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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453259/common-hydraulic-fracturing-fluid-additives-alter-the-structure-and-function-of-anaerobic-microbial-communities
#1
Adam C Mumford, Denise M Akob, J Grace Klinges, Isabelle M Cozzarelli
The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. Release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain, and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, DBNPA and Bronopol...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431701/combined-treatment-of-hydroxypropyl-guar-gum-in-oilfield-fracturing-wastewater-by-coagulation-and-the-uv-h2o2-ferrioxalate-complexes-process
#2
Zhenchao Zhang
Hydroxypropyl guar gum is considered to be a main component of oilfield fracturing wastewater (OFW). This work is intended to optimize the experimental conditions for the maximum oxidative degradation of hydroxypropyl guar gum by the coagulation and UV/H2O2/ferrioxalate complexes process. Optimal reaction conditions were proposed based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and UV_vis spectra analysis. The overall removal efficiency of COD reached 83.8% for a dilution ratio of raw wastewater of 1:2, pH of 4 and FeCl3 loading of 1,000 mg/L in the coagulation process; the dosage of H2O2 (30%,v/v) was 0...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421054/design-and-development-of-guar-gum-based-novel-superabsorbent-and-moisture-retaining-hydrogels-for-agricultural-applications
#3
Nandkishore Thombare, Sumit Mishra, M Z Siddiqui, Usha Jha, Deodhari Singh, Gopal R Mahajan
The novel hydrogels were synthesized by grafting guar gum with acrylic acid and cross-linking with ethylene glycol di methacrylic acid (EGDMA). The synthesis of hydrogel was confirmed by characterization through 13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM micrography, thermo-gravimetric analysis and water absorption studies under different solutions. Synthesized hydrogel (GG-AA-EGDMA) was confirmed to be biodegradable with half-life period of 77 days through soil burial biodegradation studies. The effects of hydrogel treatment on soil were evaluated by studying various physico-chemical properties of soil like bulk density, porosity, water absorption and retention capacity etc...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414731/partially-hydrolyzed-guar-gum-as-a-potential-prebiotic-source
#4
Deepak Mudgil, Sheweta Barak, Ami Patel, Nihir Shah
Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389594/study-on-the-textural-and-volatile-characteristics-of-emulsion-filled-protein-gels-as-influenced-by-different-fat-substitutes
#5
Like Mao, Song Miao, Fang Yuan, Yanxiang Gao
Emulsion filled protein (EFP) gels were prepared through a cold-set gelation process using denatured protein, and the effects of fat substitutes on the texture and volatile release of EFP gels were investigated. Pre-heating determined the denature degree of protein structure, and higher heating intensity resulted in higher viscosity of the emulsions, and larger storage modulus (G') of the corresponding gels. Oil-reduced EFP gels (15% sunflower oil) were prepared with the addition of fat substitutes (medium chain triglyceride-MCT, maltodextrin, or guar gum), and they showed different properties from the full-oil counterpart (20% sunflower oil)...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378277/guar-gum-and-eudragit-coated-curcumin-liquisolid-tablets-for-colon-specific-drug-delivery
#6
Vrinda S Kumar, Rijo John, Sabitha M
Colorectal cancer, also known as bowel cancer, is the uncontrolled cell growth in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine), or in the appendix. The colon specific drug delivery would alleviate the systemic side effects and would assure the safe therapy for colonic disorders with minimum dose and duration of therapy. The liquisolid technique refers to solubilisation of drug in a non-volatile solvent combined with inclusion of appropriate carrier and coating agent required for tableting. Colon specific degradation of natural polymer, guar gum and pH dependant degradative (pH-7) property of eudragit L100 restricts the delivery of curcumin in gastric and intestinal pH...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352927/self-assembly-and-rheological-behaviors-of-intermacromolecular-complexes-consisting-of-oppositely-charged-fluorinated-guar-gums
#7
Chen Wang, Liewei Qiu, Tao Wang
