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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423611/the-stem-cell-cancer-stem-cell-marker-aldh1a3-regulates-the-expression-of-the-survival-factor-tissue-transglutaminase-in-mesenchymal-glioma-stem-cells
#1
Kelly E Sullivan, Kathy Rojas, Richard A Cerione, Ichiro Nakano, Kristin F Wilson
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), a dual-function enzyme with GTP-binding and acyltransferase activities, has been implicated in the survival and chemotherapy resistance of aggressive cancer cells and cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs). Using a model system comprising two distinct subtypes of GSCs referred to as proneural (PN) and mesenchymal (MES), we find that the phenotypically aggressive and radiation therapy-resistant MES GSCs exclusively express tTG relative to PN GSCs. As such, the self-renewal, proliferation, and survival of these cells was sensitive to treatment with tTG inhibitors, with a benefit being observed when combined with the standard of care for high grade gliomas (i...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392548/effect-of-retinoic-acid-on-midkine-gene-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#2
Rita Maliza, Ken Fujiwara, Morio Azuma, Motoshi Kikuchi, Takashi Yashiro
Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined...
April 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341635/sept7b-is-required-for-the-subcellular-organization-of-cardiomyocytes-and-cardiac-function-in-zebrafish
#3
Surjya Narayan Dash, Suneeta Narumanchi, Jere Paavola, Sanni Perttunen, Hong Wang, Päivi Lakkisto, Ilkka Tikkanen, Sanna Lehtonen
Myofibrils made up of actin and myosin and associated proteins generate the contractile force in muscle and consequently, mutations in these proteins may lead to heart failure. Septins are a conserved family of small GTPases that associate with actin filaments, microtubules and cellular membranes. Despite the importance of septins in cytoskeleton organization, their role in cardiomyocyte organization and function is poorly characterized. Here we show that septin 7 is expressed in both embryonic and adult zebrafish heart, and elucidate the physiological significance of sept7b, the zebrafish ortholog of human septin 7, in the heart in embryonic and larval zebrafish...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322781/characterization-of-akr1b16-a-novel-mouse-aldo-keto-reductase
#4
Joan Giménez-Dejoz, Susanne Weber, Oleg A Barski, Gabriele Möller, Jerzy Adamski, Xavier Parés, Sergio Porté, Jaume Farrés
Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are distributed in three families and multiple subfamilies in mammals. The mouse Akr1b3 gene is clearly orthologous to human AKR1B1, both coding for aldose reductase, and their gene products show similar tissue distribution, regulation by osmotic stress and kinetic properties. In contrast, no unambiguous orthologs of human AKR1B10 and AKR1B15.1 have been identified in rodents. Although two more AKRs, AKR1B7 and AKR1B8, have been identified and characterized in mouse, none of them seems to exhibit properties similar to the human AKRs...
March 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262465/characterization-of-human-fibroblastic-reticular-cells-as-potential-immunotherapeutic-tools
#5
Jaris Valencia, Eva Jiménez, Víctor G Martínez, Beatriz G Del Amo, Laura Hidalgo, Ana Entrena, Lidia M Fernández-Sevilla, Francisco Del Río, Alberto Varas, Ángeles Vicente, Rosa Sacedón
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) are essential players during adaptive immune responses not only as a structural support for the encounter of antigen-presenting cells and naive T lymphocytes but also as a source of modulatory signals. However, little is known about this cell population in humans. To address the phenotypical and functional analysis of human FRCs here we established splenic (SP) and mesenteric lymph node (LN) CD45(-)CD31(-)CD90(+)podoplanin(+) myofibroblastic cell cultures. They shared the phenotypical characteristics distinctive of FRCs, including the expression of immunomodulatory factors and peripheral tissue antigens...
