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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742458/morphological-and-genetic-analyses-of-the-invasive-forest-pathogen-phytophthora-austrocedri-reveal-two-clonal-lineages-colonised-britain-and-argentina-from-a-common-ancestral-population
#1
Béatrice Henricot, Ana Pérez-Sierra, April Armstrong, Paul Sharp, Sarah Green
Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina and Germany are homothallic with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance although most isolates regardless of origin grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737680/mapping-quantitative-trait-loci-qtl-for-resistance-to-late-blight-in-tomato
#2
Dilip R Panthee, Ann Piotrowski, Ragy Ibrahem
Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Montagne, Bary) is a devastating disease of tomato worldwide. There are three known major genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3, conferring resistance to late blight. In addition to these three genes, it is also believed that there are additional factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to late blight. Precise molecular mapping of all those major genes and potential QTL is important in the development of suitable molecular markers and hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733027/isolation-and-characterization-of-metabolites-from-bacillus-licheniformis-mh48-with-antifungal-activity-against-plant-pathogens
#3
Min-Hae Jeong, Yong-Seong Lee, Jeong-Yong Cho, Young-Sang Ahn, Jae-Hak Moon, Hae-Nam Hyun, Gyu-Suk Cha, Kil-Yong Kim
In this study, we isolated Bacillus licheniformis MH48 from rhizosphere soil and demonstrated that this strain shows significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Phytophthora capsici. Our results showed that a 50% concentration of bacterial cell-free culture filtrate of B. licheniformis MH48 shows strong activity against fungal pathogens. Benzoic acid produced by B. licheniformis MH48 was purified by various chromatographic techniques and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726589/proteomic-study-of-sumoylation-during-solanum-tuberosum-phytophthora-infestans-in-compatible-interactions
#4
Bertrand Colignon, Marc Dieu, Catherine Demazy, Edouard Delaive, Yordan Muhovski, Martine Raes, Sergio Mauro
Invasive plant pathogens have developed the ability to modify the metabolism of their host, promoting metabolic processes which facilitate the growth of the pathogen; at the general expense of the host. The particular enzymatic process SUMOylation which performs post-translational modification of target proteins, leading to changes in many aspects of protein activity and hence metabolism has been demonstrated to be active in many eukaryotic organisms, both animals and plants. Here we provide experimental evidence which indicates that in leaves of Solanum tuberosum which have been infected by Phytophthora infestans, the SUMO pathway enzymes of the host are partially under transcriptional control exerted by the oomycete...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725237/a-novel-soybean-dirigent-gene-gmdir22-contributes-to-promotion-of-lignan-biosynthesis-and-enhances-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae
#5
Ninghui Li, Ming Zhao, Tengfei Liu, Lidong Dong, Qun Cheng, Junjiang Wu, Le Wang, Xi Chen, Chuanzhong Zhang, Wencheng Lu, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean worldwide. Plant dirigent proteins (DIR) are proposed to have roles in biosynthesis of either lignan or lignin-like molecules, and are important for defense responses, secondary metabolism, and pathogen resistance. In the present work, a novel DIR gene expressed sequence tag is identified as up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean cultivar 'Suinong 10' inoculated with P. sojae. The full length cDNA is isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and designated GmDIR22 (GenBank accession no...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694506/universality-of-the-phytophthora-mating-hormones-and-diversity-of-their-production-profile
#6
Tomohiko Tomura, Shylaja D Molli, Ryo Murata, Makoto Ojika
Sexual reproduction of the plant pest Phytophthora is regulated by two mating hormones α1 and α2, which are acyclic oxygenated diterpenes first isolated from P. nicotianae A1 and A2 mating types, respectively. A previous report suggested the universality of these factors within this genus. To confirm this concept, we investigated 80 strains (19 species) of Phytophthora and a related genus, not only for the responsiveness to mating hormones but also for their productivity. The results indicated that among the 55 heterothallic strains, 24 (44%) responded to a mating hormone and 40 (73%) produced one or both hormones...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682157/whole-genome-sequences-of-the-raspberry-and-strawberry-pathogens-phytophthora-rubi-and-p-fragariae
#7
Javier Tabima, Brent Kronmiller, Caroline Press, Brett M Tyler, Inga Zasada, Niklaus J Grünwald
Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of these two Phytophthora species as a first step towards understanding the genomic processes underlying plant host adaptation in these pathogens.
