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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222094/housing-improvements-and-malaria-risk-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis-of-survey-data
#1
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215416/meta-analysis-of-relation-of-vital-exhaustion-to-cardiovascular-disease-events
#2
Randy Cohen, Chirag Bavishi, Syed Haider, Jincy Thankachen, Alan Rozanski
To assess the net impact of vital exhaustion on cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO (through April 2016) to identify all studies which investigated the relation between vital exhaustion (VE) and health outcomes. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) a cohort study (prospective cohort or historical cohort) consisting of adults (>18 years); (2) at least 1 self-reported or interview-based assessment of VE or exhaustion; (3) evaluated the association between vital exhaustion or exhaustion and relevant outcomes; and (4) reported adjusted risk estimates of vital exhaustion/exhaustion for outcomes...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208178/lingual-tonsillectomy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis
#3
Kun-Tai Kang, Peter J Koltai, Chia-Hsuan Lee, Ming-Tzer Lin, Wei-Chung Hsu
Importance: Evidence indicates correlations between lingual tonsil hypertrophy and pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, to our knowledge, a meta-analysis of surgical outcomes for lingual tonsillectomy in children with OSA has not been conducted. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of lingual tonsillectomy for treatment of pediatric OSA. Data Sources: The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42015027053). PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Reviews databases were searched independently by 2 authors for relevant articles published by September 2016...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161092/fatty-acid-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-meta-analyses-of-case-control-and-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Xiao-Fei Guo, Bo Yang, Jun Tang, Duo Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Blood and/or liver fatty acid contents of healthy subjects and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients have shown inconsistent associations. In addition, the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in relation to the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver fat, triglyceride (TAG) and fasting glucose levels are inconsistent. The present study aimed to investigate the differences of fatty acid content in the blood and/or liver tissue between healthy subjects and NAFLD patients, and to quantify the benefits of n-3 PUFA therapy in NAFLD patients...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154498/reverse-methanogenesis-and-respiration-in-methanotrophic-archaea
#5
REVIEW
Peer H A Timmers, Cornelia U Welte, Jasper J Koehorst, Caroline M Plugge, Mike S M Jetten, Alfons J M Stams
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is catalyzed by anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) via a reverse and modified methanogenesis pathway. Methanogens can also reverse the methanogenesis pathway to oxidize methane, but only during net methane production (i.e., "trace methane oxidation"). In turn, ANME can produce methane, but only during net methane oxidation (i.e., enzymatic back flux). Net AOM is exergonic when coupled to an external electron acceptor such as sulfate (ANME-1, ANME-2abc, and ANME-3), nitrate (ANME-2d), or metal (oxides)...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146601/stepping-down-the-dose-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-adults-with-asthma
#6
REVIEW
Iain Crossingham, David Jw Evans, Nathan R Halcovitch, Paul A Marsden
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a condition of the airways affecting more than 300 million adults and children worldwide. National and international guidelines recommend titrating up the dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to gain symptom control at the lowest possible dose because long-term use of higher doses of ICS carries a risk of systemic adverse events. For patients whose asthma symptoms are controlled on moderate or higher doses of ICS, it may be possible to reduce the dose of ICS without compromising symptom control...
February 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142211/stimulation-of-n2-o-emission-by-manure-application-to-agricultural-soils-may-largely-offset-carbon-benefits-a-global-meta-analysis
#7
Minghua Zhou, Bo Zhu, Shijie Wang, Xinyu Zhu, Harry Vereecken, Nicolas Brüggemann
Animal manure application as organic fertilizer does not only sustain agricultural productivity and increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but also affects soil nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, given that the sign and magnitude of manure effects on soil N2 O emissions is uncertain, the net climatic impact of manure application in arable land is unknown. Here, we performed a global meta-analysis using field experimental data published in peer-reviewed journals prior to December 2015...
January 31, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134053/what-is-the-value-of-conducting-a-trial-of-r-tpa-for-the-treatment-of-mild-stroke-patients
#8
Gregory F Guzauskas, Er Chen, Deepa Lalla, Elaine Yu, Darren Tayama, David L Veenstra
Background The Phase IIIb, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Alteplase in Patients With Mild Stroke: Rapidly Improving Symptoms and Minor Neurologic Deficits (PRISMS) trial will assess r-tPA in ischemic stroke patients who present with mild deficits (i.e. mild stroke). Aims To assess PRISMS's societal value in clarifying the optimal care for patients with mild ischemic stroke. Methods A value of information (VOI) decision model was developed to compare the outcomes of mild stroke patients treated vs...
February 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099898/the-best-strategy-for-hcc-patients-at-each-bclc-stage-a-network-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
REVIEW
Lei Chang, Yitao Wang, Jibo Zhang, Tao Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Currently, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system remains huge controversies in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. To determine the best therapeutic strategy for patients at each stage, we conducted a network meta-analysis and aimed to provide a new treatment concept. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library database were searched for observational studies up to August 31, 2016. We extracted data on overall survival rate from studies that compared various strategies for use with patients at different stages...
