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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329405/solanaceous-exocyst-subunits-are-involved-in-immunity-to-diverse-plant-pathogens
#1
Yu Du, Elysa J R Overdijk, Jeroen A Berg, Francine Govers, Klaas Bouwmeester
The exocyst, a multiprotein complex consisting of eight subunits, plays an essential role in many biological processes by mediating secretion of post-Golgi-derived vesicles towards the plasma membrane. In recent years, roles for plant exocyst subunits in pathogen defence have been uncovered, largely based on studies in the model plant Arabidopsis. Only a few studies have been undertaken to assign the role of exocyst subunits in plant defence in other plants species, including crops. In this study, predicted protein sequences from exocyst subunits were retrieved by mining databases from the Solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and potato...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327646/late-blight-resistance-screening-of-major-wild-swedish-solanum-species-s-dulcamara-s-nigrum-and-s-physalifolium
#2
Kibrom Abreha, Åsa Lankinen, Laura Masini, Sofia Hydbom, Erik Andreasson
To understand the contribution of wild Solanum species to the epidemiology of potato late blight in Sweden, we characterized the resistance of the three putative alternative hosts; Solanum physalifolium, S. nigrum, and S. dulcamara to Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. The pathogen sporulated in all ten investigated S. physalifolium genotypes, suggesting susceptibility (S phenotype). Field-grown S. physalifolium was naturally infected but could regrow, though highly infected genotypes were smaller at the end of the season...
January 12, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306805/changes-in-mycelia-growth-sporulation-and-virulence-of-phytophthora-capsici-when-challenged-by-heavy-metals-cu2-cr2-and-hg2-under%C3%A2-acid-ph-stress
#3
Peiqing Liu, Mengyao Wei, Jinzhu Zhang, Rongbo Wang, Benjin Li, Qinghe Chen, Qiyong Weng
Phytophthora capsici, an economically devastating oomycete pathogen, causes devastating disease epidemics on a wide range of vegetable plants and pose a grave threat to global vegetables production. Heavy metals and acid pH are newly co-occurring stresses to soil micro-organisms, but what can be expected for mycelia growth and virulence and how they injure the oomycetes (especially P. capsici) remains unknown. Here, the effects of different heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr2+, and Hg2+) on mycelia growth and virulence were investigated at different pHs (4...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306188/ginsenosides-and-ginsenosidases-in-the-pathobiology-of-ginseng-cylindrocarpon-destructans-zinss-scholten
#4
Jiao Wang, Honglei Chen, Juan Gao, Jixun Guo, Xuesong Zhao, Yifa Zhou
To investigate the role that ginsenosides (and some of their metabolites) play in interactions between plants and phytopathogenic fungi (e.g. Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinss) Scholten), we systematically determined the anti-fungal activities of six major ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1), along with the metabolites of ginsenoside Rb1 (Gypenoside XVII (G-XVII) and F2), against the ginseng root pathogen C. destructans (Zinss) Scholten and non-ginseng pathogens Fusarium graminearum Schw., Exserohilum turcicum (Pass...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300771/demonstration-of-translation-elongation-factor-3-activity-from-a-non-fungal-species-phytophthora-infestans
#5
Maria K Mateyak, Justyna K Pupek, Alexandra E Garino, McCllelan C Knapp, Sarah F Colmer, Terri Goss Kinzy, Stephen Dunaway
In most eukaryotic organisms, translation elongation requires two highly conserved elongation factors eEF1A and eEF2. Fungal systems are unique in requiring a third factor, the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 3 (eEF3). For decades, eEF3, a ribosome-dependent ATPase, was considered "fungal-specific", however, recent bioinformatics analysis indicates it may be more widely distributed among other unicellular eukaryotes. In order to determine whether divergent eEF3-like proteins from other eukaryotic organisms can provide the essential functions of eEF3 in budding yeast, the eEF3-like proteins from Schizosaccharomyes pombe and an oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were cloned and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297963/matrix-approach-to-the-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-potato-pathogens-by-real-time-pcr
#6
M M Nikitin, N V Statsyuk, P A Frantsuzov, V G Dzhavakhiya, A G Golikov
AIM: Create a method for highly sensitive, selective, rapid, and easy-to-use detection and identification of economically significant potato pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and oomycetes, be it single pathogen, or a range of various pathogens occurring simultaneously. METHODS AND RESULTS: Test-systems for real-time PCR, operating in the unified amplification regime, have been developed for Phytophthora infestans, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Dickeya dianthicola, Dickeya solani, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290008/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-two-citrus-germplasms-with-contrasting-susceptibility-to-phytophthora-nicotianae-provides-new-insights-into-tolerance-mechanisms
#7
Arwa Ajengui, Edoardo Bertolini, Angela Ligorio, Samir Chebil, Antonio Ippolito, Simona Marianna Sanzani
Host perception of Phytophthora nicotianae switching to necrotrophy is fundamental for disease tolerance of citrus. It involves an HR-like response, strengthening of the cell wall structure and hormonal signaling. Stem rot caused by P. nicotianae is a worldwide disease of several important crops, including citrus. Given the growing awareness of chemical fungicides drawbacks, genetic improvement of citrus rootstocks remains the best alternative. However, the molecular basis underlying the successful response of resistant and/or tolerant genotypes remains poorly understood...
