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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149647/dietary-fish-oil-differentially-ameliorates-high-fructose-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-hyperlipidemia-in-mice-depending-on-time-of-feeding
#1
Katsutaka Oishi, Tatsuya Konishi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Saori Yamamoto, Yoshinori Takahashi, Yasuhiko Shiina
Chrononutrition is the science of nutrition based on chronobiology. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that fish oil (FO) reduces the risk of cardiovascular events through various actions such as lowering triglycerides. The present study aimed to determine the time of day when the hypertriglyceridemia-decreasing ability of FO is optimal in mice. A high-fructose diet (HFrD) that induces hyperlipidemia in mice was replaced with the same diet containing 4% FO (HFrD-4% FO) at different times of the day for 2 weeks as described below...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130104/expression-of-fatty-acid-synthase-is-regulated-by-pgc%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-and-contributes-to-increased-cell-proliferation
#2
Seong-Hoon Yun, Sung-Won Shin, Joo-In Park
We previously demonstrated that overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes increased cell proliferation and tumorigenic potential through upregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, and its expression in various cancers is associated with survival, poor prognosis and cancer recurrence. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGC-1α regulated FASN expression in human colorectal cancer (SNU-C4 and HT-29) cells...
December 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127035/the-high-production-volume-fungicide-pyraclostrobin-induces-triglyceride-accumulation-associated-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-independent-of-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#3
Anthony L Luz, Christopher D Kassotis, Heather M Stapleton, Joel N Meyer
Pyraclostrobin is one of the most heavily used fungicides, and has been detected on a variety of produce, suggesting human exposure occurs regularly. Recently, pyraclostrobin exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurodegeneration and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. As pyraclostrobin inhibits electron transport chain complex III, and as mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity), we designed experiments to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies its adipogenic activity...
November 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121115/the-response-of-gene-expression-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-fat-deposition-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-the-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-gannan-yaks-to-different-energy-levels-of-diets
#4
Chao Yang, Jianbin Liu, Xiaoyun Wu, Pengjia Bao, Ruijun Long, Xian Guo, Xuezhi Ding, Ping Yan
The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118320/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-nmn-supplementation-ameliorates-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-in-mice-comparison-with-exercise
#5
Golam Mezbah Uddin, Neil A Youngson, Bronte M Doyle, David A Sinclair, Margaret J Morris
Maternal overnutrition increases the risk of long-term metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Exercise improves metabolism partly by upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis or function, via increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). We have shown that the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can reverse some of the negative consequences of high fat diet (HFD) consumption. To investigate whether NMN can impact developmentally-set metabolic deficits, we compared treadmill exercise and NMN injection in offspring of obese mothers...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114968/trans10-cis12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-increases-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#6
Tianying Zhang, Yue Ma, Hui Wang, Juan J Loor, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Jun Luo
Trans10, cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is well-established in decreasing milk fat content and causing milk fat depression (MFD) in dairy cattle and goats. However, the detailed mechanisms of its effect are not completely understood. Therefore, we used goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) to further study the molecular mechanisms whereby t10c12-CLA regulates milk fat synthesis. The optimal concentration of t10c12-CLA (100 μmol/L) for cell culture was determined through a cell vitality and morphology assay, and evaluation of abundance of apoptosis-related proteins...