We synthesized fluorinated cationic/anionic guar gums (FCGG and FAGG) and characterized these species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The degree of fluorine substitution of FCGG (0.26%) and FAGG (0.21%) was calculated by elemental analysis. In addition, we explored the self-assembly and rheological behaviors of FCGG-FAGG complexes by viscometry, scanning electron microscopy, light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and rheometry. The maximum viscosity and molecular weights were observed with a FAGG:FCGG mass ratio of 7...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337918/polyacrylamide-ferrogels-with-magnetite-or-strontium-hexaferrite-next-step-in-the-development-of-soft-biomimetic-matter-for-biosensor-applications
#8
Alexander P Safronov, Ekaterina A Mikhnevich, Zahra Lotfollahi, Felix A Blyakhman, Tatyana F Sklyar, Aitor Larrañaga Varga, Anatoly I Medvedev, Sergio Fernández Armas, Galina V Kurlyandskaya
Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a "soft matter." this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG) with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm) in water solution at three levels of concentration (1...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305697/trp-residue-at-subsite-%C3%A2-5-plays-a-critical-role-in-the-substrate-binding-of-two-protistan-gh26-%C3%AE-mannanases-from-a-termite-hindgut
#9
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290355/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-effects-of-selected-fibers-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administered-carbamazepine-possible-interaction-between-therapeutic-drugs-and-semisolid-enteral-nutrients
#10
Katsuhito Nagai, Sachiko Omotani, Miki Otani, Moe Sasatani, Takahiro Takashima, Yasutoshi Hatsuda, Junji Mukai, Michiaki Myotoku
OBJECTIVE: The management of nutrition using semisolid enteral nutrients is considered useful for avoiding the adverse effects associated with liquid enteral nutrients. In the present study, we used an in vitro analysis to investigate whether carbamazepine (CBZ) is adsorbed by the fibers included in semisolid enteral nutrients. The effects of these fibers on the pharmacokinetic profile of CBZ following its oral administration were also examined in rats. METHODS: The adsorption of CBZ onto fibers was examined by absorbance monitoring of the filtrate after centrifugation using an ultrafiltration device...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289667/intrinsic-viscosity-of-binary-gum-mixtures-with-xanthan-gum-and-guar-gum-effect-of-nacl-sucrose-and-ph
#11
J H Bak, B Yoo
The intrinsic viscosity [η] values of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) mixed with NaCl and sucrose at different concentrations as well as in the presence of different pH levels were examined in dilute solution as a function of XG/GG mixing ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 0/100). Experimental values of concentration (C) and relative viscosity (ηrel) or specific viscosity (ηsp) of gums in dilute solution were fitted to five models to determine intrinsic viscosity [η] values of binary gum mixtures including individual gums...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275202/effects-of-gums-on-physical-properties-microstructure-and-starch-digestibility-of-dried-natural-fermented-rice-noodles
#12
Khongsak Srikaeo, Pronthip Laothongsan, Chutima Lerdluksamee
The effects of gums including carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) on physical properties, microstructure and starch digestibility of dried-natural fermented rice noodles were investigated. The gums, each at 0.05 and 0.10 g/100 g wet basis, were added to the flour during rice noodle production. Control was the sample without the addition of gums. Physical properties (color, water absorption, cooking loss and firmness), microstructure, starch composition and in vitro starch digestibility were determined...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237390/chronopharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-budesonide-multiparticulate-systems
#13
Sowjanya Battu, Prasanna Raju Yalavarthi, G V Subbareddy, Uma Maheswara Rao, Jyothshna Devi Katamreddy, Harini Cowdary Vadlamudi
Poor oral absorption of budesonide limits design of its solid oral dosage form. With this context, multiparticulate pulsatile system of budesonide for chronotherapy of nocturnal asthma was aimed in this study. Initially, solid dispersions of budesonide (BD) using sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and guar gum (GG) were developed and characterized. Uniform sized non-pariel seeds (~400 µm) were coated with solid dispersions to obtain immediate (BMP) and controlled release pellets by solution layering technique. Pulsatile drug release pellets (BMPP) were obtained by coating the controlled release pellets with Eudragit L100 and RS 100...
