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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230790/influence-of-chitosan-swelling-behaviour-on-controlled-release-of-tenofovir-from-mucoadhesive-vaginal-systems-for-prevention-of-sexual-transmission-of-hiv
#1
Fernando Notario-Pérez, Araceli Martín-Illana, Raúl Cazorla-Luna, Roberto Ruiz-Caro, Luis-Miguel Bedoya, Aitana Tamayo, Juan Rubio, María-Dolores Veiga
The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit(®) RS...
February 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214586/mango-kernel-starch-gum-composite-films-physical-mechanical-and-barrier-properties
#2
Anjum Nawab, Feroz Alam, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Zubala Lutfi, Abid Hasnain
Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192138/isolation-biochemical-characterization-and-antibiofilm-effect-of-a-lectin-from-the-marine-sponge-aplysina-lactuca
#3
Rômulo Farias Carneiro, Paulo Henrique Pinheiro de Lima Jr, Renata Pinheiro Chaves, Rafael Pereira, Anna Luísa Pereira, Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos, Ulisses Pinheiro, Edson Holanda Teixeira, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Alexandre Holanda Sampaio
A new lectin was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina lactuca (ALL) by combining ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography on guar gum matrix. ALL showed affinity for the disaccharides α-lactose, β-lactose and lactulose (Ka=12.5, 31.9 and 145.5M(-1), respectively), as well as the glycoprotein porcine stomach mucin. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable in neutral acid pH values and temperatures below 60°C. ALL is a dimeric protein formed by two covalently linked polypeptide chains...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191980/interaction-mechanisms-between-air-bubble-and-molybdenite-surface-impact-of-solution-salinity-and-polymer-adsorption
#4
Lei Xie, Jingyi Wang, Duowei Yuan, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Hao Zhang, Qi Liu, Qingxia Liu, Hongbo Zeng
The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS2) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ~5...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139083/real-time-monitoring-of-trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance-in-cultured-intestinal-epithelial-cells-the-barrier-protection-of-water-soluble-dietary-fiber
#5
Atsushi Majima, Osamu Handa, Yuji Naito, Yosuke Suyama, Yuriko Onozawa, Yasuki Higashimura, Katsura Mizushima, Mayuko Morita, Yukiko Uehara, Hideki Horie, Takaya Iida, Akifumu Fukui, Osamu Dohi, Tetsuya Okayama, Naohisa Yoshida, Kazuhiro Kamada, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tomohisa Takagi, Hideyuki Konishi, Zenta Yasukawa, Makoto Tokunaga, Tsutomu Okubo, Yoshito Itoh
AIM: Measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in vitro is a method to evaluate barrier function. The first aim of this study is to verify a real-time TEER monitoring system in Caco-2 monolayer. The second aim is to investigate the therapeutic effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), a dietary fiber, on interferon (IFN)-γ-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction using this monitoring system. METHODS: We measured TEER using real-time monitoring system and evaluated epithelial paracellular permeability using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran (4 kDa; FD4) in Caco-2 monolayers treated by IFN-γ for 48 h...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119240/statistical-optimization-and-artificial-neural-network-modeling-for-acridine-orange-dye-degradation-using-in-situ-synthesized-polymer-capped-zno-nanoparticles
#6
Nitesh Dhiman, Markandeya, Amrita Singh, Neeraj K Verma, Nidhi Ajaria, Satyakam Patnaik
ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118742/effects-of-different-hydrocolloids-on-properties-of-gluten-free-bread-based-on-small-broken-rice-berry-flour
#7
Rakkhumkaew Numfon
Gluten-free bread formulations based on small broken rice berry using various types of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, guar gum, and locust bean gum) at different concentrations (0, 1, 1.5, and 2 g/100 g) were tested in this study. The effects of hydrocolloid addition on the pasting properties of flour were also investigated, including the quality parameters of the breads. The pasting properties of small broken rice berry flour incorporated with guar gum were most affected. Gluten-free bread containing hydrocolloid showed improved qualities in terms of loaf specific volume, texture, sensory values, and microstructure...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105485/biochemical-characterization-of-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-mannanase-belonging-to-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-134-from-aspergillus-oryzae
#8
Kiyota Sakai, Mai Mochizuki, Miyuki Yamada, Yuta Shinzawa, Miho Minezawa, Saran Kimoto, Shunsuke Murata, Yuhei Kaneko, Saaya Ishihara, Sadanari Jindou, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Masashi Kato, Motoyuki Shimizu
A β-1,4-mannanase, termed AoMan134A, that belongs to the GH 134 family was identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Recombinant AoMan134A was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified enzyme produced mannobiose, mannotriose, mannotetraose, and mannopentaose from galactose-free β-mannan, with mannotriose being the predominant reaction product. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of AoMan134A was 6.8-fold higher toward galactomannan from locust bean gum, than toward galactomannan from guar gum, but similar toward galactomannan from locust bean gum and glucomannan from konjac flour...