November 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114203/collagen-vi-null-mice-as-a-model-for-early-onset-muscle-decline-in-aging
#7
Daniele Capitanio, Manuela Moriggi, Sara De Palma, Dario Bizzotto, Sibilla Molon, Enrica Torretta, Chiara Fania, Paolo Bonaldo, Cecilia Gelfi, Paola Braghetta
Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein playing a key role in skeletal muscles and whose deficiency leads to connective tissue diseases in humans and in animal models. However, most studies have been focused on skeletal muscle features. We performed an extensive proteomic profiling in two skeletal muscles (diaphragm and gastrocnemius) of wild-type and collagen VI null (Col6a1(-/-)) mice at different ages, from 6- (adult) to 12- (aged) month-old to 24 (old) month-old. While in wild-type animals the number of proteins and the level of modification occurring during aging were comparable in the two analyzed muscles, Col6a1(-/-) mice displayed a number of muscle-type specific variations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113229/fatty-acid-synthase-affects-expression-of-erbb-receptors-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-breast-cancer-cells-and-invasive-ductal-carcinoma
#8
Tingting Chen, Lan Zhou, Hua Li, Yuan Tian, Junqin Li, Lihua Dong, Yuhua Zhao, Dapeng Wei
The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in the expression of ErbBs during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells and its association with the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN). MCF-7-MEK5 cells were used as the experimental model, while MCF-7 cells were used as a control. Tumor cells were implanted into nude mice for in vivo analysis. Cerulenin was used as a FASN inhibitor. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect expression levels of FASN and ErbB1-4...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112683/targeting-de-novo-lipogenesis-as-a-novel-approach-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#9
Katharina Stoiber, Olga Nagło, Carla Pernpeintner, Siwei Zhang, Andreas Koeberle, Melanie Ulrich, Oliver Werz, Rolf Müller, Stefan Zahler, Theobald Lohmüller, Jochen Feldmann, Simone Braig
BACKGROUND: Although altered membrane physiology has been discussed within the context of cancer, targeting membrane characteristics by drugs being an attractive therapeutic strategy has received little attention so far. METHODS: Various acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), and fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitors (like Soraphen A and Cerulenin) as well as genetic knockdown approaches were employed to study the effects of disturbed phospholipid composition on membrane properties and its functional impact on cancer progression...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101357/microrna-27a-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-alleviates-nafld-via-repressing-fas-and-scd1
#10
Meiyuan Zhang, Weilan Sun, Minghao Zhou, Yan Tang
MicroRNAs are implicated as crucial mediators in metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Here, we show miR-27a attenuated hepatic de novo lipogenesis and alleviated obesity-initiated NAFLD through inhibiting Fasn and Scd1 in liver. Hepatic levels of miR-27a were significantly augmented in HFD-fed and ob/ob mice. Further studies demonstrated that miR-27a directly interacted with 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of hepatic Fasn and Scd1 mRNAs and reduced their expression levels in mice...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093680/mechanistic-study-of-bakuchiol-induced-anti-breast-cancer-stem-cell-and-in-vivo-anti-metastasis-effects
#11
Li Li, Chi C Liu, Xueping Chen, Shisan Xu, Sinai Hernandez Cortes-Manno, Shuk H Cheng
Cancer stem cells are involved in cancer establishment, progression, and resistance to current treatments. We demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo anti-breast cancer effect of bakuchiol in a previous study. However, the ability of bakuchiol to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) and inhibit breast cancer metastasis remains unknown. In the current study, we used the cell surface markers CD44 and CD24 to distinguish BCSCs from MCF-7 cells. Bakuchiol inhibited mammosphere formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in BCSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074588/glp-1-elicits-an-intrinsic-gut-liver-metabolic-signal-to-ameliorate-diet-induced-vldl-overproduction-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Chris Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068700/silibinin-reduces-the-impact-of-obesity-on-invasive-liver-cancer
#13
C Miethe, H Nix, R Martin, A R Hernandez, R S Price
Obesity is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Obesity and metabolic abnormalities resulting in low-grade inflammation can increase the risk of developing NASH and HCC. NASH, a risk factor for HCC, is characterized by increased inflammation, lipid accumulation, and liver injury. Obesogenic proteins modulate signaling pathways that induce physiological changes including lipogenesis, ROS, and inflammation. Silibinin, a polyphenol in milk thistle seed, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties...
October 25, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061815/orlistat-reduces-proliferation-and-enhances-apoptosis-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells-panc-1
#14
Ewa Sokolowska, Malgorzata Presler, Elzbieta Goyke, Ryszard Milczarek, Julian Swierczynski, Tomasz Sledzinski
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pancreatic cancer is a disease with very poor prognosis, and none of currently available pharmacotherapies have proven to be efficient in this indication. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene as a potential therapeutic target in proliferating human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1), and verify if orlistat, originally developed as an anti-obesity drug, inhibits PANC-1 proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of orlistat on gene expression, lipogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis was studied in PANC-1 cell culture...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056532/lamp3-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-activating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#15
Xiaoyu Liao, Lingyu Song, Linlin Zhang, Hui Wang, Qiang Tong, Jing Xu, Gangyi Yang, Shiming Yang, Hongting Zheng
Lysosome associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3), a highly glycosylated protein, is one member of the LAMPs family. LAMPs family plays a critical role in the autolysosome fusion process. Autophagy was recently confirmed to regulate hepatic lipolysis. However, the physiological function of LAMP3 in lipid metabolism is not clear. In the current study, we discovered that the LAMP3 expression level was higher in the liver tissues of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and high-fat diet and ob/ob mice than in the matched control groups...
