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Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
October 22, 2016: Chemosphere
Susan A Holechek, Megan S McAfee, Lizbeth M Nieves, Vanessa P Guzman, Kavita Manhas, Timothy Fouts, Kenneth Bagley, Joseph N Blattman
In order for vaccines to induce efficacious immune responses against mucosally transmitted pathogens, such as HIV-1, activated lymphocytes must efficiently migrate to and enter targeted mucosal sites. We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can be used as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance mucosal CD8(+) T cell responses during vaccination and improve protection against mucosal viral challenge. However, the ATRA formulation is incompatible with most recombinant vaccines, and the teratogenic potential of ATRA at high doses limits its usage in many clinical settings...
September 23, 2016: Vaccine
Chiao-Yun Chien, Hsuan-Shu Lee, Candy Hsin-Hua Cho, Kuo-I Lin, David Tosh, Ruei-Ren Wu, Wan-Yu Mao, Chia-Ning Shen
Vitamin A deficiency is known to affect 20 million pregnant women worldwide. However, the prenatal effects of maternal vitamin A deficiency on pancreas development have not been clearly determined. The present study examined how maternal vitamin A deficiency affects fetal islet development. Vitamin A-deficient mice were generated by feeding female mice with a chemically defined diet lacking vitamin A prior to mating as well as during pregnancy. We found that maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy affected fetal pancreas development...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
V R Kasimanickam
Mammalian spermatogenesis involves highly regulated temporal and spatial dynamics, carefully controlled by several signalling processes. Retinoic acid (RA) signalling could have a critical role in spermatogenesis by promoting spermatogonia differentiation, adhesion of germ cells to Sertoli cells, and release of mature spermatids. An optimal testicular RA concentration is maintained by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize RA precursors to produce RA, whereas the CYP26 class of enzymes catabolizes (oxidize) RA into inactive metabolites...
August 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Taichi Matsumoto, Wakana Mochizuki, Yoichi Nibe, Shintaro Akiyama, Yuka Matsumoto, Kengo Nozaki, Masayoshi Fukuda, Ayumi Hayashi, Tomohiro Mizutani, Shigeru Oshima, Mamoru Watanabe, Tetsuya Nakamura
Retinol (ROL), the alcohol form of vitamin A, is known to control cell fate decision of various types of stem cells in the form of its active metabolite, retinoic acid (RA). However, little is known about whether ROL has regulatory effects on colonic stem cells. We examined in this study the effect of ROL on the growth of murine normal colonic cells cultured as organoids. As genes involved in RA synthesis from ROL were differentially expressed along the length of the colon, we tested the effect of ROL on proximal and distal colon organoids separately...
2016: PloS One
Brianna K Costabile, Youn-Kyung Kim, Jahangir Iqbal, Michael V Zuccaro, Lesley Wassef, Sureshbabu Narayanasamy, Robert W Curley, Earl H Harrison, M Mahmood Hussain, Loredana Quadro
β-Carotene is an important source of vitamin A for the mammalian embryo, which depends on its adequate supply to achieve proper organogenesis. In mammalian tissues, β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) converts β-carotene to retinaldehyde, which is then oxidized to retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A that acts as a transcription factor ligand to regulate gene expression. β-Carotene can also be cleaved by β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) to form β-apo-10'-carotenal, a precursor of retinoic acid and a transcriptional regulator per se The mammalian embryo obtains β-carotene from the maternal circulation...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shinya Sato, Vladimir J Kefalov
Chromophore supply by the retinal Müller cells (retina visual cycle) supports the efficient pigment regeneration required for cone photoreceptor function in bright light. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the chromophore produced by dihydroceramide desaturase-1 (DES1), the putative all-trans retinol isomerase in Müller cells, appears to be 9-cis retinol. In contrast, the canonical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) visual cycle produces exclusively 11-cis retinal. Here, we used the different absorption spectra of 9-cis and 11-cis pigments to identify the isoform of the chromophore produced by the visual cycle of the intact retina...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Keiko Ueda, Jin Zhao, Hye Jin Kim, Janet R Sparrow
