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Nam Hee Choi, Ja Yeong Jang, Gyung Ja Choi, Yong Ho Choi, Kyoung Soo Jang, Van Thu Nguyen, Byung-Sun Min, Quang Le Dang, Jin-Cheol Kim
The in vivo antifungal activity of crude extracts of Dipsacus asper roots was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum coccodes, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita and Rhizoctonia solani using a whole-plant assay method. Ethyl acetate and acetone extracts, at 1000μg/mL, suppressed the development of tomato gray mold (TGM) and tomato late blight (TLB) by 90%. Through bioassay-guided isolation, five antifungal substances were isolated from the D...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jun Qin, Qijian Song, Ainong Shi, Song Li, Mengchen Zhang, Bo Zhang
Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P...
2017: PloS One
Nan Wu, Pi-Wu Wang, Nan Lin, Shi Lu, Yong-Qi Feng, Jie Rong, Zhuo Zhang, Jing Qu
The present study aimed to clone the soybean chalcone reductase 3 (CHR3) and create a recombinant expression vector pCAMBIA3300‑CHR3 containing Bar resistance gene as a selection marker, and then obtain transgenic soybean plants using Agrobacterium infection. The plant expression vector pCAMBIA3300‑CHR3 was transferred into soybean receptor plants, Jinong 17 and Jilin 30. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blotting were used to confirm the positive transgenic plants. Additionally, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) was used to detect CHR3 expression and isoliquiritigenin content was measured using high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the transgenic offspring...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aurélien Bailly, Laure Weisskopf
Microbial lifeforms associated with land plants represent a rich source for crop growth- and health-promoting microorganisms and biocontrol agents. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant microbiota have been demonstrated to elicit plant defenses and inhibit the growth and development of numerous plant pathogens. Therefore, these molecules are prospective alternatives to synthetic pesticides and the determination of their bioactivities against plant threats could contribute to the development of control strategies for sustainable agriculture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jang Ho Ha, Hyun A Jang, Ki-Beom Moon, Kwang Hyun Baek, Gyung Ja Choi, Doil Choi, Hye Sun Cho, Suk Yun Kwon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Sang-Keun Oh, Hyun-Soon Kim
We previously isolated Nicotiana benthamiana matrix metalloprotease 1 (NMMP1) from tobacco leaves. The NMMP1 gene encodes a highly conserved, Zn-containing catalytic protease domain that functions as a factor in the plant's defense against bacterial pathogens. Expression of NMMP1 was strongly induced during interactions between tobacco and one of its pathogens, Phytophthora infestans. To elucidate the role of the NMMP1 in defense of N. benthamiana against fungal pathogens, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yushi Luan, Jun Cui, Jie Li, Ning Jiang, Ping Liu, Jun Meng
Overexpression of miR172a and b in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) Zaofen No. 2 increased resistance to Phytophthora infestans infection by suppressing of an AP2/ERF transcription factor. The miR172 family has been shown to participate in the growth phase transition, flowering time control, abiotic and biotic stresses by regulating the expression of a small group of AP2/ERF transcription factors. In this study, the precursors of miR172a and b were cloned from tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L3708. We used the degradome sequencing to determine the cleavage site of miR172 to a member of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family (Solyc11g072600...
September 7, 2017: Planta
Md Tohidul Islam, Hashmath Inayath Hussain, James Edward Rookes, David Miles Cahill
The plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of disease in numerous species, is a major threat to natural vegetation and has economic impacts in agriculture. The pathogen principally invades the root system which, in susceptible species, is rapidly colonised and functionally destroyed. Few species are resistant, however, where resistance is expressed the pathogen is restricted to small, localised lesions. The molecular mechanisms that underpin this response in resistant species are not well understood...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biology
Carmen Santos, Charles Dana Nelson, Tetyana Zhebentyayeva, Helena Machado, José Gomes-Laranjo, Rita Lourenço Costa
The Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) carries resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the destructive and widespread oomycete causing ink disease. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), carrying little to no disease resistance, is currently threatened by the presence of the oomycete pathogen in forests, orchards and nurseries. Determining the genetic basis of P. cinnamomi resistance, for further selection of molecular markers and candidate genes, is a prominent issue for implementation of marker assisted selection in the breeding programs for resistance...
