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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073082/transcription-factor-isx-mediates-the-cross-talk-between-diet-and-immunity
#1
Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Grzegorz Palczewski, Kali Dale, Elizabeth A Knauss, Mary E Kelly, Marcin Golczak, Alan D Levine, Johannes von Lintig
The intestinal epithelium is a major site for the conversion of dietary β-carotene to retinaldehyde by the enzyme BCO1. The majority of retinaldehyde is further metabolized to retinol (vitamin A), esterified and packaged into triacylglycerol-rich chylomicrons for bodily distribution. Some serve on-site for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone-like compound, which exerts pleiotropic and dominant effects on gastrointestinal immunity. We report here that the intestine-specific homeobox protein ISX is critical to control the metabolic flow of β-carotene through this important branching point of vitamin A metabolism...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037595/cellular-characterization-of-optical-coherence-tomography-and-outer-retinal-bands-using-specific-immunohistochemistry-markers-and-clinical-implications
#2
Nicolás Cuenca, Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel Pinilla
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography has been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many ocular diseases, especially retinal and neuro-ophthalmologic pathologic conditions. Until now, several controversies have arisen over the specific cell types that the bands observed in the OCT represent, especially over the 4 outer retinal bands. DESIGN: To correlate the 4 outer hyperreflective bands observed in the OCT with the histologic structures using human retinal sections and immunocytochemistry at the fovea level...
October 13, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982012/competition-between-ethanol-clearance-and-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-induction-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#3
Yehuda Shabtai, Abraham Fainsod
Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980226/avian-primordial-germ-cells
#4
Takahiro Tagami, Daichi Miyahara, Yoshiaki Nakamura
Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895754/coenzyme-q10-and-retinaldehyde-co-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-efficacy-evaluation-in-wrinkles
#5
Kritika Nayak, Sameer S Katiyar, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain
The present study depicts coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and retinaldehyde (RAL) co-loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs); having activity on different targets of photoageing, which can overcome deficits of conventional topical dosage forms. The developed NLCs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, and % Entrapment efficiency, followed by their incorporation into Carbopol® 934P-NF gel. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity assay was performed to evaluate NLCs and in vivo study on UV induced wrinkle model to determine efficacy of NLCs...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827498/a-novel-large-homozygous-deletion-in-the-cellular-retinaldehyde-binding-protein-gene-rlbp1-in-a-patient-with-retinitis-punctata-albescens
#6
Saghar Bagheri, Madhulatha Pantrangi, Simrat K Sodhi, Sayeh Bagheri, Patrick Oellers, Hendrik P N Scholl
PURPOSE: To report the phenotypic and genotypic data of a patient with retinitis punctata albescens carrying a novel deletion in the RLBP1 gene. RESULTS: A woman of Iranian descent in her forties with a history of progressive visual deterioration since early childhood exhibited phenotypic features of retinitis punctata albescens with multiple white dots in the posterior pole and macular atrophy in both eyes. The microarray analysis identified a ∼2.160 kb homozygous deletion corresponding to a minimum deletion boundary of chr15q26...
August 18, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790015/retinoic-acid-controls-early-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#7
Carole Haushalter, Laure Asselin, Valérie Fraulob, Pascal Dollé, Muriel Rhinn
A tight regulation of neuron production is required to generate a functional cerebral cortex and is achieved by a proper balance between proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells. Though the vitamin A (retinol) active derivative retinoic acid (RA) has been implicated as one of the signals acting during mammalian forebrain neurogenesis, its function at the onset of neurogenesis as well as during establishment of cortical layers and neuronal subtypes remains elusive. One limitation is that murine mutants for genes encoding key enzymes involved in RA synthesis die during early embryonic development...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764803/a-novel-rlbp1-gene-geographical-area-related-mutation-present-in-a-young-patient-with-retinitis-punctata-albescens
#8
Concetta Scimone, Luigi Donato, Teresa Esposito, Carmela Rinaldi, Rosalia D'Angelo, Antonina Sidoti
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive forms of retinitis punctata albescens (RPA) have been described. RPA is characterized by progressive retinal degeneration due to alteration in visual cycle and consequent deposit of photopigments in retinal pigment epithelium. Five loci have been linked to RPA onset. Among these, the retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 gene, RLBP1, is the most frequently involved and several founder mutations were reported. We report results of a genetic molecular investigation performed on a large Sicilian family in which appears a young woman with RPA...