Adducts of retinaldehyde (bisretinoids) form nonenzymatically in photoreceptor cells and accumulate in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as lipofuscin; these fluorophores are implicated in the pathogenesis of inherited and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here we demonstrate that bisretinoid photodegradation is ongoing in the eye. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of eyes of dark-reared and cyclic light-reared wild-type mice, together with comparisons of pigmented versus albino mice, revealed a relationship between intraocular light and reduced levels of the bisretinoids A2E and A2-glycero-phosphoethanolamine (A2-GPE)...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mildred V Duprey-Díaz, Jonathan M Blagburn, Rosa E Blanco
Retinoic acid (RA) is important during development, in neuronal plasticity, and also in peripheral nervous system regeneration. Here we use the frog visual system as a model to investigate the changes in RA signaling that take place after axonal injury to the central nervous system. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize different components of RA signaling within sections of the retina and optic tectum, namely, the synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), the RA binding proteins CRABPI and II, the retinoic acid receptors RARα, β and (, and finally the catabolic enzyme CYP26A1...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Salvatore Di Lauro, David Rodriguez-Crespo, Manuel J Gayoso, Maria T Garcia-Gutierrez, J Carlos Pastor, Girish K Srivastava, Ivan Fernandez-Bueno
PURPOSE: To develop and standardize a novel organ culture model using porcine central neuroretina explants and RPE cells separated by a cell culture membrane. METHODS: RPE cells were isolated from porcine eyes, expanded, and seeded on the bottom of cell culture inserts. Neuroretina explants were obtained from the area centralis and cultured alone (controls) on cell culture membranes or supplemented with RPE cells in the same wells but physically separated by the culture membrane...
2016: Molecular Vision
Brigitte Dréno, Catherine Jean-Decoster, Victor Georgescu
Although acne is almost universal in teenagers, few large cohort studies have investigated the profile of acne patients. To identify the profile of European patients with mild-to-moderate acne. an epidemiological study was performed using inclusion data from a prospective, international, observational phase IV study conducted in patients prescribed an anti-acne cream containing retinaldehyde, glycolic acid, modified rhamnose and Avene Thermal Spring Water. A total of 2926 patients (73.1% female) with mild to moderate acne (mean Global Evaluation of Acne score of 2...
April 1, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Yehuda Shabtai, Halim Jubran, Taher Nassar, Joseph Hirschberg, Abraham Fainsod
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important regulator of embryogenesis and tissue homoeostasis. Perturbation of RA signalling causes developmental disorders, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia and several types of tumours. RA is produced by oxidation of retinaldehyde from vitamin A. The main enzyme producing RA in the early embryo is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2, ALDH1A2). In the present study we describe in depth the kinetic properties and regulation of the human RALDH2 (hRALDH2) enzyme. We show that this enzyme produces RA using in vivo and in vitro assays...
May 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Nicolás M Díaz, Luis P Morera, Tomas Tempesti, Mario E Guido
The vertebrate retina contains typical photoreceptor (PR) cones and rods responsible for day/night vision, respectively, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) involved in the regulation of non-image-forming tasks. Rhodopsin/cone opsin photopigments in visual PRs or melanopsin (Opn4) in ipRGCs utilizes retinaldehyde as a chromophore. The retinoid regeneration process denominated as "visual cycle" involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or Müller glial cells. Opn4, on the contrary, has been characterized as a bi/tristable photopigment, in which a photon of one wavelength isomerizes 11-cis to all-trans retinal (Ral), with a second photon re-isomerizing it back...
March 17, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Josip Mikulic, Stéphanie Longet, Laurent Favre, Jalil Benyacoub, Blaise Corthesy
The importance of secretory IgA in controlling the microbiota is well known, yet how the antibody affects the perception of the commensals by the local immune system is still poorly defined. We have previously shown that the transport of secretory IgA in complex with bacteria across intestinal microfold cells results in an association with dendritic cells in Peyer's patches. However, the consequences of such an interaction on dendritic cell conditioning have not been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the commensal Lactobacillus rhamnosus, alone or associated with secretory IgA, on the responsiveness of dendritic cells freshly recovered from mouse Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen...