January 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098767/cheese-consumption-and-risk-of-all-cause-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#10
Xing Tong, Guo-Chong Chen, Zheng Zhang, Yu-Lu Wei, Jia-Ying Xu, Li-Qiang Qin
The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089943/resveratrol-supplementation-and-plasma-adipokines-concentrations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Mohsen Mohammadi-Sartang, Zohreh Mazloom, Zahra Sohrabi, Saeed Sherafatmanesh, Reza Barati-Boldaji
The results of human clinical trials have revealed that the effects of resveratrol on adipokines are inconsistent. Our objective was to elucidate the role of resveratrol supplementation on adipokines through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).(1) The search included PubMed-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ISI web of sciences database till up to 6th November 2016. Weight mean differences (WMD)(2) were calculated for net changes in adipokines using fixed-effects or random-effects models; meta-regression analysis and publication bias were conducted in accordance with standard methods...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031211/model-based-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-guided-care-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#12
Syed Mohiuddin, Barnaby Reeves, Maria Pufulete, Rachel Maishman, Mark Dayer, John Macleod, Theresa McDonagh, Sarah Purdy, Chris Rogers, William Hollingworth
OBJECTIVE: Monitoring B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) to guide pharmacotherapy might improve survival in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided care is uncertain and guidelines do not uniformly recommend it. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided care in patient subgroups defined by age and ejection fraction. METHODS: We used a Markov model with a 3-month cycle length to estimate the lifetime health service costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental net monetary benefits (iNMBs) of BNP-guided versus clinically guided care in 3 patient subgroups: (1) HFrEF patients <75 years; (2) HFpEF patients <75 years; and (3) HFrEF patients ≥75 years...
December 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007305/non-vitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulants-in-atrial-fibrillation-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
Giuseppe Andò, Piera Capranzano
BACKGROUND: Currently there is lack of head-to-head comparisons between different Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs), especially in more risky subgroups, as those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We assessed the relative efficacy and safety of the four NOACs on the market in a systematic review and network meta-analysis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and moderate CKD enrolled in the phase 3 randomized trials. A Bayesian framework was used to perform the network meta-analysis...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992861/how-much-nutrition-for-how-much-growth-%C3%A2
#14
Michael Hermanussen, Jan M Wit
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing agreement exists about the use of length-for-age as the indicator of choice in monitoring the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiency. Yet, already shortly after World War I, a causal link between nutrition and growth was questioned. Also, modern meta-analyses of controlled nutrition intervention studies show that the net effect of nutrition on body height is small. Broad evidence obtained from historic observations on human starvation made since the 19th century questions an obligatory association between nutrition and growth...
December 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976649/potential-of-probiotics-in-hypercholesterolemia-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Smriti Sharma, Anura Vishwanathan Kurpad, Seema Puri
Human studies on the effects of probiotics on lowering blood cholesterol levels have not yielded conclusive results. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of probiotics on lipid profile was conducted. Articles were reviewed systematically from web search bases; PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry. Those studies which were meeting the inclusion criteria-providing matching placebo, at least single blind for probiotics and placebo, providing mean and standard deviations and not involving the use of probiotics were selected...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965278/regression-of-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumors-among-patients-receiving-placebo
#16
Vito Amoroso, Giorgio Maria Agazzi, Elisa Roca, Nicola Fazio, Alessandra Mosca, Marco Ravanelli, Francesca Spada, Roberto Maroldi, Alfredo Berruti
Neuroendocrine tumors have a heterogeneous clinical behavior, many of them having an indolent disease course and some of them depicting an aggressive pattern. Neuroendocrine tumors may even undergo spontaneous remission, but this phenomenon has never been quantified and characterized. In this study, we performed a literature-based meta-analysis of all prospective randomized trials in which an active experimental treatment was compared with a placebo control arm. Our analysis clearly showed that a subset of NET patients (approximately 6% of those randomized to placebo) achieved tumor shrinkage greater than 10% from baseline, and this proportion was similar across the examined studies...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957400/meta-analysis-reveals-that-seed-applied-neonicotinoids-and-pyrethroids-have-similar-negative-effects-on-abundance-of-arthropod-natural-enemies
#17
Margaret R Douglas, John F Tooker
BACKGROUND: Seed-applied neonicotinoids are widely used in agriculture, yet their effects on non-target species remain incompletely understood. One important group of non-target species is arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids), which contribute considerably to suppression of crop pests. We hypothesized that seed-applied neonicotinoids reduce natural-enemy abundance, but not as strongly as alternative insecticide options such as soil- and foliar-applied pyrethroids. Furthermore we hypothesized that seed-applied neonicotinoids affect natural enemies through a combination of toxin exposure and prey scarcity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917777/the-identification-and-treatment-of-women-with-hyperglycaemia-in-pregnancy-an-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-systematic-reviews-meta-analyses-and-an-economic-evaluation
#18
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Susan Griffin, Ana Duarte, Debbie A Lawlor, Mark Sculpher, Lesley Fairley, Su Golder, Derek Tuffnell, Martin Bland, Fidelma Dunne, Donald Whitelaw, John Wright, Trevor A Sheldon
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a higher risk of important adverse outcomes. Practice varies and the best strategy for identifying and treating GDM is unclear. AIM: To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies for identifying and treating women with GDM. METHODS: We analysed individual participant data (IPD) from birth cohorts and conducted systematic reviews to estimate the association of maternal glucose levels with adverse perinatal outcomes; GDM prevalence; maternal characteristics/risk factors for GDM; and the effectiveness and costs of treatments...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914943/disadvantageous-decision-making-in-borderline-personality-disorder-partial-support-from-a-meta-analytic-review
#19
REVIEW
Christian Paret, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Christian Schmahl
To achieve long-term goals, organisms evaluate outcomes and expected consequences of their behaviors. Unfavorable decisions maintain many symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD); therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying decision-making in BPD is needed. In this review, the current literature comparing decision-making in patients with BPD versus healthy controls is analyzed. Twenty-eight empirical studies were identified through a structured literature search. The effect sizes from studies applying comparable experimental tasks were analyzed...
January 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872051/management-of-mild-hypertension-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Anthony J Viera, Emily M Hawes
Elevated blood pressure is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects one in three adults. Blood pressure lowering drugs substantially reduce the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and premature death, but most clinical trials showing benefits have primarily included patients with moderate to severe hypertension, known cardiovascular disease, or elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. The benefits of treating mild hypertension in patients without cardiovascular disease are less clear, but recent meta-analyses offer some insights...
November 21, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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