October 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050261/alpha-linolenic-acid-stabilizes-hif-1-%C3%AE-and-downregulates-fasn-to-promote-mitochondrial-apoptosis-for-mammary-gland-chemoprevention
#16
Subhadeep Roy, Atul Kumar Rawat, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Uma Devi, Manjari Singh, Swetlana Gautam, Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Lakhveer Singh, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Rakesh Pandey, Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kaithwas
Alpha linolenic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and is reported to have the anti-cancer potential with no defined hypothesis or mechanism/s. Henceforth present study was in-quested to validate the effect of alpha linolenic acid on mitochondrial apoptosis, hypoxic microenvironment and de novo fatty acid synthesis using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The IC50 value of alpha linolenic acid was recorded to be 17.55μM against ER+MCF-7 cells. Treatment with alpha linolenic acid was evident for the presence of early and late apoptotic signals along with mitochondrial depolarization, when studied through acridine orange/ethidium bromide and JC-1 staining...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048675/naringenin-inhibits-alcoholic-injury-by-improving-lipid-metabolism-and-reducing-apoptosis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#17
Haiyan Lin, Zhenting Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peng Huang, Ning Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Shaohui Huang, Haiyan An, Xuegang Sun, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities that range from isolated alcoholic steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naringenin, a predominant flavanone in grapefruit, increases resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. However, the specific mechanisms responsible for protection against alcoholic injury are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of naringenin on alcoholic events and the molecular regulatory mechanisms of naringenin in the liver and whole body of zebrafish larvae following exposure to 350 mmol/l ethanol for 32 h...
September 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042644/hiv-1-viral-protein-r-vpr-induces-fatty-liver-in-mice-via-lxr%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-dysregulation-implications-for-hiv-specific-pathogenesis-of-nafld
#18
Neeti Agarwal, Dinakar Iyer, Chiara Gabbi, Pradip Saha, Sanjeet G Patel, Qianxing Mo, Benny Chang, Biman Goswami, Ulrich Schubert, Jeffrey B Kopp, Dorothy E Lewis, Ashok Balasubramanyam
HIV patients develop hepatic steatosis. We investigated hepatic steatosis in transgenic mice expressing the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr (Vpr-Tg) in liver and adipose tissues, and WT mice infused with synthetic Vpr. Vpr-Tg mice developed increased liver triglyceride content and elevated ALT, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase due to three hepatic defects: 1.6-fold accelerated de novo lipogenesis (DNL), 45% slower fatty acid ß-oxidation, and 40% decreased VLDL-triglyceride export. Accelerated hepatic DNL was due to coactivation by Vpr of liver X receptor-α (LXRα) with increased expression of its lipogenic targets Srebp1c, Chrebp, Lpk, Dgat, Fasn and Scd1, and intranuclear SREBP1c and ChREBP...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031877/individual-variation-of-the-extent-of-milk-fat-depression-in-dairy-ewes-fed-fish-oil-milk-fatty-acid-profile-and-mrna-abundance-of-candidate-genes-involved-in-mammary-lipogenesis
#19
P Frutos, P G Toral, G Hervás
Dairy ewes are less prone than cows to milk fat depression (MFD) but suffer from this syndrome when marine lipids are added to their diet to modulate milk fatty acid (FA) profile. However, there are large individual differences in MFD extent, and the reasons behind this variability are uncertain. On this basis, a study was conducted in lactating sheep to test the hypotheses that individual susceptibility to the low-fat milk condition may be explained by differences in (1) the milk concentration of some FA, particularly antilipogenic FA, or (2) the transcriptional regulation of mammary lipogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031197/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-responsible-for-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibition-induced-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-pdpamn
#20
Qiang Wang, Xia Du, Bingjie Zhou, Jing Li, Wenlong Lu, Qiuyun Chen, Jing Gao
Targeting cellular metabolism is becoming a hallmark to overcome drug resistance in breast cancer treatment. Activation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) has been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth. However, there is no concrete report underlying the mechanism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to fatty acid synthase inhibition-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. The current study is aimed at exploring the effect of the novel manganese (Mn) complex, labeled as PdpaMn, on lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in breast cancer cells...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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