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Céline Rouvrais, Daniel Bacqueville, Patrick Bogdanowicz, Marie-José Haure, Laure Duprat, Christine Coutanceau, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi, Hélène Duplan, Valérie Mengeaud, Sandrine Bessou-Touya
INTRODUCTION: Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Carole Haushalter, Brigitte Schuhbaur, Pascal Dollé, Muriel Rhinn
Retinoic acid (RA) is a diffusible molecule involved in early forebrain patterning. Its later production in the meninges by the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase RALDH2 coincides with the time of cortical neuron generation. A function of RA in this process has not been adressed directly as Raldh2(-/-) mouse mutants are embryonic lethal. Here, we used a conditional genetic strategy to inactivate Raldh2 just prior to onset of its expression in the developing meninges. This inactivation does not affect the formation of the cortical progenitor populations, their rate of division, or timing of differentiation...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
Tadaaki Nakajima, Taisen Iguchi, Tomomi Sato
The Müllerian duct develops into the oviduct, uterus, and vagina, all of which are quite distinct in their morphology and function. The epithelial fate of these female reproductive organs in developing mice is determined by factors secreted from the stroma; however, how stromal differentiation occurs in the female reproductive organs derived from the Müllerian duct is still unclear. In the present study, roles of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in developing female reproductive tracts were investigated. Retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) and aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) mRNAs and proteins and transactivation activity of endogenous RA were found in the stroma of proximal Müllerian ducts and gradually decreased from the proximal to caudal regions in fetal mice...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mutsuko Kato, Takashi Sugiyama, Kazumi Sakai, Takahiro Yamashita, Hirofumi Fujita, Keita Sato, Sayuri Tomonari, Yoshinori Shichida, Hideyo Ohuchi
Opsin family genes encode G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind a retinaldehyde chromophore in photoreception. Here, we sought potential as yet undescribed avian retinal photoreceptors, focusing on Opsin 3 homologs in the chicken. We found two Opsin 3-related genes in the chicken genome: one corresponding to encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3) in mammals, and the other belonging to the teleost multiple tissue opsin (TMT) 2 group. Bioluminescence imaging and G protein activation assays demonstrated that the chicken TMT opsin (cTMT) functions as a blue light sensor when forced-expressed in mammalian cultured cells...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, David García-Bernal, Maria Paz Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Purpose: To study the effect of topical administration of bromfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on retinal gliosis and levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after complete optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods: Adult albino rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8 retinas/group): (1) intact, (2) intact and bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days), (3) ONC (7 days), and (4) ONC (7 days) + bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Natalia Y Kedishvili
Retinoic acid (RA) was identified as the biologically active form of vitamin A almost 70 years ago and work on its function and mechanism of action is still of major interest both from a scientific and a clinical perspective. The currently accepted model postulates that RA is produced in two sequential oxidative steps: first, retinol is oxidized reversibly to retinaldehyde, and then retinaldehyde is oxidized irreversibly to RA. Excess RA is inactivated by conversion to hydroxylated derivatives. Much is left to learn, especially about retinoid binding proteins and the trafficking of the hydrophobic retinoid substrates between membrane bound and cytosolic enzymes...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Mark K Adams, Seung-Ah Lee, Olga V Belyaeva, Lizhi Wu, Natalia Y Kedishvili
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
February 2017: Chemosphere
Susan A Holechek, Megan S McAfee, Lizbeth M Nieves, Vanessa P Guzman, Kavita Manhas, Timothy Fouts, Kenneth Bagley, Joseph N Blattman
In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8(+) T cell responses during vaccination and improve protection against mucosal viral challenge. However, the ATRA formulation is incompatible with most recombinant vaccines, and the teratogenic potential of ATRA at high doses limits its usage in many clinical settings...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
Chiao-Yun Chien, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Candy Hsin-Hua Cho, Kuo-I Lin, David Tosh, Ruei-Ren Wu, Wan-Yu Mao, Chia-Ning Shen
Vitamin A deficiency is known to affect 20 million pregnant women worldwide. However, the prenatal effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency on pancreas development have not been clearly determined. The present study examined how maternal vitamin A deficiency affects fetal islet development. Vitamin A-deficient mice were generated by feeding female mice with a chemically defined diet lacking vitamin A prior to mating as well as during pregnancy. We found that maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy affected fetal pancreas development...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
V R Kasimanickam
Mammalian spermatogenesis involves highly regulated temporal and spatial dynamics, carefully controlled by several signalling processes. Retinoic acid (RA) signalling could have a critical role in spermatogenesis by promoting spermatogonia differentiation, adhesion of germ cells to Sertoli cells, and release of mature spermatids. An optimal testicular RA concentration is maintained by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize RA precursors to produce RA, whereas the CYP26 class of enzymes catabolizes (oxidize) RA into inactive metabolites...
December 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Taichi Matsumoto, Wakana Mochizuki, Yoichi Nibe, Shintaro Akiyama, Yuka Matsumoto, Kengo Nozaki, Masayoshi Fukuda, Ayumi Hayashi, Tomohiro Mizutani, Shigeru Oshima, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately...
