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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419433/plant-soil-feedbacks-in-declining-forests-implications-for-species-coexistence
#1
Lorena Gómez-Aparicio, Jara Domínguez-Begines, Paul Kardol, José M Ávila, Beatriz Ibáñez, Luis V García
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) play a relevant role as drivers of species abundance, coexistence, and succession in plant communities. However, the potential contribution of PSFs to community dynamics in changing forest ecosystems affected by global change drivers is still largely unexplored. We measured the direction, strength and nature (biological vs. chemical) of PSFs experienced by coexisting tree species in two types of declining Quercus suber forests of southwestern Spain (open woodland vs. closed forest) invaded by the exotic soil pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411083/overexpression-of-gma-mir1510a-b-suppresses-the-expression-of-a-nb-lrr-domain-gene-and-reduces-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae
#2
Xiaoxia Cui, Qiang Yan, Shuping Gan, Dong Xue, Daolong Dou, Na Guo, Han Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes and play essential roles in plant immune responses. miRNAs were recently found to be involved in soybean and Phytophthora sojae interactions. Here, we screened miR1510, which was repressed in soybean during infection with P. sojae, indicating that it might be involved in soybean response to pathogens. To further uncover the roles of miRNAs in soybean, gma-miR1510a/b was overexpressed in the hairy roots of soybean using an Arabidopsis miR319a precursor as the backbone...
April 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410577/a-candidate-rxlr-effector-from-plasmopara-viticola-can-elicit-immune-responses-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#3
Jiang Xiang, Xinlong Li, Ling Yin, Yunxiao Liu, Yali Zhang, Junjie Qu, Jiang Lu
BACKGROUND: Diverse plant pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to alter host processes. Oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of putative RxLR effectors which are likely to play a role in manipulating plant defense responses. The secretome of Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew of grapevine) contains at least 162 candidate RxLR effectors discovered in our recent studies, but their roles in infection and pathogenicity remain to be determined. Here, we characterize in depth one of the putative RxLR effectors, PvRxLR16, which has been reported to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana in our previous study...
April 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407259/the-verticillium-specific-protein-vdscp7-localizes-to-the-plant-nucleus-and-modulates-immunity-to-fungal-infections
#4
Lisha Zhang, Hao Ni, Xuan Du, Sheng Wang, Xiao-Wei Ma, Thorsten Nürnberger, Hui-Shan Guo, Chenlei Hua
Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402782/ecology-and-pathology-of-phytophthora-its-clade-3-species-in-forests-in-western-oregon-usa
#5
Everett M Hansen, Paul W Reeser, Wendy Sutton
Phytophthora species are widespread and diverse in forest ecosystems, but little is known about their ecology. We explore ecological attributes of the closely related clade 3 species that occur sympatrically in western North American forests. We address the population structure, pathology, and epidemiology of P. ilicis, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. psychrophila. Phytophthora species were isolated from plant tissues, rainwater falling through the forest canopy, streams, and soils in forests in western Oregon...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402161/ein2-mediated-signaling-is-involved-in-pre-invasion-defense-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-against-potato-late-blight-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#6
Soriya Rin, Yuri Mizuno, Yusuke Shibata, Mayuka Fushimi, Shinpei Katou, Ikuo Sato, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhito Kawakita, Daigo Takemoto
Nicotiana benthamiana ABCG1 and ABCG2 are ABC transporters which are probably involved in the export of capsidiol, the major phytoalexin of Nicotiana species. While capsidiol export by these transporters plays an essential role in post-invasion defense against Phytophthora infestans, they also export unidentified antimicrobial compound(s) involved in pre-invasion defense. In this study, promoter activity of NbABCG2 (Pabcg2a) was analyzed using a GFP marker. Expression of GFP under the control of Pabcg2a was significantly increased by co-expression with the INF1 elicitor from P...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394025/quantitative-analysis-of-the-tomato-nuclear-proteome-during-phytophthora-capsici-infection-unveils-regulators-of-immunity