March 14, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Ulrich Hammerling
Nature uses carotenoids and retinoids as chromophores for diverse energy conversion processes. The key structural feature enabling the interaction with light and other manifestations of electro-magnetism is the conjugated double-bond system that all members of this superfamily share in common. Among retinoids, retinaldehyde alone was long known as the active chromophore of vision in vertebrates and invertebrates, as well of various light-driven proton and ion pumps in Archaea. Until now, vitamin A (retinol) was solely regarded as a biochemical precursor for bioactive retinoids such as retinaldehyde and retinoic acid (RA), but recent results indicate that this compound has its own physiology...
February 2016: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Bin Wen, Shuang Li, Huirong Li, Yu Chen, Xiaoyin Ma, Jing Wang, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
Regeneration of the visual pigment by cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to vision. Here we show that the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, MITF, which plays a central role in the development and function of RPE cells, regulates the expression of two visual cycle genes, Rlbp1 which encodes retinaldehyde binding protein-1 (RLBP1), and Rdh5, which encodes retinol dehydrogenase-5 (RDH5). First, we found that Rlbp1 and Rdh5 are downregulated in optic cups and presumptive RPEs of Mitf-deficient mouse embryos...
2016: Scientific Reports
Violeta Díaz-Sánchez, M Carmen Limón, Patrick Schaub, Salim Al-Babili, Javier Avalos
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) convert retinal to retinoic acid, an important chordate morphogen. Retinal also occurs in some fungi, such as Fusarium and Ustilago spp., evidenced by the presence of rhodopsins and β-carotene cleaving, retinal-forming dioxygenases. Based on the assumption that retinoic acid may also be formed in fungi, we searched the Fusarium protein databases for RALDHs homologs, focusing on Fusarium verticillioides. Using crude lysates of Escherichia coli cells expressing the corresponding cDNAs, we checked the capability of best matches to convert retinal into retinoic acid in vitro...
January 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Elisete I Crocco, John V Veasey, Maria F Boin, Rute F Lellis, Renata O Alves
Epidermal melasma is a common hyperpigmentation disorder that can be challenging to treat. Although current treatment options for melasma are limited, topical skin-lightening preparations have widely been used as alternatives to hydroquinone. In this prospective, single-arm, open-label study, treatment of epidermal melasma with a novel cream formulation containing nicotinamide 4%, arbutin 3%, bisabolol 1%, and retinaldehyde 0.05% was associated with reductions in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores as well as total melasma surface area as measured by medical imaging software...
November 2015: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Aki Oride, Tomoko Ishihara, Satoru Kyo
The selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), increases follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) mRNA expression but not α- and luteinizing hormone β (LHβ)-subunits in both the pituitary gonadotrophic cell line LβT2 and primary cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells. TSA increased histone acetylation in whole cell lysates in both cells. In addition, retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs), which are retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing enzymes, were induced by TSA in these cells. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor that prevents histone acetylation, significantly inhibited TSA-induced FSHβ mRNA expression as well as TSA-induced RALDH2 and RALDH 3 mRNA expression...
November 30, 2015: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Young-Sun Lee, Hyon-Seung Yi, Yang-Gun Suh, Jin-Seok Byun, Hyuk Soo Eun, So Yeon Kim, Wonhyo Seo, Jong-Min Jeong, Won-Mook Choi, Myung-Ho Kim, Ji Hoon Kim, Keun-Gyu Park, Won-Il Jeong
Retinols are metabolized into retinoic acids by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh). However, their roles have yet to be clarified in hepatitis despite enriched retinols in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Therefore, we investigated the effects of retinols on Concanavalin A (Con A)-mediated hepatitis. Con A was injected into wild type (WT), Raldh1 knock-out (Raldh1(-/-)), CCL2(-/-) and CCR2(-/-) mice. For migration study of regulatory T cells (Tregs), we used in vivo and ex vivo adoptive transfer systems...
November 2015: Molecules and Cells
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