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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753302/contribution-of-hepatic-retinaldehyde-dehydrogenase-induction-to-impairment-of-glucose-metabolism-by-high-fat-diet-feeding-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#1
Jiong Xu, Mian Zhang, Xiangping Zhang, Hanyu Yang, Binbin Sun, Zhongjian Wang, Yaqian Zhou, Shuting Wang, Xiaodong Liu, Li Liu
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with overexpression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (RALDH1). We aimed to investigate the roles of hepatic RALDH1 induction in glucose metabolism impairment using mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed with HFD for 8 weeks and treated with RALDH inhibitor citral for another 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pyruvate tolerance test (PTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were operated. Expressions of Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), glucokinase (GCK) and RALDH1 were measured...
May 12, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721969/bisretinoid-photodegradation-is-likely-not-a-good-thing
#2
Keiko Ueda, Hye Jin Kim, Jin Zhao, Janet R Sparrow
Retinaldehyde adducts (bisretinoids) accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as lipofuscin. Bisretinoids are implicated in some inherited and age-related forms of macular degeneration that lead to the death of RPE cells and diminished vision. By comparing albino and black-eyed mice and by rearing mice in darkness and in cyclic light, evidence indicates that bisretinoid fluorophores undergo photodegradation in the eye (Ueda et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113:6904-6909, 2016). Given that the photodegradation products modify and impair cellular and extracellular molecules, these processes likely impart cumulative damage to retina...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663701/efficacy-and-safety-of-retinaldehyde-0-1-and-0-05-creams-used-to-treat-photoaged-skin-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#3
Hyuck Sun Kwon, Ji Hae Lee, Gyong Moon Kim, Jung Min Bae
BACKGROUND: Although topical retinoic acid effectively restores photoaged skin, the associated irritation limits the utility of the material. Retinaldehyde (RAL) is the natural precursor of retinoic acid and can also be used to treat photoaged skin; the safety profile is good. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of new anti-aging creams containing RAL at 0.1% and 0.05% used to treat photoaged skin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 40 female Korean volunteers who applied RAL 0...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581197/tnf%C3%AE-antagonism-reveals-a-gut-lung-axis-that-amplifies-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-pulmonary-fungal-infection
#4
Jamie L Tweedle, George S Deepe
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are popular therapies for inflammatory diseases. These agents enhance numbers and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which are important in controlling inflammatory diseases. However, elevated Tregs increase susceptibility to infections, including histoplasmosis. We determined the mechanism by which Tregs expand in TNF-neutralized mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum Lung CD11c+ CD11b+ dendritic cells (DC), but not alveolar macrophages, from H. capsulatum -infected mice treated with anti-TNF induced a higher percentage of Tregs than control DC in vitro...
March 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567832/retinol-dehydrogenase-11-is-essential-for-the-maintenance-of-retinol-homeostasis-in-liver-and-testis-in-mice
#5
Olga V Belyaeva, Lizhi Wu, Igor Shmarakov, Peter S Nelson, Natalia Y Kedishvili
Retinol dehydrogenase 11 (RDH11) is a microsomal short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that recognizes all- trans - and cis -retinoids as substrates and prefers NADPH as a cofactor. Previous work has suggested that RDH11 contributes to the oxidation of 11- cis -retinol to 11- cis -retinaldehyde during the visual cycle in the eye's retinal pigment epithelium. However, the role of RDH11 in metabolism of all- trans -retinoids remains obscure. Here, we report that microsomes isolated from the testes and livers of Rdh11-/- mice fed a regular diet exhibited a 3-fold and 1...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529059/investigating-the-modulation-of-genetic-effects-on-late-amd-by-age-and-sex-lessons-learned-and-two-additional-loci
#6
Thomas W Winkler, Caroline Brandl, Felix Grassmann, Mathias Gorski, Klaus Stark, Julika Loss, Bernhard H F Weber, Iris M Heid
Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly with a complex etiology. The most important non-modifiable risk factors for onset and progression of late AMD are age and genetic risk factors, however, little is known about the interplay between genetics and age or sex. Here, we conducted a large-scale age- and sex-stratified genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 1000 Genomes imputed genome-wide and ExomeChip data (>12 million variants). The data were established by the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC) from 16,144 late AMD cases and 17,832 controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521230/role-of-zebrafish-fhl1a-in-satellite-cell-and-skeletal-muscle-development
#7
F Chen, W Yuan, X Mo, J Zhuang, Y Wang, J Chen, Z Jiang, X Zhu, Q Zeng, Y Wan, F Li, Y Shi, L Cao, X Fan, S Luo, X Ye, Y Chen, G Dai, J Gao, X Wang, H Xie, P Zhu, Y Li, X Wu
BACKGROUND: Four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1 (FHL1) mutations are associated with human myopathies. However, the function of this protein in skeletal development remains unclear. METHODS: Whole-mount in situ hybridization and embryo immunostaining were performed. RESULTS: Zebrafish Fhl1A is the homologue of human FHL1. We showed that fhl1A knockdown causes defective skeletal muscle development, while injection with fhl1A mRNA largely recovered the muscle development in these fhl1A morphants...