July 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674545/identification-of-novel-associations-of-candidate-genes-with-resistance-to-late-blight-in-solanum-tuberosum-group-phureja
#8
María F Álvarez, Myrian Angarita, María C Delgado, Celsa García, José Jiménez-Gomez, Christiane Gebhardt, Teresa Mosquera
The genetic basis of quantitative disease resistance has been studied in crops for several decades as an alternative to R gene mediated resistance. The most important disease in the potato crop is late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Quantitative disease resistance (QDR), as any other quantitative trait in plants, can be genetically mapped to understand the genetic architecture. Association mapping using DNA-based markers has been implemented in many crops to dissect quantitative traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662148/zoospore-exudates-from-phytophthora-nicotianae-affect-immune-responses-in-arabidopsis
#9
Ping Kong, John M McDowell, Chuanxue Hong
Zoospore exudates play important roles in promoting zoospore communication, homing and germination during plant infection by Phytophthora. However, it is not clear whether exudates affect plant immunity. Zoospore-free fluid (ZFF) and zoospores of P. nicotianae were investigated comparatively for effects on resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and mutants that affect signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA): eds16 (enhanced disease susceptibility16), pad4 (phytoalexin deficient4), and npr1 (nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645766/phylogenomic-analysis-supports-multiple-instances-of-polyphyly-in-the-oomycete-peronosporalean-lineage
#10
Marina S Ascunce, Jose C Huguet-Tapia, Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Nemat O Keyhani, Edward L Braun, Erica M Goss
The study of biological diversification of oomycetes has been a difficult task for more than a century. Pioneer researchers used morphological characters to describe this heterogeneous group, and physiological and genetic tools expanded knowledge of these microorganisms. However, research on oomycete diversification is limited by conflicting phylogenies. Using whole genomic data from 17 oomycete taxa, we obtained a dataset of 277 core orthologous genes shared among these genomes. Analyses of this dataset resulted in highly congruent and strongly supported estimates of oomycete phylogeny when we used concatenated maximum likelihood and coalescent-based methods; the one important exception was the position of Albugo...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643580/cyclophilins-less-studied-proteins-with-critical-roles-in-pathogenesis
#11
Khushwant Singh, Mark Winter, Miloslav Zouhar, Pavel Rysanek
Cyclophilins (EC 5.2.1.8) (CYPs) belong to a subgroup of proteins known as immunophilins, which also include FK-506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and parvulins. Members of the immunophilins have two main characteristic properties: I) peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity (PPIases) and II) the ability to bind immunosuppressant molecules of fungal origin. Cyclophilins are some of the most conserved proteins present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and they have been implicated in diverse cellular processes and responses to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631815/expansion-of-sesquiterpene-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-pepper-confers-nonhost-resistance-to-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen
#12
Hyun-Ah Lee, Sejun Kim, Seungill Kim, Doil Choi
Chemical barriers contribute to nonhost resistance, which is defined as the resistance of an entire plant species to nonadapted pathogen species. However, the molecular basis of metabolic defense in nonhost resistance remains elusive. Here, we report genetic evidence for the essential role of phytoalexin capsidiol in nonhost resistance of pepper (Capsicum spp.) to potato late blight Phytophthora infestans using transcriptome and genome analyses. Two different genes for capsidiol biosynthesis, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS) and 5-epi-aristolochene-1,3-dihydroxylase (EAH), belong to multigene families...
June 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602402/growth-media-affect-the-volatilome-and-antimicrobial-activity-against-phytophthora-infestans-in-four-lysobacter-type-strains
#13
Valentina Lazazzara, Michele Perazzolli, Ilaria Pertot, Franco Biasioli, Gerardo Puopolo, Luca Cappellin
Bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecological roles in soil microbial interactions. Lysobacter spp. are key determinants of soil suppressiveness against phytopathogens and the production of non-volatile antimicrobial metabolites has been extensively characterised. However, the chemical composition and antagonistic properties of the Lysobacter volatilome have been poorly investigated. In this work, VOC emission profiles of four Lysobacter type strains grown on a sugar-rich and a protein-rich medium were analysed using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry...