December 30, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281727/transcriptome-dynamic-of-arabidopsis-roots-infected-with-phytophthora-parasitica-identifies-vq29-a-gene-induced-during-the-penetration-and-involved-in-the-restriction-of-infection
#8
Jo-Yanne Le Berre, Mathieu Gourgues, Birgit Samans, Harald Keller, Franck Panabières, Agnes Attard
Little is known about the responses of plant roots to filamentous pathogens, particularly to oomycetes. To assess the molecular dialog established between the host and the pathogen during early stages of infection, we investigated the overall changes in gene expression in A. thaliana roots challenged with P. parasitica. We analyzed various infection stages, from penetration and establishment of the interaction to the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy. We identified 3390 genes for which expression was modulated during the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247382/effects-of-phytophthora-ramorum-on-volatile-organic-compound-emissions-of-rhododendron-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#9
Mitchel M McCartney, Tatiana V Roubtsova, Mei S Yamaguchi, Takao Kasuga, Susan E Ebeler, Cristina E Davis, Richard M Bostock
Phytophthora ramorum is an invasive and devastating plant pathogen that causes sudden oak death in coastal forests in the western United States and ramorum blight in nursery ornamentals and native plants in various landscapes. As a broad host-range quarantine pest that can be asymptomatic in some hosts, P. ramorum presents significant challenges for regulatory efforts to detect and contain it, particularly in commercial nurseries. As part of a program to develop new detection methods for cryptic infections in nursery stock, we compared volatile emissions of P...
December 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247246/new-microsatellite-markers-for-population-studies-of-phytophthora-cinnamomi-an-important-global-pathogen
#10
J Engelbrecht, T A Duong, N V D Berg
Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of root rot, canker and dieback of thousands of plant species around the globe. This oomycete not only causes severe economic losses but also threatens natural ecosystems. In South Africa, P. cinnamomi affects eucalyptus, avocado, macadamia and indigenous fynbos. Despite being one of the most important plant pathogens with a global distribution, little information is available regarding origin, invasion history and population biology. This is partly due to the limited number of molecular markers available for studying P...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242780/an-expanded-phylogeny-for-the-genus-phytophthora
#11
Xiao Yang, Brett M Tyler, Chuanxue Hong
A comprehensive phylogeny representing 142 described and 43 provisionally named Phytophthora species is reported here for this rapidly expanding genus. This phylogeny features signature sequences of 114 ex-types and numerous authentic isolates that were designated as representative isolates by the originators of the respective species. Multiple new subclades were assigned in clades 2, 6, 7, and 9. A single species P. lilii was placed basal to clades 1 to 5, and 7. Phytophthora stricta was placed basal to other clade 8 species, P...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242773/multiple-new-cryptic-pathogenic-phytophthora-species-from-fagaceae-forests-in-austria-italy-and-portugal
#12
Thomas Jung, Marília Horta Jung, Santa Olga Cacciola, Thomas Cech, József Bakonyi, Diána Seress, Saveria Mosca, Leonardo Schena, Salvatore Seddaiu, Antonella Pane, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Cristiana Maia, Alfredo Cravador, Antonio Franceschini, Bruno Scanu
During surveys of Phytophthora diversity in natural and semi-natural Fagaceae forests in Austria, Italy and Portugal, four new cryptic species were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples. Multigene phylogeny based on nuclear ITS, ß-tubulin and HSP90 and mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 gene sequences demonstrated that two species, P. tyrrhenica and P. vulcanica spp. nov., belong to phylogenetic Clade 7a, while the other two species, P. castanetorum and P. tubulina spp. nov., clustered together with P. quercina forming a new clade, named here as Clade 12...
December 2017: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237394/prediction-of-mirna-and-identification-of-their-relationship-network-related-to-late-blight-disease-of-potato
#13
Mohammad Samir Farooqi, Animesh Kumar, D C Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil Rai, K K Chaturvedi, S B Lal, Anu Sharma
Late blight, is one of the most serious disease in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. In spite of adopting so many agricultural practices this disease is still a threat for potato. Recent studies showed that microRNA (miRNA), an important gene expression regulator, plays a very important role in host-pathogen interaction by silencing genes either by destructing or blocking of translation of mRNA. To date only few miRNA have been discovered which are related to late blight disease of potato during host pathogen interaction...
December 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234827/transcriptome-signatures-of-tomato-leaf-induced-by-phytophthora-infestans-and-functional-identification-of-transcription-factor-spwrky3
#14
Jun Cui, Pinsan Xu, Jun Meng, Jingbin Li, Ning Jiang, Yushi Luan
SpWRKY3 was identified as a resistance gene to Phytophthora infestans from Solanum pimpinellifolium L3708 and its transgenic tomato showed a significant resistance to P. infestans. This finding reveals the potential application of SpWRKY3 in future molecular breeding. Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in the plant response to various pathogens. In this present study, we used comparative transcriptome analysis of tomatoes inoculated with and without Phytophthora infestans to identify 1103 differentially expressed genes...