2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410696/the-interaction-of-selenoprotein-f-selenof-with-retinol-dehydrogenase-11-rdh11-implied-a-role-of-selenof-in-vitamin-a-metabolism
#8
Jing Tian, Jiapan Liu, Jieqiong Li, Jingxin Zheng, Lifang Chen, Yujuan Wang, Qiong Liu, Jiazuan Ni
Background: Selenoprotein F (SELENOF, was named as 15-kDa selenoprotein) has been reported to play important roles in oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and carcinogenesis. However, the biological function of SELENOF is still unclear. Methods: A yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen the interactive protein of SELENOF in a human fetal brain cDNA library. The interaction between SELENOF and interactive protein was validated by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and pull-down assays...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356182/retinoic-acid-signalling-is-a-candidate-regulator-of-the-expression-of-pituitary-specific-transcription-factor-prop1-in-the-developing-rodent-pituitary
#9
S Yoshida, K Fujiwara, H Nishihara, T Kato, T Yashiro, Y Kato
Development of the anterior pituitary proceeds via spatiotemporal patterning of transcription factors and signalling molecules. Among them, retinoic acid (RA) functions as an important signalling molecule for vertebrate organogenesis in many tissues. However, little is known regarding the target genes in the developing pituitary. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between endogenous RA signalling and mRNA expression of the pituitary-specific transcription factor Prop1 in the pituitary primordium of Rathke's pouch...
March 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321611/acetaldehyde-inhibits-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-to-mediate-alcohol-teratogenicity
#10
Yehuda Shabtai, Liat Bendelac, Halim Jubran, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy induces Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which has been proposed to arise from competitive inhibition of retinoic acid (RA) biosynthesis. We provide biochemical and developmental evidence identifying acetaldehyde as responsible for this inhibition. In the embryo, RA production by RALDH2 (ALDH1A2), the main retinaldehyde dehydrogenase expressed at that stage, is inhibited by ethanol exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of the embryonic alcohol dehydrogenase activity, prevents the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde that in turn functions as a RALDH2 inhibitor...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320632/increasing-the-stability-of-recombinant-human-green-cone-pigment
#11
Timothy S Owen, David Salom, Wenyu Sun, Krzysztof Palczewski
Three types of cone cells exist in the human retina, each containing a different pigment responsible for the initial step of phototransduction. These pigments are distinguished by their specific absorbance maxima: 425 nm (blue), 530 nm (green), and 560 nm (red). Each pigment contains a common chromophore, 11-cis-retinal covalently bound to an opsin protein via a Schiff base. The 11-cis-retinal protonated Schiff base has an absorbance maxima at 440 nm in methanol. Unfortunately, the chemistry that allows the same chromophore to interact with different opsin proteins to tune the absorbance of the resulting pigments to distinct λmax values is poorly understood...
