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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938619/anti-cancer-efficacy-of-biotinylated-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-liver-cancer
#1
Mingrong Cheng, Weiping Zhu, Qing Li, Dejian Dai, Yiming Hou
The present study investigated the synthesis of biotinylated chitosan (Bio-CS) from chitosan using a nanomaterial skeleton with biotin and the successful targeting of the formulation in liver cancer cells. Bio-CS was validated by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen(-1) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bio-CS and plasmid DNA were used to construct Bio-CS/plasmid DNA nanoparticles according to the optimal molar ratio of 1:1 and the optimal pH-value of 5.5. Under these conditions, the parameters mean particle size, potential, encapsulation rate and drug loading, were 82...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935886/stepwise-evolution-improves-identification-of-diverse-peptides-binding-to-a-protein-target
#2
Victor I Lyamichev, Lauren E Goodrich, Eric H Sullivan, Ryan M Bannen, Joerg Benz, Thomas J Albert, Jigar J Patel
Considerable efforts have been made to develop technologies for selection of peptidic molecules that act as substrates or binders to a protein of interest. Here we demonstrate the combination of rational peptide array library design, parallel screening and stepwise evolution, to discover novel peptide hotspots. These hotspots can be systematically evolved to create high-affinity, high-specificity binding peptides to a protein target in a reproducible and digitally controlled process. The method can be applied to synthesize both linear and cyclic peptides, as well as peptides composed of natural and non-natural amino acid analogs, thereby enabling screens in a much diverse chemical space...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935144/effects-of-dietary-biotin-supplementation-on-glucagon-production-secretion-and-action
#3
Maria-Luisa Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Elena Larrieta, Wilma Tixi-Verdugo, Rafael Ramírez-Mondragón, Ileana Hernández-Araiza, Michael S German, Cristina Fernandez-Mejia
OBJECTIVE: Despite increasing evidence that pharmacologic concentrations of biotin modify glucose metabolism, to our knowledge there have not been any studies addressing the effects of biotin supplementation on glucagon production and secretion, considering glucagon is one of the major hormones in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary biotin supplementation on glucagon expression, secretion, and action. METHODS: Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933778/synthesis-of-a-hycosul-peptide-substrate-library-to-dissect-protease-substrate-specificity
#4
Marcin Poreba, Guy S Salvesen, Marcin Drag
Many biologically and chemically based approaches have been developed to design highly active and selective protease substrates and probes. It is, however, difficult to find substrate sequences that are truly selective for any given protease, as different proteases can demonstrate a great deal of overlap in substrate specificities. In some cases, better enzyme selectivity can be achieved using peptide libraries containing unnatural amino acids such as the hybrid combinatorial substrate library (HyCoSuL), which uses both natural and unnatural amino acids...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931413/topological-organization-and-dynamic-regulation-of-human-trna-genes-during-macrophage-differentiation
#5
Kevin Van Bortle, Douglas H Phanstiel, Michael P Snyder
BACKGROUND: The human genome is hierarchically organized into local and long-range structures that help shape cell-type-specific transcription patterns. Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (tDNAs), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) and encode RNA molecules responsible for translation, are dispersed throughout the genome and, in many cases, linearly organized into genomic clusters with other tDNAs. Whether the location and three-dimensional organization of tDNAs contribute to the activity of these genes has remained difficult to address, due in part to unique challenges related to tRNA sequencing...
September 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931274/avidin-biotin-bioinspired-platform-for-dual-in-vivo-18f-pet-nirf-molecular-imaging
#6
Annelaure Damont, Raphael Boisgard, Frédéric Dollé, Morgane Hollocou, Bertrand Kuhnast
The complementary nature of positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging makes the development of innovative multimodal PET/NIRF probes a very exciting prospect. Herein, the bioinspired design of novel platform exploiting the strength and specificity of interactions between radioactive and fluorescent biotin derivatives and an avidin core is reported. The combination of an original [18F]fluoropyridinylated-biotin derivative and commercially available fluorescent biotin derivatives (Atto-425® and Atto-680®) is investigated...
September 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928541/morphological-and-functional-analyses-of-the-tight-junction-in-the-palatal-epithelium-of-mouse
#7
Noriko Shiotsu, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Mariko Kawai, Mika Ikegame, Yasuhiro Torii, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Toshio Yamamoto
Tight junction (TJ) is one of the cell-cell junctions and known to have the barrier and fence functions between adjacent cells in both simple and stratified epithelia. We examined the distribution pattern, constitutive proteins, and permeability of TJ in the stratified squamous epithelium of the palatal mucosa of mice. Ultrastructural observations based on the ultrathin section and freeze-fracture methods revealed that poorly developed TJs are located at the upper layer of the stratum granulosum. The positive immunofluorescence of occludin (OCD), claudin (CLD)-1 and -4 were localized among the upper layer of the stratum granulosum showing a dot-like distribution pattern...