August 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597158/fabrication-optimization-and-characterization-of-noble-silver-nanoparticles-from-sugarcane-leaf-saccharum-officinarum-extract-for-antifungal-application
#14
Manikandan Velu, Jeong-Ho Lee, Woo-Suk Chang, Nanh Lovanh, Yool-Jin Park, Palaniyappan Jayanthi, Velmurugan Palanivel, Byung-Taek Oh
Metal nanoparticles obtained from green route are gaining significant prominence as a result of their potential applications in nanomedicine and material engineering. Overall metal nanoparticles studied, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) clutch prominent place in nanoparticles research field. Herein, we have reported the green synthesis of Saccharum officinarum leaf biomass extract-mediated synthesis of AgNPs. Initial nanoparticle production was confirmed by visual observation as color change from light yellow to bright brown color with yellow shade and spectrophotometrically at 450 nm and the various reaction conditions were optimized...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592945/defense-response-and-suppression-of-phytophthora-blight-disease-of-pepper-by-water-extract-from-spent-mushroom-substrate-of-lentinula-edodes
#15
Dae-Sun Kang, Kyong-Jin Min, A-Min Kwak, Sang-Yeop Lee, Hee-Wan Kang
The spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS) of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592652/pedigree-based-analysis-in-a-multiparental-population-of-octoploid-strawberry-reveals-qtl-alleles-conferring-resistance-to-phytophthora-cactorum
#16
Jozer Mangandi, Sujeet Verma, Luis Osorio, Natalia A Peres, Eric van de Weg, Vance M Whitaker
Understanding the genetic architecture of traits in breeding programs can be critical for making genetic progress. Important factors include the number of loci controlling a trait, allele frequencies at those loci, and allele effects in breeding germplasm. To this end, multiparental populations offer many advantages for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses compared to biparental populations. These include increased power for QTL detection, the ability to sample a larger number of segregating loci and alleles, and estimation of allele effects across diverse genetic backgrounds...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581342/multiple-disease-resistance-loci-affect-soilborne-disease-resistance-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum
#17
Katherine Drake-Stowe, Nicolas Bakaher, Simon Goepfert, Berangere Philippon, Regis Mark, Paul Peterson, Ramsey S Lewis
Phytophthora nicotianae and Ralstonia solanacearum are two of the most important pathogens affecting tobacco worldwide. Greater insight regarding genetic systems controlling resistance to these two soilborne pathogens, as well as identification of DNA markers associated with genomic regions controlling this resistance, could aid in variety development. An evaluation of 50 historical tobacco lines revealed a high positive correlation between resistances to the two pathogens, preliminarily suggesting that some genomic regions may confer resistance to both pathogens...
July 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580151/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-cucumber-fruit-peels-reveal-a-developmental-increase-in-terpenoid-glycosides-associated-with-age-related-resistance-to-phytophthora-capsici
#18
Ben N Mansfeld, Marivi Colle, Yunyan Kang, A Daniel Jones, Rebecca Grumet
The oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, infects cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. An age-related resistance (ARR) to this pathogen was previously observed in fruit of cultivar 'Vlaspik' and shown to be associated with the peel. Young fruits are highly susceptible, but develop resistance at ~10-12 days post pollination (dpp). Peels from resistant (16 dpp) versus susceptible (8 dpp) age fruit are enriched with genes associated with defense, and methanolic extracts from resistant age peels inhibit pathogen growth...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570700/transcriptome-analysis-of-phytophthora-litchii-reveals-pathogenicity-arsenals-and-confirms-taxonomic-status
#19
Jinhua Sun, Zhaoyin Gao, Xinchun Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zou, Lulu Cao, Jiabao Wang
Litchi downy blight, caused by Peronophythora litchii, is one of the major diseases of litchi and has caused severe economic losses. P. litchii has the unique ability to produce downy mildew like sporangiophores under artificial culture. The pathogen had been placed in a new family Peronophytophthoraceae by some authors. In this study, the whole transcriptome of P. litchii from mycelia, sporangia, and zoospores was sequenced for the first time. A set of 23637 transcripts with an average length of 1284 bp was assembled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560165/draft-genome-of-the-oomycete-pathogen-phytophthora-cactorum-strain-lv007-isolated-from-european-beech-fagus-sylvatica
#20
Laura J Grenville-Briggs, Sandeep K Kushwaha, Michelle R Cleary, Johanna Witzell, Eugene I Savenkov, Stephen C Whisson, Aakash Chawade, Ramesh R Vetukuri
Phytophthora cactorum is a broad host range phytopathogenic oomycete. P. cactorum strain LV007 was isolated from a diseased European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Malmö, Sweden in 2016. The draft genome of P. cactorum strain LV007 is 67.81 Mb. It contains 15,567 contigs and 21,876 predicted protein-coding genes. As reported for other phytopathogenic Phytophthora species, cytoplasmic effector proteins including RxLR and CRN families were identified. The genome sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession NBIJ00000000...
June 2017: Genomics Data
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