#7
Andrew J M Howden, Remco Stam, Victor Martinez Heredia, Graham B Motion, Sara Ten Have, Kelly Hodge, Tiago M Marques Monteiro Amaro, Edgar Huitema
Plant-pathogen interactions are complex associations driven by the interplay of host and microbe-encoded factors. With secreted pathogen proteins (effectors) and immune signalling components found in the plant nucleus, this compartment is a battleground where susceptibility is specified. We hypothesized that, by defining changes in the nuclear proteome during infection, we can pinpoint vital components required for immunity or susceptibility. We tested this hypothesis by documenting dynamic changes in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) nuclear proteome during infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390504/characterization-of-phytophthora-infestans-populations-in-northwestern-algeria-during-2008-2014
#8
Fatma Zohra Rekad, David Edward Llewelyn Cooke, Ivana Puglisi, Eva Randall, Yamina Guenaoui, Zouaoui Bouznad, Maria Evoli, Antonella Pane, Leonardo Schena, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Santa Olga Cacciola
A total of 161 Phytophthora infestans isolates, collected from infected potato and tomato plants during 2008-2014, were characterized based on mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity and polymorphism at 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, in order to investigate the population of P. infestans in the north-west of Algeria, an emerging potato production region. The majority of isolates were of A2 mating type (112 isolates). A high percentage (89 %) of resistance to metalaxyl among isolates was detected. The metalaxyl resistant phenotype was present in both mating types with a higher percentage in A2 mating type isolates...
May 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386988/a-new-proteinaceous-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-identified-in-ascomycete-fungi-induces-cell-death-in-solanaceae
#9
Barbara Franco-Orozco, Adokiye Berepiki, Olaya Ruiz, Louise Gamble, Lucie L Griffe, Shumei Wang, Paul R J Birch, Kostya Kanyuka, Anna Avrova
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which gives rise to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We characterized a novel fungal PAMP, Cell Death Inducing 1 (RcCDI1), identified in the Rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (Hordeum vulgare) infection. The ability of RcCDI1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltration or infiltration of recombinant proteins produced by Pichia pastoris...
April 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372034/molecular-identification-enzyme-assay-and-metabolic-profiling-of-trichoderma-spp
#10
Soo-Jung Bae, Young-Hwan Park, Hyeun-Jong Bae, Junhyun Jeon, Hanhong Bae
The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration (RDA) Genebank Information Center (GIC) (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359678/bodyguards-pathogen-derived-decoys-that-protect-virulence-factors
#11
Judith K Paulus, Jiorgos Kourelis, Renier A L van der Hoorn
Recent studies on plant-pathogen interactions have exposed a new strategy used by plant pathogens: decoy effectors that protect virulence factors. Examples of these "bodyguards" include the recently discovered PsXLP1 from Phytophthora sojae and truncated TALEs from Xanthomonas oryzae. These examples suggest important roles for seemingly non-functional effector proteins in distracting the host.
March 27, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350531/phytophthora-infestans-effectors-ipi-o1-and-ipi-o4-each-contribute-to-pathogen-virulence
#12
Yu Chen, Dennis A Halterman
Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive plant diseases. Despite decades of intensive breeding efforts, it remains a threat to potato production worldwide, because newly evolved pathogen strains have overcome major resistance genes quickly. The RB protein, from the diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers partial resistance to most P. infestans strains through its recognition of members of the corresponding pathogen effector protein family IPI-O...