August 25, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921968/automated-solid-phase-click-synthesis-of-oligonucleotide-conjugates-from-small-molecules-to-diverse-n-acetylgalactosamine-clusters
#8
Valentina M Farzan, Egor A Ulashchik, Yury V Martynenko-Makaev, Maksim V Kvach, Ilya Olegovich Aparin, Vladimir A Brylev, Tatiana A Prikazchikova, Svetlana Yu Maklakova, Alexander G Majouga, Alexey V Ustinov, German A Shipulin, Vadim V Shmanai, Vladimir A Korshun, Timofei S Zatsepin
We developed a novel technique for efficient conjugation of oligonucleotides with various alkyl azides (fluorescent dyes, biotin, cholesterol, GalNAc, etc.) using CuAAC on solid phase and CuI·P(OEt)3 as a catalyst. Conjugation is carried out in an oligonucleotide synthesizer in fully automated mode and is coupled to oligonucleotide synthesis and on-column deprotection. We also suggest a set of reagents for the construction of diverse conjugates. The sequential double click procedure using a pentaerythritol-derived tetraazide followed by the addition of a GalNAc or tris-GalNAc alkyne gives oligonucleotide-GalNAc dendrimer conjugates in good yields with minimal excess of sophisticated alkyne reagents...
September 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921811/a-role-for-the-non-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ack1-in-tnf-alpha-mediated-apoptosis-and-proliferation-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#9
Xinmei Zhao, Chaolan Lv, Shenbo Chen, Fachao Zhi
The roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its mediators in cellular processes related to intestinal diseases remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to determine the biological role of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis and proliferation in Caco-2 cells. ACK1 expression was knocked down using ACK1-specific siRNAs, and ACK1 activity was disrupted using a small molecule ACK1 inhibitor. The Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and the BrdU incorporation assays were used to measure apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920956/biotin-tagging-of-mecp2-in-mice-reveals-contextual-insights-into-the-rett-syndrome-transcriptome
#10
Brian S Johnson, Ying-Tao Zhao, Maria Fasolino, Janine M Lamonica, Yoon Jung Kim, George Georgakilas, Kathleen H Wood, Daniel Bu, Yue Cui, Darren Goffin, Golnaz Vahedi, Tae Hoon Kim, Zhaolan Zhou
Mutations in MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurological disorder characterized by regressive loss of neurodevelopmental milestones and acquired psychomotor deficits. However, the cellular heterogeneity of the brain impedes an understanding of how MECP2 mutations contribute to RTT. Here we developed a Cre-inducible method for cell-type-specific biotin tagging of MeCP2 in mice. Combining this approach with an allelic series of knock-in mice carrying frequent RTT-associated mutations (encoding T158M and R106W) enabled the selective profiling of RTT-associated nuclear transcriptomes in excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918034/a-simple-and-cost-effective-approach-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-production-of-sliced-sirnas-as-potent-triggers-for-rnai
#11
Guihua Sun, Arthur D Riggs
We have studied the molecular properties of in-vitro-transcribed sliced small interfering RNAs (tsli-siRNAs) as an alternative RNAi agent for chemically synthesized siRNA. We describe here a simple and cost-effective procedure for high-purity production of tsli-siRNA using bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerases. tsli-siRNAs exhibit potent gene knockdown effects, with efficacy comparable with that of chemically synthesized sli-siRNAs and classical siRNAs. Furthermore, we found that it is very easy to prepare potent tsli-siRNAs with modified bases, such as 2'-fluorine- or biotin-16-modified tsli-siRNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917640/biotinylated-platinum-iv-complexes-designed-to-target-cancer-cells
#12
Jian Zhao, Wuyang Hua, Gang Xu, Shaohua Gou
Three biotinylated platinum(IV) complexes (1-3) were designed and synthesized. The resulting platinum(IV) complexes exhibited effective cytotoxicity against the tested cancer cell lines, especially complex 1, which was 2.0-9.6-fold more potent than cisplatin. These complexes were found to be rapidly reduced to their activated platinum(II) counterparts by glutathione or ascorbic acid under biologically relevant condition. Additional molecular docking studies revealed that the biotin moieties of all Pt(IV) complexes can effectively bind with the streptavidin through the noncovalent interactions...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916104/highly-selective-and-sensitive-visualization-and-identification-of-glycoproteins-using-multi-functionalized-soluble-dendrimer
#13
Tiantian Li, Zhenlong Yu, Liyuan Zhang, Chao Wang, Sa Deng, Xiaokui Huo, Xiangge Tian, Baojing Zhang, Xiaochi Ma
Glycoproteins are the most important and complex group of posttranslational modifications known in proteins. Many clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer are glycoproteins. However, the isolation of glyco-specific antibodies and their poor stability remains a significant challenge in analytical method and diagnostic development. In this work, for the first time, we present a technology for highly efficient and selective glycosylation analysis on membrane without the use of glyco-specific antibodies...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910678/colorimetric-aptasensor-for-the-detection-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-using-znfe2o4-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanostructures-as-an-effective-peroxidase-mimetics
#14