May 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253328/reprogramming-of-the-retinoic-acid-pathway-in-decidualizing-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#6
Rie Ozaki, Keiji Kuroda, Yuko Ikemoto, Asako Ochiai, Akemi Matsumoto, Jun Kumakiri, Mari Kitade, Atsuo Itakura, Joanne Muter, Jan J Brosens, Satoru Takeda
Upon breaching of the endometrial surface epithelium, the implanting embryo embeds in the decidualizing stroma. Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of vitamin A, is an important morphogen during embryonic and fetal development, although the role of the RA pathway in the surrounding decidual cells is not understood. Here we show that decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) results in profound reprogramming of the RA signaling and metabolism pathways. Differentiating HESCs downregulate the intracellular carrier proteins CRABP2 and FABP5, responsible for transfer and binding of RA to the nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203099/a-new-dermocosmetic-containing-retinaldehyde-delta-tocopherol-glucoside-and-glycylglycine-oleamide-for-managing-naturally-aged-skin-results-from-in-vitro-to-clinical-studies
#7
Céline Rouvrais, Daniel Bacqueville, Patrick Bogdanowicz, Marie-José Haure, Laure Duprat, Christine Coutanceau, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi, Hélène Duplan, Valérie Mengeaud, Sandrine Bessou-Touya
INTRODUCTION: Natural aging of skin tissues, the addition of the cumulative action of the time and radiation exposure result in skin atrophy, wrinkles and degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effect of a combination containing retinaldehyde (RAL), delta-tocopherol glucoside (delta-TC) and glycylglycine ole-amide (GGO) and of a dermocosmetic containing the combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective effect of the combination was assessed through in vitro gene expression of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated fibroblasts...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011626/meningeal-retinoic-acid-contributes-to-neocortical-lamination-and-radial-migration-during-mouse-brain-development
#8
Carole Haushalter, Brigitte Schuhbaur, Pascal Dollé, Muriel Rhinn
Retinoic acid (RA) is a diffusible molecule involved in early forebrain patterning. Its later production in the meninges by the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase RALDH2 coincides with the time of cortical neuron generation. A function of RA in this process has not been adressed directly as Raldh2(-/-) mouse mutants are embryonic lethal. Here, we used a conditional genetic strategy to inactivate Raldh2 just prior to onset of its expression in the developing meninges. This inactivation does not affect the formation of the cortical progenitor populations, their rate of division, or timing of differentiation...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911779/retinoic-acid-signaling-determines-the-fate-of-uterine-stroma-in-the-mouse-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct
#9
Tadaaki Nakajima, Taisen Iguchi, Tomomi Sato
The Müllerian duct develops into the oviduct, uterus, and vagina, all of which are quite distinct in their morphology and function. The epithelial fate of these female reproductive organs in developing mice is determined by factors secreted from the stroma; however, how stromal differentiation occurs in the female reproductive organs derived from the Müllerian duct is still unclear. In the present study, roles of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in developing female reproductive tracts were investigated. Retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) and aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) mRNAs and proteins and transactivation activity of endogenous RA were found in the stroma of proximal Müllerian ducts and gradually decreased from the proximal to caudal regions in fetal mice...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861495/two-opsin-3-related-proteins-in-the-chicken-retina-and-brain-a-tmt-type-opsin-3-is-a-blue-light-sensor-in-retinal-horizontal-cells-hypothalamus-and-cerebellum
#10
Mutsuko Kato, Takashi Sugiyama, Kazumi Sakai, Takahiro Yamashita, Hirofumi Fujita, Keita Sato, Sayuri Tomonari, Yoshinori Shichida, Hideyo Ohuchi
Opsin family genes encode G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind a retinaldehyde chromophore in photoreception. Here, we sought potential as yet undescribed avian retinal photoreceptors, focusing on Opsin 3 homologs in the chicken. We found two Opsin 3-related genes in the chicken genome: one corresponding to encephalopsin/panopsin (Opn3) in mammals, and the other belonging to the teleost multiple tissue opsin (TMT) 2 group. Bioluminescence imaging and G protein activation assays demonstrated that the chicken TMT opsin (cTMT) functions as a blue light sensor when forced-expressed in mammalian cultured cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832276/topical-treatment-with-bromfenac-reduces-retinal-gliosis-and-inflammation-after-optic-nerve-crush
#11
Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, David García-Bernal, Maria Paz Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Purpose: To study the effect of topical administration of bromfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on retinal gliosis and levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after complete optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods: Adult albino rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8 retinas/group): (1) intact, (2) intact and bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days), (3) ONC (7 days), and (4) ONC (7 days) + bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830503/retinoic-acid-synthesis-and-degradation
#12
Natalia Y Kedishvili