2016: PloS One
Brianna K Costabile, Youn-Kyung Kim, Jahangir Iqbal, Michael V Zuccaro, Lesley Wassef, Sureshbabu Narayanasamy, Robert W Curley, Earl H Harrison, M Mahmood Hussain, Loredana Quadro
β-Carotene is an important source of vitamin A for the mammalian embryo, which depends on its adequate supply to achieve proper organogenesis. In mammalian tissues, β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) converts β-carotene to retinaldehyde, which is then oxidized to retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A that acts as a transcription factor ligand to regulate gene expression. β-Carotene can also be cleaved by β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) to form β-apo-10'-carotenal, a precursor of retinoic acid and a transcriptional regulator per se The mammalian embryo obtains β-carotene from the maternal circulation...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shinya Sato, Vladimir J Kefalov
KEY POINTS: This study explores the nature of the cis retinol that Müller cells in the retina provide to cones for the regeneration of their visual pigment. We report that the retina visual cycle provides cones exclusively with 11-cis chromophore in both salamander and mouse and show that this selectivity is dependent on the 11-cis-specific cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) present in Müller cells. Even though salamander blue cones and green rods share the same visual pigment, only blue cones but not green rods are able to dark-adapt in the retina following a bleach and to use exogenous 9-cis retinol for pigment regeneration, suggesting that access to the retina visual cycle is cone-specific and pigment-independent...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Keiko Ueda, Jin Zhao, Hye Jin Kim, Janet R Sparrow
Adducts of retinaldehyde (bisretinoids) form nonenzymatically in photoreceptor cells and accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as lipofuscin; these fluorophores are implicated in the pathogenesis of inherited and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we demonstrate that bisretinoid photodegradation is ongoing in the eye. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of eyes of dark-reared and cyclic light-reared wild-type mice, together with comparisons of pigmented versus albino mice, revealed a relationship between intraocular light and reduced levels of the bisretinoids A2E and A2-glycero-phosphoethanolamine (A2-GPE)...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mildred V Duprey-Díaz, Jonathan M Blagburn, Rosa E Blanco
Retinoic acid (RA) is important during development, in neuronal plasticity, and also in peripheral nervous system regeneration. Here we use the frog visual system as a model to investigate the changes in RA signaling that take place after axonal injury to the central nervous system. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize different components of RA signaling within sections of the retina and optic tectum, namely, the synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), the RA binding proteins CRABPI and II, the retinoic acid receptors RARα, β and γ, and finally the catabolic enzyme CYP26A1...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Salvatore Di Lauro, David Rodriguez-Crespo, Manuel J Gayoso, Maria T Garcia-Gutierrez, J Carlos Pastor, Girish K Srivastava, Ivan Fernandez-Bueno
PURPOSE: To develop and standardize a novel organ culture model using porcine central neuroretina explants and RPE cells separated by a cell culture membrane. METHODS: RPE cells were isolated from porcine eyes, expanded, and seeded on the bottom of cell culture inserts. Neuroretina explants were obtained from the area centralis and cultured alone (controls) on cell culture membranes or supplemented with RPE cells in the same wells but physically separated by the culture membrane...
2016: Molecular Vision
Brigitte Dréno, Catherine Jean-Decoster, Victor Georgescu
Although acne is almost universal in teenagers, few large cohort studies have investigated the profile of acne patients. To identify the profile of European patients with mild-to-moderate acne. an epidemiological study was performed using inclusion data from a prospective, international, observational phase IV study conducted in patients prescribed an anti-acne cream containing retinaldehyde, glycolic acid, modified rhamnose and Avene Thermal Spring Water. A total of 2926 patients (73.1% female) with mild to moderate acne (mean Global Evaluation of Acne score of 2...
April 1, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Yehuda Shabtai, Halim Jubran, Taher Nassar, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important regulator of embryogenesis and tissue homoeostasis. Perturbation of RA signalling causes developmental disorders, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia and several types of tumours. RA is produced by oxidation of retinaldehyde from vitamin A. The main enzyme producing RA in the early embryo is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2, ALDH1A2). In the present study we describe in depth the kinetic properties and regulation of the human RALDH2 (hRALDH2) enzyme. We show that this enzyme produces RA using in vivo and in vitro assays...
May 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Nicolás M Díaz, Luis P Morera, Tomas Tempesti, Mario E Guido
The vertebrate retina contains typical photoreceptor (PR) cones and rods responsible for day/night vision, respectively, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) involved in the regulation of non-image-forming tasks. Rhodopsin/cone opsin photopigments in visual PRs or melanopsin (Opn4) in ipRGCs utilizes retinaldehyde as a chromophore. The retinoid regeneration process denominated as "visual cycle" involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or Müller glial cells. Opn4, on the contrary, has been characterized as a bi/tristable photopigment, in which a photon of one wavelength isomerizes 11-cis to all-trans retinal (Ral), with a second photon re-isomerizing it back...
March 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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