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Xinwei Chen, Dominika Lewandowska, Miles R Armstrong, Katie Baker, Tze-Yin Lim, Micha Bayer, Brian Harrower, Karen McLean, Florian Jupe, Kamil Witek, Alison K Lees, Jonathan D Jones, Glenn J Bryan, Ingo Hein
A broad-spectrum late blight disease-resistance gene from Solanum verrucosum has been mapped to potato chromosome 9. The gene is distinct from previously identified-resistance genes. We have identified and characterised a broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans from the wild Mexican species Solanum verrucosum. Diagnostic resistance gene enrichment (dRenSeq) revealed that the resistance is not conferred by previously identified nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat genes. Utilising the sequenced potato genome as a reference, two complementary enrichment strategies that target resistance genes (RenSeq) and single/low-copy number genes (Generic-mapping enrichment Sequencing; GenSeq), respectively, were deployed for the rapid, SNP-based mapping of the resistance through bulked-segregant analysis...
March 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Alfonso Méndez-Bravo, Elvis Marian Cortazar-Murillo, Edgar Guevara-Avendaño, Oscar Ceballos-Luna, Benjamín Rodríguez-Haas, Ana L Kiel-Martínez, Orlando Hernández-Cristóbal, José A Guerrero-Analco, Frédérique Reverchon
Rhizobacteria associated with crops constitute an important source of potentially beneficial microorganisms with plant growth promoting activity or antagonistic effects against phytopathogens. In this study, we evaluated the plant growth promoting activity of 11 bacterial isolates that were obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy avocado trees and from that of avocado trees having survived root rot infestations. Seven bacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter, promoted in vitro growth of Arabidopsis thaliana...
2018: PloS One
Ramesh Raju Vetukuri, Sandeep Kushwaha, Diya Sen, Stephen C Whisson, Kurt Lamour, Laura Grenville-Briggs
Phytophthora colocasiae is a phytopathogenic oomycete that causes leaf blight and corm rot on taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important staple crop in the tropics. The impact of P. colocasiae is a serious concern for food security in Asian and Oceanic regions. Vietnamese strain 7290 of P. colocasiae was sequenced (Illumina) to assemble a draft genome of 56.6 Mb, comprised of 19853 scaffolds and 19984 predicted protein-coding genes. As in other Phytophthora species, P. colocasiae possesses numerous pathogenicity-related genes, such as the RxLR class of effectors...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
Based on a condensation reaction, a chitosan-derivative-bearing amino pyridine group was prepared and subsequently followed by coordination with cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions to synthesize chitosan metal complexes. The calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) show that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and they all formed a coordination bond with the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group. The antifungal properties of O-CSPX-M against Phytophthora capsici (P...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined comparing its optical rotation power and ECD spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)(S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv papulans, responsible for apple blister spot...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tanmoy Dey, Amanda Saville, Kevin Myers, Susanta Tewari, David E L Cooke, Sucheta Tripathy, William E Fry, Jean B Ristaino, Sanjoy Guha Roy
The population structure of the Phytophthora infestans populations that caused the recent 2013-14 late blight epidemic in eastern India (EI) and northeastern India (NEI) was examined. The data provide new baseline information for populations of P. infestans in India. A migrant European 13_A2 genotype was responsible for the 2013-14 epidemic, replacing the existing populations. Mutations have generated substantial sub-clonal variation with 24 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) found, of which 19 were unique variants not yet reported elsewhere globally...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gongti Lai, Peining Fu, Yunxiao Liu, Jiang Xiang, Jiang Lu
RPW8 genes are atypical broad-spectrum genes that provide resistance to powdery mildew, downy mildew, the cauliflower mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana , and powdery mildew in tobacco. They play important roles in basal plant pathogen defense. They also provide insights into a novel disease resistance mechanism. In this study, we report on homologous RPW8 genes in Vitis pseudoreticulata. Five VpRPW8 genes were cloned; their Open Reading Frame (ORF) sequences ranged from 1994 base pairs to 2478 base pairs...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeffrey W Habig, Aaron Rowland, Matthew G Pence, Cathy X Zhong
Resistance genes (R-genes) from wild potato species confer protection against disease and can be introduced into cultivated potato varieties using breeding or biotechnology. The R-gene, Rpi-vnt1, which encodes the VNT1 protein, protects against late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Heterologous expression and purification of active VNT1 in quantities sufficient for regulatory biosafety studies was problematic, making it impractical to generate hazard characterization data. As a case study for R-proteins, a weight-of-evidence, tiered approach was used to evaluate the safety of VNT1...
March 9, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Tyler B Bourret, Robin A Choudhury, Heather K Mehl, Cheryl L Blomquist, Neil McRoberts, David M Rizzo
Phylogenetic relationships between thirteen species of downy mildew and 103 species of Phytophthora (plant-pathogenic oomycetes) were investigated with two nuclear and four mitochondrial loci, using several likelihood-based approaches. Three Phytophthora taxa and all downy mildew taxa were excluded from the previously recognized subgeneric clades of Phytophthora, though all were strongly supported within the paraphyletic genus. Downy mildews appear to be polyphyletic, with graminicolous downy mildews (GDM), brassicolous downy mildews (BDM) and downy mildews with colored conidia (DMCC) forming a clade with the previously unplaced Phytophthora taxon totara; downy mildews with pyriform haustoria (DMPH) were placed in their own clade with affinities to the obligate biotrophic P...