Retinoic acid (RA) was identified as the biologically active form of vitamin A almost 70 years ago and work on its function and mechanism of action is still of major interest both from a scientific and a clinical perspective. The currently accepted model postulates that RA is produced in two sequential oxidative steps: first, retinol is oxidized reversibly to retinaldehyde, and then retinaldehyde is oxidized irreversibly to RA. Excess RA is inactivated by conversion to hydroxylated derivatives. Much is left to learn, especially about retinoid binding proteins and the trafficking of the hydrophobic retinoid substrates between membrane bound and cytosolic enzymes...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793605/characterization-of-human-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-sdr16c-family-members-related-to-retinol-dehydrogenase-10
#13
Mark K Adams, Seung-Ah Lee, Olga V Belyaeva, Lizhi Wu, Natalia Y Kedishvili
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780120/mixtures-of-herbicides-and-metals-affect-the-redox-system-of-honey-bees
#14
Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670072/retinaldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-as-a-molecular-adjuvant-for-enhancement-of-mucosal-immunity-during-dna-vaccination
#15
Susan A Holechek, Megan S McAfee, Lizbeth M Nieves, Vanessa P Guzman, Kavita Manhas, Timothy Fouts, Kenneth Bagley, Joseph N Blattman
In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8(+) T cell responses during vaccination and improve protection against mucosal viral challenge. However, the ATRA formulation is incompatible with most recombinant vaccines, and the teratogenic potential of ATRA at high doses limits its usage in many clinical settings...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573099/maternal-vitamin-a-deficiency-during-pregnancy-affects-vascularized-islet-development
#16
Chiao-Yun Chien, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Candy Hsin-Hua Cho, Kuo-I Lin, David Tosh, Ruei-Ren Wu, Wan-Yu Mao, Chia-Ning Shen
Vitamin A deficiency is known to affect 20 million pregnant women worldwide. However, the prenatal effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency on pancreas development have not been clearly determined. The present study examined how maternal vitamin A deficiency affects fetal islet development. Vitamin A-deficient mice were generated by feeding female mice with a chemically defined diet lacking vitamin A prior to mating as well as during pregnancy. We found that maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy affected fetal pancreas development...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569851/expression-of-retinoic-acid-metabolizing-enzymes-aldh1a1-aldh1a2-aldh1a3-cyp26a1-cyp26b1-and-cyp26c1-in-canine-testis-during-post-natal-development
#17
V R Kasimanickam
Mammalian spermatogenesis involves highly regulated temporal and spatial dynamics, carefully controlled by several signalling processes. Retinoic acid (RA) signalling could have a critical role in spermatogenesis by promoting spermatogonia differentiation, adhesion of germ cells to Sertoli cells, and release of mature spermatids. An optimal testicular RA concentration is maintained by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize RA precursors to produce RA, whereas the CYP26 class of enzymes catabolizes (oxidize) RA into inactive metabolites...
December 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564706/retinol-promotes-in-vitro-growth-of-proximal-colon-organoids-through-a-retinoic-acid-independent-mechanism
#18
Taichi Matsumoto, Wakana Mochizuki, Yoichi Nibe, Shintaro Akiyama, Yuka Matsumoto, Kengo Nozaki, Masayoshi Fukuda, Ayumi Hayashi, Tomohiro Mizutani, Shigeru Oshima, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402843/%C3%AE-apo-10-carotenoids-modulate-placental-microsomal-triglyceride-transfer-protein-expression-and-function-to-optimize-transport-of-intact-%C3%AE-carotene-to-the-embryo
#19
Brianna K Costabile, Youn-Kyung Kim, Jahangir Iqbal, Michael V Zuccaro, Lesley Wassef, Sureshbabu Narayanasamy, Robert W Curley, Earl H Harrison, M Mahmood Hussain, Loredana Quadro
β-Carotene is an important source of vitamin A for the mammalian embryo, which depends on its adequate supply to achieve proper organogenesis. In mammalian tissues, β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) converts β-carotene to retinaldehyde, which is then oxidized to retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A that acts as a transcription factor ligand to regulate gene expression. β-Carotene can also be cleaved by β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) to form β-apo-10'-carotenal, a precursor of retinoic acid and a transcriptional regulator per se The mammalian embryo obtains β-carotene from the maternal circulation...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385534/cis-retinol-oxidation-regulates-photoreceptor-access-to-the-retina-visual-cycle-and-cone-pigment-regeneration
#20
Shinya Sato, Vladimir J Kefalov
KEY POINTS: This study explores the nature of the cis retinol that Müller cells in the retina provide to cones for the regeneration of their visual pigment. We report that the retina visual cycle provides cones exclusively with 11-cis chromophore in both salamander and mouse and show that this selectivity is dependent on the 11-cis-specific cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) present in Müller cells. Even though salamander blue cones and green rods share the same visual pigment, only blue cones but not green rods are able to dark-adapt in the retina following a bleach and to use exogenous 9-cis retinol for pigment regeneration, suggesting that access to the retina visual cycle is cone-specific and pigment-independent...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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