes constriction of smooth muscle cells, modulates sympathetic nerve activity, and activates the liberation of nitric oxide. To determine the net effect of these partially counteracting mechanisms on blood pressure, a systematic meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Based on the principles of Cochrane systematic reviews, we searched in major literature databases - MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Google Scholar, and the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc) - for articles relevant to the topic of the blood pressure phenotype of endothelin-1 transgenic (ET-1+/+) mice from January 1, 1988 to March 31, 2016...
November 11, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804960/the-effects-of-partial-sleep-deprivation-on-energy-balance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
H K Al Khatib, S V Harding, J Darzi, G K Pot
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is unknown whether short sleep duration causatively contributes to weight gain. Studies investigating effects of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on energy balance components report conflicting findings. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of human intervention studies assessing the effects of PSD on energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). SUBJECTS/METHODS: EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801641/a-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation-of-bisphosphonates-for-the-prevention-of-fragility-fractures
#10
Sarah Davis, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Jean Sanderson, John Stevens, Edward Goka, Andrew Rawdin, Susi Sadler, Ruth Wong, Fiona Campbell, Matt Stevenson, Mark Strong, Peter Selby, Neil Gittoes
BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures are fractures that result from mechanical forces that would not ordinarily result in fracture. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates [alendronic acid (Fosamax(®) and Fosamax(®) Once Weekly, Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd), risedronic acid (Actonel(®) and Actonel Once a Week(®), Warner Chilcott UK Ltd), ibandronic acid (Bonviva(®), Roche Products Ltd) and zoledronic acid (Aclasta(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd)] for the prevention of fragility fracture and to assess their cost-effectiveness at varying levels of fracture risk...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766511/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-hyponatremia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Benlei Li, Dong Fang, Cheng Qian, Hongliang Feng, Yanggan Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive evaluations regarding the benefits of tolvaptan in the treatment of hyponatremia are lacking. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients with hyponatremia. METHODS: Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between their respective inception dates and 31 April 2016. Summary relative risks (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or randomized-effects models, depending on the degree of heterogeneity noted among the studies included in the analysis...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743841/health-social-and-economic-variables-associated-with-depression-among-older-people-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-world-health-organization-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health
#12
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723232/logging-impacts-on-avian-species-richness-and-composition-differ-across-latitudes-and-foraging-and-breeding-habitat-preferences
#13
Joseph A LaManna, Thomas E Martin
Understanding the causes underlying changes in species diversity is a fundamental pursuit of ecology. Animal species richness and composition often change with decreased forest structural complexity associated with logging. Yet differences in latitude and forest type may strongly influence how species diversity responds to logging. We performed a meta-analysis of logging effects on local species richness and composition of birds across the world and assessed responses by different guilds (nesting strata, foraging strata, diet, and body size)...
October 10, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693450/properties-of-the-4-kallikrein-panel-outside-the-diagnostic-gray-zone-meta-analysis-of-patients-with-positive-digital-rectal-examination-or-prostate-specific-antigen-10-ng-ml-and-above
#14
Andrew Vickers, Emily A Vertosick, Daniel D Sjoberg, Monique J Roobol, Freddie Hamdy, David Neal, Anders Bjartell, Jonas Hugosson, Jenny L Donovan, Arnauld Villers, Stephen Zappala, Hans Lilja
PURPOSE: The 4-kallikrein panel, commercially available as the 4Kscore™, is a reflex test for prostate cancer early detection that has been extensively validated in multiple international cohorts. It has been suggested that use of such reflex tests be limited to those with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml and negative digital rectal examination. We aimed to determine the value of the panel in men outside this "diagnostic gray zone." MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from prior studies on the 4-kallikrein panel...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683246/transcatheter-versus-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-at-low-and-intermediate-risk-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Reed A Siemieniuk, Thomas Agoritsas, Veena Manja, Tahira Devji, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Lehana Thabane, Gordon H Guyatt
OBJECTIVE:  To examine the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical replacement of an aortic valve (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at low and intermediate risk of perioperative death. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis DATA SOURCES:  Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. STUDY SELECTION:  Randomized trials of TAVI compared with SAVR in patients with a mean perioperative risk of death <8%...
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677914/effect-of-glycemic-index-of-a-pre-exercise-meal-on-endurance-exercise-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650930/impact-of-a-genetic-risk-score-on-myocardial-infarction-risk-across-different-ethnic-populations
#17
Philip G Joseph, Guillaume Pare, Senay Asma, James C Engert, Salim Yusuf, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) risk varies by ethnicity, although the influence of genetic factors remains unclear. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the association between 25 coronary artery disease (CAD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and MI across 6 ethnic groups. METHODS: We studied 8556 participants in the INTERHEART case-control study from 6 ethnic groups: Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, Arabs, Latin Americans, and Africans...
June 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645169/meta-analysis-of-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials-of-melatonin-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Wei Wei, Yu-Tao Xiang
OBJECTIVE: This is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Both English (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) and Chinese (WanFang Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, and China Journal Net) databases were systematically and independently searched by two authors from their inception until 1 March 2016. Weighted and standard mean differences (SMDs), risk ratio (RR) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640997/atp-from-synaptic-terminals-and-astrocytes-regulates-nmda-receptors-and-synaptic-plasticity-through-psd-95-multi-protein-complex
#19
U Lalo, O Palygin, A Verkhratsky, S G N Grant, Y Pankratov
Recent studies highlighted the importance of astrocyte-secreted molecules, such as ATP, for the slow modulation of synaptic transmission in central neurones. Biophysical mechanisms underlying the impact of gliotransmitters on the strength of individual synapse remain, however, unclear. Here we show that purinergic P2X receptors can bring significant contribution to the signalling in the individual synaptic boutons. ATP released from astrocytes facilitates a recruitment of P2X receptors into excitatory synapses by Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634956/has-smoking-cessation-increased-an-examination-of-the-us-adult-smoking-cessation-rate-1990-2014
#20
David Méndez, Jamie Tam, Gary A Giovino, Alexander Tsodikov, Kenneth E Warner
INTRODUCTION: We examine the trajectory of adult smoking prevalence in the US over the period 1990 - 2014 to investigate whether the smoking cessation rate has changed during this period. METHODS: We employ a dynamic model of smoking prevalence, and data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), to estimate the adult cessation rate in six-year intervals. We use weighted non-linear least squares to perform the estimation...
September 15, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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