2018: PloS One
Sophie de Vries, Janina K von Dahlen, Anika Schnake, Sarah Ginschel, Barbara Schulz, Laura E Rose
Phytophthora infestans is a devastating pathogen of tomato and potato. It readily overcomes resistance genes and applied agrochemicals and hence even today causes large yield losses. Fungal endophytes provide a largely unexplored avenue of control of Phytophthora infestans. Not only do endophytes produce a wide array of bioactive metabolites, they may also directly compete with and defeat pathogens in planta. Here, we tested twelve fungal endophytes isolated from different plant species in vitro for their production of metabolites with anti- Phytophthora activity...
March 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jing Yu, Gan Ai, Danyu Shen, Chunyue Chai, Yuling Jia, Wenjing Liu, Daolong Dou
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, one of the largest transcription factor groups in plants, regulates many critical developmental processes. However, their functions in plant defense have not been extensively studied in Nicotiana benthamiana, an important model plant species for phytopathology. Here, we identified N. benthamiana bHLH genes (NbbHLHs) using a whole-genome searching approach, and found that the NbbHLHs are highly enriched and some subfamilies are selectively expanded in N. benthamiana...
March 6, 2018: Genomics
Jianqiang Miao, Xiuhuan Li, Dong Lin, Xili Liu, Brett M Tyler
Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) related proteins (ORPs) are a large conserved family of lipid transfer proteins in eukaryotes. In oomycetes, some ORPs are the target of the novel oomycide oxathiapiprolin. By searching the Phytophthora sojae genome database, two ORP proteins, PsORP1 (Protein ID: 558498) and PsORP2 (Protein ID: 470921), were found. Here we investigated the biological function of PsORP2. The expression level of PsORP2 was higher in germinated cysts and late infection than in other developmental stages...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Heng Ye, Li Song, Huatao Chen, Babu Valliyodan, Liakat Ali, Tri Vuong, Chengjun Wu, John Orlowski, Blair Buckley, Pengyin Chen, J Grover Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
Natural genetic variations in waterlogging tolerance are controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci (QTL) in major crops, including soybean (Glycine max L.). In this research, two novel QTL associated with waterlogging tolerance were mapped from an elite/exotic soybean cross. The subsequent research was focused on a major QTL (qWT_Gm03) with the tolerant allele from the exotic parent. This QTL was isolated into near-isogenic backgrounds and its effects on waterlogging tolerance were validated in multiple environments...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Kasmiati Kasmiati, Yukio Yoshioka, Tetsuji Okamoto, Makoto Ojika
A crude methanolic extract of the Indonesian sponge Clathria bulbotoxa showed a potent cytotoxic activity against the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. An investigation of the active components led to the isolation of three new compounds named crambescidins 345 ( 1 ), 361 ( 2 ), and 373 ( 3 ), together with the known related metabolites crambescidins 359 ( 4 ), 657 ( 5 ), and 800 ( 6 ). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds 1 - 4 that possess a simple pentacyclic guanidine core exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the A431 cells with the IC50 values of 7...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yuting Fang, Limeng Zhang, Yongge Jiao, Jingjing Liao, Lifen Luo, Sigui Ji, Jiangzhou Li, Kuai Dai, Shusheng Zhu, Min Yang
[This corrects the article on p. 894 in vol. 7, PMID: 27379037.].
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ning Jiang, Jun Meng, Jun Cui, Guangxin Sun, Yushi Luan
Tomato is an important horticultural and economic crop cultivated worldwide. As Phytophthora infestans becomes a huge threat to tomato production, it is necessary to study the resistance mechanisms of tomato against P. infestans . Our previous research has found that miR482 might be involved in tomato- P . infestans interaction. In this study, miR482b precursor was cloned from Solanum pimpinellifolium "L3708" and miR482b was shown to decrease in abundance in tomato following P . infestans infection...
2018: Horticulture Research
T Jung, B Scanu, J Bakonyi, D Seress, G M Kovács, A Durán, E Sanfuentes von Stowasser, L Schena, S Mosca, P Q Thu, C M Nguyen, S Fajardo, M González, A Pérez-Sierra, H Rees, A Cravador, C Maia, M Horta Jung
During various surveys of Phytophthora diversity in Europe, Chile and Vietnam slow growing oomycete isolates were obtained from rhizosphere soil samples and small streams in natural and planted forest stands. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the nuclear ITS, LSU, β-tubulin and HSP90 loci and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 genes revealed they belong to six new species of a new genus, officially described here as Nothophytophthora gen. nov., which clustered as sister group to Phytophthora . Nothophytophthora species share numerous morphological characters with Phytophthora : persistent (all Nothophytophthora spp...
December 2017: Persoonia
Nicolas Feau, Stéphanie Beauseigle, Marie-Josée Bergeron, Guillaume J Bilodeau, Inanc Birol, Sandra Cervantes-Arango, Braham Dhillon, Angela L Dale, Padmini Herath, Steven J M Jones, Josyanne Lamarche, Dario I Ojeda, Monique L Sakalidis, Greg Taylor, Clement K M Tsui, Adnan Uzunovic, Hesther Yueh, Philippe Tanguay, Richard C Hamelin
Plant diseases caused by fungi and Oomycetes represent worldwide threats to crops and forest ecosystems. Effective prevention and appropriate management of emerging diseases rely on rapid detection and identification of the causal pathogens. The increase in genomic resources makes it possible to generate novel genome-enhanced DNA detection assays that can exploit whole genomes to discover candidate genes for pathogen detection. A pipeline was developed to identify genome regions that discriminate taxa or groups of taxa and can be converted into PCR assays...
2018: PeerJ
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