August 1, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina, and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
October 1, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621427/adhfe1-a-novel-enzyme-involved-in-retinoic-acid-dependent-hox-activation
#10
Yehuda Shabtai, Natalie Shukrun, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is a central pathway regulating anterior-posterior patterning of the embryo through its targets, the Hox genes. RA is produced by two sequential oxidations from vitamin A (retinol) and this biosynthesis has to be regulated temporally, spatially and quantitatively. Mining Xenopus embryonic expression databases identified a novel component of the RA metabolic network, ADHFe1. Using Xenopus laevis embryos as our experimental system we determined the temporal and spatial pattern of AdhFe1 expression...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605870/foraging-in-maize-field-areas-a-risky-business
#11
Monique Boily, Philippe Aras, Catherine Jumarie
In Quebec, Canada, the cultivation of maize dominates the agricultural territory. This crop requires a sustained supply of fertilizers from different sources: chemical, natural or from residual materials (sludge). These amendments contain metallic trace elements, which may lead to metal-contaminated maize pollen, a possible source of prooxidants for the foraging bees. Our objective was to determine whether maize fields environment influences the oxidation processes and the accumulation of metals in bees. A few days prior to pollen shedding, beehives were installed in maize fields: one organically grown (site A) and three conventionally grown (sites B, C and D)...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526768/direct-comparison-of-the-enzymatic-characteristics-and-superoxide-production-of-the-four-aldehyde-oxidase-enzymes-present-in-mouse
#12
Gokhan Kucukgoze, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Silke Leimkuhler
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdoflavoenzymes with an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of heterocyclic compounds and aliphatic as well as aromatic aldehydes. The enzymes use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and produce reduced oxygen species during turnover. Four different enzymes, mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4 and mAOX2, which are the products of distinct genes, are present in the mouse. A direct and simultaneous comparison of the enzymatic properties and characteristics of the four enzymes has never been performed...
May 19, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476927/rational-tuning-of-visual-cycle-modulator-pharmacodynamics
#13
Philip D Kiser, Jianye Zhang, Mohsen Badiee, Junzo Kinoshita, Neal S Peachey, Gregory P Tochtrop, Krzysztof Palczewski
Modulators of the visual cycle have been developed for treatment of various retinal disorders. These agents were designed to inhibit retinoid isomerase [retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65)], the rate-limiting enzyme of the visual cycle, based on the idea that attenuation of visual pigment regeneration could reduce formation of toxic retinal conjugates. Of these agents, certain ones that contain primary amine groups can also reversibly form retinaldehyde Schiff base adducts, which contributes to their retinal protective activity...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473692/blue-light-regenerates-functional-visual-pigments-in-mammals-through-a-retinyl-phospholipid-intermediate
#14
Joanna J Kaylor, Tongzhou Xu, Norianne T Ingram, Avian Tsan, Hayk Hakobyan, Gordon L Fain, Gabriel H Travis
The light absorbing chromophore in opsin visual pigments is the protonated Schiff base of 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11cRAL). Absorption of a photon isomerizes 11cRAL to all-trans-retinaldehyde (atRAL), briefly activating the pigment before it dissociates. Light sensitivity is restored when apo-opsin combines with another 11cRAL to form a new visual pigment. Conversion of atRAL to 11cRAL is carried out by enzyme pathways in neighboring cells. Here we show that blue (450-nm) light converts atRAL specifically to 11cRAL through a retinyl-phospholipid intermediate in photoreceptor membranes...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462022/exploring-the-binding-properties-and-structural-stability-of-an-opsin-in-the-chytrid-spizellomyces-punctatus-using-comparative-and-molecular-modeling
#15
Steven R Ahrendt, Edgar Mauricio Medina, Chia-En A Chang, Jason E Stajich