February 13, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245909/inhibition-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-enhances-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-retinaldehyde-on-a549-cancer-cells
#12
Jin Won Park, Kyung-Ho Jung, Jin Hee Lee, Seung Hwan Moon, Young Seok Cho, Kyung-Han Lee
We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ALDH1) protects cancer cells from retinaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, and that targeting this enzyme would enhance the therapeutic effect of retinaldehyde. ALDEFLUOR™ assays showed high ALDH activity in A549 and H522 cancer cells and low activity in H1666 and T47D cancer cells. Immunoblots showed that expression of ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 was high in A549 and H522 cells, but low in H1666 cells. HPLC confirmed that N, N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) inhibits ALDH-mediated disposal of retinaldehyde in A549 cells and lysates...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192143/profiling-of-the-transcriptional-response-to-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-breast-cancer-cells-reveals-rare-independent-mechanisms-of-gene-expression
#13
Krysta Mila Coyle, Selena Maxwell, Margaret Lois Thomas, Paola Marcato
Retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A, are key physiological molecules with regulatory effects on cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. As a result, they are of interest for cancer therapy. Specifically, models of breast cancer have varied responses to manipulations of retinoid signaling. This study characterizes the transcriptional response of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells to retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). We demonstrate limited overlap between ALDH1A3-induced gene expression and atRA-induced gene expression in both cell lines, suggesting that the function of ALDH1A3 in breast cancer progression extends beyond its role as a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163504/butyrate-conditions-human-dendritic-cells-to-prime-type-1-regulatory-t-cells-via-both-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-and-g-protein-coupled-receptor-109a-signaling
#14
Maria M M Kaisar, Leonard R Pelgrom, Alwin J van der Ham, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties. Murine studies have shown that butyrate can promote regulatory T cells via the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). However, the effects of SCFAs on human DCs and how they affect their capacity to prime and polarize T-cell responses have not been addressed. Here, we report that butyrate suppresses LPS-induced maturation and metabolic reprogramming of human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and conditions them to polarize naive CD4+ T cells toward IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073082/transcription-factor-isx-mediates-the-cross-talk-between-diet-and-immunity
#15
Made Airanthi K Widjaja-Adhi, Grzegorz Palczewski, Kali Dale, Elizabeth A Knauss, Mary E Kelly, Marcin Golczak, Alan D Levine, Johannes von Lintig
The intestinal epithelium is a major site for the conversion of dietary β-carotene to retinaldehyde by the enzyme BCO1. The majority of retinaldehyde is further metabolized to retinol (vitamin A), esterified and packaged into triacylglycerol-rich chylomicrons for bodily distribution. Some serve on-site for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone-like compound, which exerts pleiotropic and dominant effects on gastrointestinal immunity. We report here that the intestine-specific homeobox protein ISX is critical to control the metabolic flow of β-carotene through this important branching point of vitamin A metabolism...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037595/cellular-characterization-of-oct-and-outer-retinal-bands-using-specific-immunohistochemistry-markers-and-clinical-implications
#16
Nicolás Cuenca, Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel Pinilla
PURPOSE: OCT has been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many ocular diseases, especially retinal and neuro-ophthalmologic pathologic conditions. Until now, several controversies have arisen over the specific cell types that the bands observed in the OCT represent, especially over the 4 outer retinal bands. DESIGN: To correlate the 4 outer hyperreflective bands observed in the OCT with the histologic structures using human retinal sections and immunocytochemistry at the fovea level...
March 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982012/competition-between-ethanol-clearance-and-retinoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-induction-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#17
Yehuda Shabtai, Abraham Fainsod
Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes...
October 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980226/avian-primordial-germ-cells
#18
REVIEW
Takahiro Tagami, Daichi Miyahara, Yoshiaki Nakamura
Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895754/coenzyme-q10-and-retinaldehyde-co-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-for-efficacy-evaluation-in-wrinkles
#19
Kritika Nayak, Sameer S Katiyar, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain
This study depicts coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and retinaldehyde (RAL) co-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs); having activity on different targets of photoageing, which can overcome deficits of conventional topical dosage forms. The developed NLCs were characterised for particle size, polydispersity index and percent entrapment efficiency (%EE), followed by their incorporation into Carbopol® 934 P-NF gel. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity assay was performed to evaluate NLCs and in vivo study on ultraviolet- (UV) induced wrinkle model to determine efficacy of NLCs...
April 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827498/a-novel-large-homozygous-deletion-in-the-cellular-retinaldehyde-binding-protein-gene-rlbp1-in-a-patient-with-retinitis-punctata-albescens
#20
Saghar Bagheri, Madhulatha Pantrangi, Simrat K Sodhi, Sayeh Bagheri, Patrick Oellers, Hendrik P N Scholl
PURPOSE: To report the phenotypic and genotypic data of a patient with retinitis punctata albescens carrying a novel deletion in the RLBP1 gene. RESULTS: A woman of Iranian descent in her forties with a history of progressive visual deterioration since early childhood exhibited phenotypic features of retinitis punctata albescens with multiple white dots in the posterior pole and macular atrophy in both eyes. The microarray analysis identified a ∼2.160 kb homozygous deletion corresponding to a minimum deletion boundary of chr15q26...
August 18, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
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