December 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236044/effect-of-guar-gum-with-sorbitol-coating-on-the-properties-and-oil-absorption-of-french-fries
#14
Bo Jia, Daming Fan, Jinwei Li, Zhenhua Duan, Liuping Fan
This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content (p < 0...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219056/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-guar-gum-eudragit%C3%A2-s100-based-colon-targeted-spheroids-of-sulfasalazine-co-administered-with-probiotics
#15
Abhinav Sharma, Bimlesh Kumar, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Yogyata Vaidya, Manik Sadotra, Harish Rathee, Deepak Ghai, Adil Hussain Malik, Ankit Kumar Yadav, Peddi Maharshi, Palak Bawa, Sarvi Yadav Rajesh, Parth Sharma, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Souvik Mohant
Polysaccharide based delivery systems have been successfully used to target drugs to colon. In some recent reports, the superiority of concomitant administration of probiotics with such systems has been established. However, the pharmacokinetics of such symbiotic therapy remain unexplored hitherto. This study deciphers the pharmacokinetic parameters of guar gum based colon targeted spheroids of sulfasalazine with co-administration of probiotics in experimental rats. Thirty rats were divided into five groups using Latin square design...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217184/formulation-of-novel-chitosan-guargum-based-hydrogels-for-sustained-drug-release-of-paracetamol
#16
Amtul Jamil Sami, Madeeha Khalid, Tahir Jamil, Saira Aftab, Sermad Ahmad Mangat, A R Shakoori, S Iqbal
The report presents the formulation of hydrogel based on biopolymers chitosan and guar gum after cross-linking for sustained release of a commonly used orally prescribed analgesic Paracetamol. The oral ingestion of Paracetamol is associated with complications of the gastric tract and liver metabolism that can be effectually avoided by using transdermal drug delivery systems. The formulated transdermal patch was characterized by physicochemical properties including swelling, bonding pattern (using FTIR Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM) and antimicrobial activity...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191419/application-of-guar-gum-in-brine-clarification-and-oily-water-treatment
#17
Marcus Vinicius Gomes Paixão, Rosangela de Carvalho Balaban
The increasing amount of oil wastewater is causing serious damage to the environment. Oily water is a worrisome by-product of the oil industry due to its growing volume in mature basins and complex chemical composition. Low-cost polymers are being used as alternative materials to treat oily waters after treatment by conventional methods, oil and grease (O&G) concentration being the primary parameter for final disposal. In this respect, guar gum can be used to treat petroleum-contaminated waters, with the advantage of being a low-cost, highly-hydrophilic natural polymer...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188765/cross-linked-guar-gum-and-sodium-borate-based-microspheres-as-colon-targeted-anticancer-drug-delivery-systems-for-5-fluorouracil
#18
Tehsin Kamal, Muhammad Sarfraz, Mosab Arafat, Momir Mikov, Nisarur Rahman
The aim was to prepare cross linked polymer of 5-fluorouracil loaded microspheres containing guar gum and sodium borate for colon-targeted drug delivery systems. Micro spheres were prepared using emulsification cross linking method. The influence of drug polymer ratio, cross linker agent concentrations and cross linking timing on in vitro drug release and characteristics in terms of drug loading, entrapment efficiency and yielding percentage were investigated. The optimum drug loading, entrapment efficiency and percent yield were obtained from formulations with the lowest content of cross linker agent over 2 h of cross linking timing but with the highest drug to polymer ratio 1:11...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174355/a-novel-inhibition-based-biosensor-using-urease-nanoconjugate-entrapped-biocomposite-membrane-for-potentiometric-glyphosate-detection
#19
Chetana Vaghela, Mohan Kulkarni, Santosh Haram, Rohini Aiyer, Meena Karve
A potentiometric biosensor based on agarose-guar gum (A-G) entrapped bio-nanoconjugate of urease with gold nanoparticles (AUNps), has been reported for the first time for glyphosate detection. The biosensor is based on inhibition of urease activity by glyphosate, which was measured by direct potentiometry using ammonium ion selective electrode covered with A-G-urease nanoconjugate membrane. TEM and FTIR analysis revealed nanoconjugate formation and its immobilization in A-G matrix respectively. The composite biopolymer employed for immobilization yields thin, transparent, flexible membrane having superior mechanical strength and stability...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153856/the-effect-of-viscous-soluble-fiber-on-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
K Khan, E Jovanovski, H V T Ho, A C R Marques, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, J L Sievenpiper, V Vuksan
AIMS: Dietary fiber intake, especially viscous soluble fiber, has been established as a means to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Whether this is true for blood pressure remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the effects of viscous soluble fiber supplementation on blood pressure and quantify the effect of individual fibers. DATA SYNTHESIS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched...
October 7, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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