May 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348576/temporal-genetic-dynamics-of-an-experimental-biparental-field-population-of-phytophthora-capsici
#13
Maryn O Carlson, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, Christine D Smart
Defining the contributions of dispersal, reproductive mode, and mating system to the population structure of a pathogenic organism is essential to estimating its evolutionary potential. After introduction of the devastating plant pathogen, Phytophthora capsici, into a grower's field, a lack of aerial spore dispersal restricts migration. Once established, coexistence of both mating types results in formation of overwintering recombinant oospores, engendering persistent pathogen populations. To mimic these conditions, in 2008, we inoculated a field with two P...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346470/relationship-of-microbial-communities-and-suppressiveness-of-trichoderma-fortified-composts-for-pepper-seedlings-infected-by-phytophthora-nicotianae
#14
Margarita Ros, Iulia Raut, Ana Belén Santisima-Trinidad, Jose Antonio Pascual
The understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. Trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. The use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative PCR are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two Trichoderma strains (Trichoderma harzianum or Trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial and fungal communities in pepper rhizosphere infected with Phytophthora nicotianae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341825/transcriptomic-profile-of-tobacco-in-response-to-phytophthora-nicotianae-infection
#15
Jian-Kang Yang, Zhi-Jun Tong, Dun-Huang Fang, Xue-Jun Chen, Ke-Qin Zhang, Bing-Guang Xiao
Black shank, caused by Phytophthora nicotianae (P. nicotianae), is a serious disease of cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) worldwide. The interactions between tobacco and P. nicotianae are complex and the outcomes of the interactions depend on the tobacco genotype, P. nicotianae strain, and environmental conditions. In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate and compare transcriptional changes in the stems of tobacco upon inoculation with P. nicotianae strain race 0. We used two tobacco varieties: RBST (named from resistance to black shank and tobacco mosaic virus), which was resistant to the P...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326092/a-novel-soybean-erf-transcription-factor-gmerf113-increases-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae-infection-in-soybean
#16
Yuanling Zhao, Xin Chang, Dongyue Qi, Lidong Dong, Guangjin Wang, Sujie Fan, Liangyu Jiang, Qun Cheng, Xi Chen, Dan Han, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in regulating plant biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a new ERF gene, GmERF113, was isolated from the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10.' Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by GmERF113 contained a conserved AP2/ERF domain of 58 amino acid and belonged to the B-4 subgroup of the ERF subfamily. Expression of GmERF113 was significantly induced by P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320402/albugo-imposed-changes-to-tryptophan-derived-antimicrobial-metabolite-biosynthesis-may-contribute-to-suppression-of-non-host-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
David C Prince, Ghanasyam Rallapalli, Deyang Xu, Henk-Jan Schoonbeek, Volkan Çevik, Shuta Asai, Eric Kemen, Neftaly Cruz-Mireles, Ariane Kemen, Khaoula Belhaj, Sebastian Schornack, Sophien Kamoun, Eric B Holub, Barbara A Halkier, Jonathan D G Jones
BACKGROUND: Plants are exposed to diverse pathogens and pests, yet most plants are resistant to most plant pathogens. Non-host resistance describes the ability of all members of a plant species to successfully prevent colonization by any given member of a pathogen species. White blister rust caused by Albugo species can overcome non-host resistance and enable secondary infection and reproduction of usually non-virulent pathogens, including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans on Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 20, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318979/a-phytophthora-effector-manipulates-host-histone-acetylation-and-reprograms-defense-gene-expression-to-promote-infection
#18
Liang Kong, Xufang Qiu, Jiangang Kang, Yang Wang, Han Chen, Jie Huang, Min Qiu, Yao Zhao, Guanghui Kong, Zhenchuan Ma, Yan Wang, Wenwu Ye, Suomeng Dong, Wenbo Ma, Yuanchao Wang
Immune response during pathogen infection requires extensive transcription reprogramming. A fundamental mechanism of transcriptional regulation is histone acetylation. However, how pathogens interfere with this process to promote disease remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic effector PsAvh23 produced by the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae acts as a modulator of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) in plants. PsAvh23 binds to the ADA2 subunit of the HAT complex SAGA and disrupts its assembly by interfering with the association of ADA2 with the catalytic subunit GCN5...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#19
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294616/antimicrobial-metabolites-from-streptomyces-sp-sn0280
#20
Hui Tian, Jamil Shafi, Mingshan Ji, Yuhui Bi, Zhiguo Yu
One new indole derivative, chloroindole (1), one new diketone, streptoone A (2), two new ketonic acids, streptoones B (3) and C (4), and one known macrolide antibiotic, X-14952B (5), were isolated from Streptomyces sp. SN0280. Extensive NMR, HRESIMS, and IR analysis was used to elucidate their structures. Streptoone A (2) displayed antibacterial activity (MIC value of 7.81 μg/mL) against Clavibater michiganensis, comparable with the positive control streptomycin (MIC value of 7.81 μg/mL). Streptoone B (3) showed antifungal activity (MIC value of 15...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
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