January 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102068/robust-guar-gum-cellulose-nanofibrils-multilayer-films-with-good-barrier-properties
#9
Lei Dai, Zhu Long, Jie Chen, Xingye An, Dong Cheng, Avik Khan, Yonghao Ni
The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Hereby, we fabricated all-polysaccharides multilayer films using cationic guar gum (CGG) and anionic cellulose nanofibrils (i.e., TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, TOCNs) through a layer-by-layer casting method. This technique is based on alternate depositions of oppositely charged water-based CGG and TOCNs onto laminated films. The resultant polyelectrolyte multilayer films were transparent, ductile, and strong...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093331/synthesis-of-2-alkenyl-3-butoxypropyl-guar-gum-with-enhanced-rheological-properties
#10
Fengsan Zhang, Yiding Shen, Ting Ren, Lei Wang, Ying Su
A new guar gum derivative was synthesized though the nucleophilic substitution of sodium hydroxide-activated guar gum with n-butyl glycidyl (BGE) ether. The physicochemical properties of 2-alkenyl-3-butoxypropyl guar gum (ABPG) were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA). The results showed that sodium hydroxide can be effectively substituted with BGE to form the ABPG. The steady and dynamic rheological properties of the aqueous solution and ABPG gel were determined using an RS6000 rheometer...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078260/rheological-and-pasting-properties-of-naked-barley-flour-as-modified-by-guar-xanthan-and-locust-bean-gums
#11
Sung-Jin Yoon, Youngseung Lee, Byoungseung Yoo
To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067641/kinetic-degradation-of-guar-gum-in-oilfield-wastewater-by-photo-fenton-process
#12
Shunwu Wang, Ziwang Li, Qinglong Yu
Guar gum is considered as a main component of oilfield wastewater. This work is intended to optimize the experimental conditions (H2O2 dosage, Fe(2+) dosage, initial concentration of organics, initial pH and temperature) for the maximum oxidative degradation of guar gum by Fenton's reagent. The kinetics of guar gum removal were evaluated by means of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the absorbance measurements. The batch experiment results showed that the optimum conditions were: H2O2 dosage, 10,000 mg/L; Fe(2+)dosage, 2,000 mg/L; initial concentration of organics, 413 mg/L; pH, 3 and temperature, 35 °C, under which the COD removal could reach 61...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024542/guar-gum-oleate-graft-poly-methacrylic-acid-hydrogel-as-a-colon-specific-controlled-drug-delivery-carrier
#13
D Sathya Seeli, M Prabaharan
A novel type of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linked guar gum oleate-graft-poly(methacrylic acid) (GGO-g-PMAc) hydrogel was prepared as a pH-responsive controlled release carrier for colon-specific drug delivery. The structure of GGO-g-PMAc hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The swelling degree of the GGO-g-PMAc hydrogel at pH 7.4 was found to be higher than that at pH 1.2. The drug release studies performed in pH 7.4 and 1.2 buffer solutions at 37°C revealed that the rate and amount of drug released from the GGO-g-PMAc hydrogel at pH 7...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008227/transbuccal-delivery-of-betahistine-dihydrochloride-from-mucoadhesive-tablets-with-a-unidirectional-drug-flow-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#14
Mohamed A El-Nabarawi, Adel A Ali, Heba M Aboud, Amira H Hassan, Amany H Godah
OBJECTIVE: Betahistine dihydrochloride (BH.2HCl), an anti-vertigo histamine analog used in the treatment of Ménière's disease, undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and suffers from short biological half-life. The aim of the present work was to develop and estimate controlled release mucoadhesive buccal tablets of BH.2HCl with a unidirectional drug flow to overcome this encumbrance. METHODS: A direct compression method was adopted for preparation of the tablets using mucoadhesive polymers like guar gum, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and their combinations...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987974/deciphering-the-potential-of-guar-gum-ag-cu-nanocomposite-films-as-an-active-food-packaging-material
#15
Yasir Ali Arfat, Mohammed Ejaz, Harsha Jacob, Jasim Ahmed