December 12, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233978/an-oomycete-plant-pathogen-reprograms-host-pre-mrna-splicing-to-subvert-immunity
#15
Jie Huang, Lianfeng Gu, Ying Zhang, Tingxiu Yan, Guanghui Kong, Liang Kong, Baodian Guo, Min Qiu, Yang Wang, Maofeng Jing, Weiman Xing, Wenwu Ye, Zhe Wu, Zhengguang Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Mark Gijzen, Yuanchao Wang, Suomeng Dong
The process of RNA splicing influences many physiological processes, including plant immunity. However, how plant parasites manipulate host RNA splicing process remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that PsAvr3c, an avirulence effector from oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae, physically binds to and stabilizes soybean serine/lysine/arginine-rich proteins GmSKRPs. The SKRPs are novel proteins that associate with a complex that contains plant spliceosome components, and are negative regulators of plant immunity...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225729/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-2a-2b-strain-a-rhizospheric-inhabitant-of-sporobolus-airoides-torr-torr-with-antifungal-activity-against-root-rot-causing-phytopathogens
#16
Inés Martínez-Raudales, Yumiko De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Alejandro Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Julio Vega-Arreguín, Ahuitz Fraire-Mayorga, Miguel Alvarado-Rodríguez, Victor Balderas-Hernández, Saúl Fraire-Velázquez
A Bacillus velezensis strain from the rhizosphere of Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr., a grass in central-north México, was isolated during a biocontrol of phytopathogens scrutiny study. The 2A-2B strain exhibited at least 60% of growth inhibition of virulent isolates of phytopathogens causing root rot. These phytopathogens include Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the 2A-2B strain is an indolacetic acid producer, and a plant inducer of PR1, which is an induced systemic resistance related gene in chili pepper plantlets...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224342/lycosides-unusual-carotenoid-derived-terpenoid-glycosides-from-a-vegetable-juice-inhibit-asexual-reproduction-of-the-plant-pathogen-phytophthora
#17
Rika Iwai, Chunguang Han, Sudhakar V S Govindam, Makoto Ojika
Vegetable juices, typical culture media for the plant pathogen Phytophthora, effectively induce its asexual reproduction (zoosporangia formation). However, some chromatographic fractions from a vegetable juice were found to inhibit the asexual reproduction. Bioassay-guided chromatographic steps led to the isolation of four novel compounds named lycosides A-D, 1-4, that could be metabolic products from a carotenoid. They showed 50% inhibitory activity against the asexual reproduction of P. capsici at 2.1 - 7...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223339/microrna396a-5p-and-3p-induce-tomato-disease-susceptibility-by-suppressing-target-genes-and-upregulating-salicylic-acid
#18
Lei Chen, Jun Meng, Junmiao Zhai, Pinsan Xu, Yushi Luan
Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to perceive and resist the assault of pathogens. The biotrophs, necrotrophs and hemibiotrophs are types of plant pathogens that activate diverse salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. In this study we showed that the expressions of miR396a-5p and -3p in Solanum lycopersicum (S. lycopersicum) were both down-regulated after infection by hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans) and necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) infection. Overexpression of miR396a-5p and -3p in transgenic tomato enhanced the susceptibility of S...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218935/-antifungal-effects-of-three-medicinal-crops-on-phytophthora-nicotianae
#19
Da-Min He, Yang Chen, Shui-Ping Yang, Xue Zhang, Jian Zhao, Jing-Jing Mo, Dong-Yan Zhang, Xin-Mei Zhao, Da-Xia Chen, Wei Ding
Tobacco black shank is one of the most harmful soil-borne diseases infected by Phytophthora parasitica. In order to probe the control method to this disease, in this study, the mycelial growth rate method was employed to investigate the antifungal effects of extracts from stem-leaf and root, root exudates, and their combination of Scrophularia ningpoensis, Chuanmingshen violaceum and Pinellia ternata The results showed that: ①Stem-leaf and root extracts of S. ningpoensis, C. violaceum and P. ternata exhibited different antifungal activities, and the inhibition increased with the increase of extract concentration...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218408/transcription-profiling-and-identification-of-infection-related-genes-in-phytophthora-cactorum
#20
Xiao-Ren Chen, Shen-Xin Huang, Ye Zhang, Gui-Lin Sheng, Bo-Yue Zhang, Qi-Yuan Li, Feng Zhu, Jing-You Xu
Phytophthora cactorum, an oomycete pathogen, infects more than 200 plant species within several plant families. To gain insight into the repertoire of the infection-related genes of P. cactorum, Illumina RNA-Seq was used to perform a global transcriptome analysis of three life cycle stages of the pathogen, mycelia (MY), zoospores (ZO) and germinating cysts with germ tubes (GC). From over 9.8 million Illumina reads for each library, 18,402, 18,569 and 19,443 distinct genes were identified for MY, ZO and GC libraries, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
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