Shijia Wu, Nuo Duan, Yueting Qiu, Jinghong Li, Zhouping Wang
A new colorimetric aptasensor platform was fabricated to detect Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium based on the peroxidase-like activity of ZnFe2O4-reduced graphene oxide (ZnFe2O4/rGO) nanostructures. The synthesized ZnFe2O4/rGO can catalytically oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 and generate a typical blue product, which was detected by micro-reader at 652nm. Therefore, ZnFe2O4/rGO was conjugated with aptamer to act as the signal probe. Biotin modified aptamer was immobilized onto the micro-plate to act as the capture probe...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906476/ultra-sensitive-nt-probnp-quantification-for-early-detection-of-risk-factors-leading-to-heart-failure
#15
Keum-Soo Song, Satish Balasaheb Nimse, Mukesh Digambar Sonawane, Shrikant Dashrath Warkad, Taisun Kim
Cardiovascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and heart failure accounted for the death of 17.5 million people (31% of all global deaths) in 2015. Monitoring the level of circulating N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) is crucial for the detection of people at risk of heart failure. In this article, we describe a novel ultra-sensitive NT-proBNP test (us-NT-proBNP) that allows the quantification of circulating NT-proBNP in 30 min at 25 °C in the linear detection range of 7.0-600 pg/mL. It is a first report on the application of a fluorescence bead labeled detection antibody, DNA-guided detection method, and glass fiber membrane platform for the quantification of NT-proBNP in clinical samples...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902403/s-nitrosylation-denitrosylation-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-of-salt-stress-sensing-in-sunflower-seedlings
#16
Prachi Jain, Christine von Toerne, Christian Lindermayr, Satish C Bhatla
Nitric oxide (NO) and various reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in cells in normal growth conditions and their enhanced production under stress conditions, are responsible for a variety of biochemical aberrations. Present findings demonstrate that sunflower seedling roots exhibit high sensitivity to salt stress in terms of nitrite accumulation. A significant reduction in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is evident in response to salt stress. Restoration of GSNOR activity with dithioerythritol (DTT) shows that the enzyme is reversibly inhibited under conditions of 120 mM NaCl...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902349/tug1-promotes-osteosarcoma-tumorigenesis-by-upregulating-ezh2-expression-via-mir-144-3p
#17
Jiaqing Cao, Xinyou Han, Xin Qi, Xiangyun Jin, Xiaolin Li
lncRNA-TUG1 (Taurine upregulated 1) is up-regulated and highly correlated with poor prognosis and disease status in osteosarcoma. TUG1 knockdown inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promotes apoptosis. However, its mechanism of action has not been well addressed. Growing evidence documented that lncRNA works as competing endogenous (ce)RNAs to modulate the expression and biological functions of miRNA. As a putative combining target of TUG1, miR-144-3p has been associated with the progress of osteosarcoma...
October 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901515/vulnerability-study-of-myelinated-and-unmyelinated-nerve-fibers-in-acute-ocular-hypertension-in-rabbit
#18
Jiying Shen, Qiang Yang, Daoyi Yu, Jihong Wu, Yuanfang Zhu, Wenyi Guo
In the current study, it was aimed to evaluate the changes in myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers in retinal ischemia‑reperfusion injuries caused by acute ocular hypertension and to determine the sequence of these changes. Adult healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to the hemodynamic group [n=12; used to determine the optimal intraocular pressure (IOP) for the subsequent experiments] and the hypertension group (n=6; 70‑mmHg hypertension induced in one eye). IOP was adjusted using a cannula and saline...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901371/synthesis-of-a-multi-functional-dna-nanosphere-barcode-system-for-direct-cell-detection
#19
Sangwoo Han, Jae Sung Lee, Jong Bum Lee
Nucleic acid-based technologies have been applied to numerous biomedical applications. As a novel material for target detection, DNA has been used to construct a barcode system with a range of structures. This paper reports multi-functionalized DNA nanospheres (DNANSs) by rolling circle amplification (RCA) with several functionalized nucleotides. DNANSs with a barcode system were designed to exhibit fluorescence for coding enhanced signals and contain biotin for more functionalities, including targeting through the biotin-streptavidin (biotin-STA) interaction...
September 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900693/complete-genome-sequence-of-geobacillus-thermodenitrificans-t12-a-potential-host-for-biotechnological-applications
#20
Martinus J A Daas, Bastienne Vriesendorp, Antonius H P van de Weijer, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
In attempt to obtain a thermophilic host for the conversion of lignocellulose derived substrates into lactic acid, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was isolated from a compost heap. It was selected from over 500 isolates as a genetically tractable hemicellulolytic lactic acid producer, requiring little nutrients. The strain is able to ferment glucose and xylose simultaneously and can produce lactic acid from xylan, making it a potential host for biotechnological applications. The genome of strain T12 consists of a 3...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
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