Guar gum (GG) based nanocomposite (NC) films were prepared by incorporating silver-copper alloy nanoparticles (Ag-Cu NPs) through solution casting method. Effect of NP loadings (0.5-2%) on the thermo-mechanical, optical, spectral, oxygen barrier and antimicrobial properties of the GG/Ag-Cu NC films were investigated. Tensile testing showed an improvement in the mechanical strength, and a decrease in elongation at break for all NP loadings. NP incorporation into GG films showed a marked influence on the color values...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987966/guar-gum-as-biosourced-building-block-to-generate-highly-conductive-and-elastic-ionogels-with-poly-ionic-liquid-and-ionic-liquid
#16
Biao Zhang, Guillaume Sudre, Guilhem Quintard, Anatoli Serghei, Laurent David, Julien Bernard, Etienne Fleury, Aurélia Charlot
In this study, we report on the simple and straightforward preparation of ionogels arising from the addition of guar gum (a plant-based polysaccharide) in a solution of precisely-defined poly(ionic liquid) chains (PIL) in imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL). The development of intermolecular polar interactions (mainly hydrogen bonds) and topologic chain entanglements induces the formation of physical biohybrid ionogels, whose elastic properties can be easily tuned by varying the composition (up to 30000Pa)...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986630/molecular-mechanism-of-lysozyme-adsorption-onto-chemically-modified-alginate-guar-gum-matrix
#17
Ma Emilia Brassesco, Nadia Woitovich Valetti, Guillermo Picó
The equilibrium isotherms and adsorption kinetics of lysozyme (LZ) on epichlorohydrin (Epi) cross-linked alginate-guar gum (Alg-GG) matrix were studied. Adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-first-order model while the equilibrium isotherm could be represented by the Freundlich equation. The maximal amount of LZ adsorbed onto this matrix was around 2.4mg per g of hydrated matrix at pH 7.00. The adsorption mechanism was associated to a simple diffusion process with a weak columbic interaction between LZ and the matrix...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956333/anionically-functionalized-guar-gum-embedded-with-silica-nanoparticles-an-efficient-nanocomposite-adsorbent-for-rapid-adsorptive-removal-of-toxic-cationic-dyes-and-metal-ions
#18
Abhay Shankar Patra, Soumitra Ghorai, Debabrata Sarkar, Raghunath Das, Supriya Sarkar, Sagar Pal
In the present work, a novel biodegradable nanocomposite has been developed (h-GG/SiO2) based on anionically modified guar gum and in-situ deposited SiO2 NPs through sol-gel technique. Here the anionically modified guar gum stimulates the silica polymerization process and hence acts as a unique template for the development of spherical SiO2 NPs. Batch adsorption studies indicate that h-GG/SiO2 nanocomposite shows remarkable adsorption capacity for cationic dyes/metal ions (Qmax: 781.25mgg(-1)for malachite green (MG), 281...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876597/role-of-synbiotics-in-polysaccharide-assisted-colon-targeted-microspheres-of-mesalamine-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Rupinderjeet Kaur, Monica Gulati, Sachin Kumar Singh
The present study explains the effect of concomitant administration of synbiotics with the polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery system. As the gut microflora get deranged on administration of mesalamine, drug release from such delivery systems is expected to be jeopardised because the release trigger is dependent solely on the colonic microbiota. To overcome this limitation, mesalamine was formulated as microspheres with guar gum and xanthan gum (prebiotics). These were combined with probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863994/understanding-the-physics-of-functional-fibers-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-an-evidence-based-approach-to-resolving-enduring-misconceptions-about-insoluble-and-soluble-fiber
#20
Johnson W McRorie, Nicola M McKeown
Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readily assessed in well-controlled clinical studies. This review will also focus on three health benefits (cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control, and normalizing stool form [constipation and diarrhea]) for which reproducible evidence of clinical efficacy has been published...
February 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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