BACKGROUND: Opsin proteins are seven transmembrane receptor proteins which detect light. Opsins can be classified into two types and share little sequence identity: type 1, typically found in bacteria, and type 2, primarily characterized in metazoa. The type 2 opsins (Rhodopsins) are a subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large and diverse class of seven transmembrane proteins and are generally restricted to metazoan lineages. Fungi use light receptors including opsins to sense the environment and transduce signals for developmental or metabolic changes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461203/quercetin-and-cyanidin-3-glucoside-protect-against-photooxidation-and-photodegradation-of-a2e-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#16
Yong Wang, Hye Jin Kim, Janet R Sparrow
A family of photoreactive retinaldehyde-derived molecules accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial cells with age; this accumulation is implicated in some retinal diseases. One of these compounds is the diretinal fluorophore A2E. Here we compared polyphenols for their ability to suppress the photooxidation and photodegradation of A2E. In cells that had accumulated A2E and were irradiated with short-wavelength light, quercetin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid diminished cellular levels of reactive oxygen species, but only quercetin and cyanidin-3-glucoside promoted cell viability...
July 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423611/the-stem-cell-cancer-stem-cell-marker-aldh1a3-regulates-the-expression-of-the-survival-factor-tissue-transglutaminase-in-mesenchymal-glioma-stem-cells
#17
Kelly E Sullivan, Kathy Rojas, Richard A Cerione, Ichiro Nakano, Kristin F Wilson
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), a dual-function enzyme with GTP-binding and acyltransferase activities, has been implicated in the survival and chemotherapy resistance of aggressive cancer cells and cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs). Using a model system comprising two distinct subtypes of GSCs referred to as proneural (PN) and mesenchymal (MES), we find that the phenotypically aggressive and radiation therapy-resistant MES GSCs exclusively express tTG relative to PN GSCs. As such, the self-renewal, proliferation, and survival of these cells was sensitive to treatment with tTG inhibitors, with a benefit being observed when combined with the standard of care for high grade gliomas (i...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392548/effect-of-retinoic-acid-on-midkine-gene-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#18
Rita Maliza, Ken Fujiwara, Morio Azuma, Motoshi Kikuchi, Takashi Yashiro
Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined...
April 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341635/sept7b-is-required-for-the-subcellular-organization-of-cardiomyocytes-and-cardiac-function-in-zebrafish
#19
Surjya Narayan Dash, Suneeta Narumanchi, Jere Paavola, Sanni Perttunen, Hong Wang, Päivi Lakkisto, Ilkka Tikkanen, Sanna Lehtonen
Myofibrils made up of actin, myosin, and associated proteins generate the contractile force in muscle, and, consequently, mutations in these proteins may lead to heart failure. Septins are a conserved family of small GTPases that associate with actin filaments, microtubules, and cellular membranes. Despite the importance of septins in cytoskeleton organization, their role in cardiomyocyte organization and function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that septin 7 is expressed in both embryonic and adult zebrafish hearts and elucidate the physiological significance of sept7b, the zebrafish ortholog of human septin 7, in the heart in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322781/characterization-of-akr1b16-a-novel-mouse-aldo-keto-reductase
#20
Joan Giménez-Dejoz, Susanne Weber, Oleg A Barski, Gabriele Möller, Jerzy Adamski, Xavier Parés, Sergio Porté, Jaume Farrés
Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are distributed in three families and multiple subfamilies in mammals. The mouse Akr1b3 gene is clearly orthologous to human AKR1B1, both coding for aldose reductase, and their gene products show similar tissue distribution, regulation by osmotic stress and kinetic properties. In contrast, no unambiguous orthologs of human AKR1B10 and AKR1B15.1 have been identified in rodents. Although two more AKRs, AKR1B7 and AKR1B8, have been identified and characterized in mouse, none of them seems to exhibit properties similar to the human AKRs...
March 18, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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