2017: PloS One
Aladje Baldé, Dina Neves, Francisco J García-Breijo, Maria Salomé Pais, Alfredo Cravador
BACKGROUND: Phlomis plants are a source of biological active substances with potential applications in the control of phytopathogens. Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) is autochthonous of southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and was found to be resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea has revealed antagonistic effect in the rhizosphere of Quercus suber and Q. ilex against P. cinnamomi. Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti-Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
Mohamed Ewas, Eman Khames, Khurram Ziaf, Raheel Shahzad, Elsayed Nishawy, Farhan Ali, Hizar Subthain, Mohamed H Amar, Mohamed Ayaad, Omran Ghaly, Jie Luo
Adaptation to environmental changes is an important fitness trait for crop development. Photoperiod is an essential factor in seasonal control of flowering time. Sensing of day-length requires an interaction between the Photoperiod and the endogenous rhythms that is controlled by plant circadian clock. Thus, circadian clock is a critical regulator and internal molecular time-keeping mechanism, controlling key agricultural traits in crop plants such as the ability to adjust their growth and physiology to anticipate diurnal environmental changes...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wen-Wen Li, Wen-Xia Zhao, Wen-Xia Huai
A new species of the genus Phytophthora was isolated from stream water in the subtropical forests of China during a survey of forest Phytophthora from 2011 to 2013. This new species is formally described here and named Phytophthora pseudopolonica sp. nov. This new homothallic species is distinct from other known Phytophthora species in morphology and produces nonpapillate and noncaducous sporangia with internal proliferation. Spherical hyphal swellings and thin-walled chlamydospores are abundant when the species is kept in sterile water...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Bruno Soares Laurindo, Renata Dias Freitas Laurindo, Patrícia Pereira Fontes, Camilo Elber Vital, Fábio Teixeira Delazari, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Derly José Henriques da Silva
Late blight is one of the most destructive diseases of the tomato, resulting in substantial economic losses. There is difficulty in controlling this disease, so the molecular characterization of tomato genotypes may help in the selection of higher resistance tomato plants against Phytophthora infestans, late blight's pathogen. The objective was to analyze the differences with regard to the constitutive proteome between the access Vegetable Germplasm Bank (BGH)-2127, resistant genotype, and Santa Clara-susceptible genotype to late blight...
August 30, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Chuanzhong Zhang, Xin Wang, Feng Zhang, Lidong Dong, Junjiang Wu, Qun Cheng, Dongyue Qi, Xiaofei Yan, Liangyu Jiang, Sujie Fan, Ninghui Li, Dongmei Li, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease worldwide. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes related to plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanism of PAL in soybean in response to P. sojae is largely unclear. Here, we characterize a novel member of the soybean PAL gene family, GmPAL2.1, which is significantly induced by P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrates that GmPAL2...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
A novel type of O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff bases (O-CSPX) was synthesized via a condensation reaction. After the coordination reaction of cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions, metal complexes (O-CSPX-M) were achieved. The theoretical structure of O-CSPX-M calculated by Gaussian 09 reveals that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp(2) hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp(3) hybridization, and they all coordinated by the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group. Then, the structures were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, CP-MAS (13)C NMR, elemental analysis, DSC and XRD...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Scott A Lawrence, Charlotte B Armstrong, Wayne M Patrick, Monica L Gerth
Oomycetes in the genus Phytophthora are among the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide. Two important species are Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes root rot in thousands of native and agricultural plants, and Phytophthora agathidicida, which causes kauri dieback disease in New Zealand. As is the case for other Phytophthora species, management options for these two pathogens are limited. Here, we have screened over 100 compounds for their anti-oomycete activity, as a potential first step toward identifying new control strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhiqin Liu, Lanping Shi, Sheng Yang, Youquan Lin, Yahong Weng, Xia Li, Ansar Hussain, Ali Noman, Shuilin He
Despite the involvement of many members of the chitinase family in plant immunity, the precise functions of the majority of the members remain poorly understood. Herein, the gene ChiIV3 in Capsicum annuum encoding a chitinase protein containing a chitin binding domain and targeting to the plasma membrane was found to be induced by Phytophthora capsici inoculation (PCI) and applied chitin treatment. Besides its direct inhibitory effect on growth of Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici), ChiIV3 was also found by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and transient overexpression (TOE) in pepper plants to act as a positive regulator of plant cell death and in triggering defense signaling and upregulation of PR (pathogenesis related) genes against PCI...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rachel P Naegele, Leah L Granke, Jessica Fry, Theresa Hill, Hamid Ashrafi, Allen Van Deynze, Mary K Hausbeck
Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or "hotspots" of the genome with closely linked genes for resistance to different pathogens that could enable rapid incorporation of resistance. An F2-derived F6 recombinant inbred line population from a cross between 'Criollo de Morelos 334' and 'Early Jalapeno' was evaluated in inoculated fruit studies for susceptibility to oomycete and fungal pathogens: Phytophthora capsici, P...
August 1, 2017: Phytopathology
Shumei Wang, Petra C Boevink, Lydia Welsh, Ruofang Zhang, Stephen C Whisson, Paul R J Birch
The potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans secretes effector proteins that are delivered inside (cytoplasmic) or can act outside (apoplastic) plant cells to neutralize host immunity. Little is known about how and where effectors are secreted during infection, yet such knowledge is essential to understand and combat crop disease. We used transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta expression, transformation of P. infestans with fluorescent protein fusions and confocal microscopy to investigate delivery of effectors to plant cells during infection...
July 31, 2017: New Phytologist
Xiaoman Liu, Canbin Ouyang, Qiuxia Wang, Yuan Li, Dongdong Yan, Dongsheng Yang, Wensheng Fang, Aocheng Cao, Meixia Guo
The antifungal activity of oils extracted from Eupatorium adenophorum was tested against five phytopathogens in vitro. Oil extracts inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici which causes phytophthora blight in pepper. The minimum inhibitory concentration of oils against P. capsici was 500μg/ml after 7days incubation. At the ultrastructural level, oil extracts caused complete disorganization of intracellular organelles, cytoplasm depletion, disruption of cytoplasmic membranes and the cell wall. Membrane permeability increased with the increasing concentration of oil extracts...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Kelli Farrell, Md Asraful Jahan, Nik Kovinich
Phytoalexins are metabolites biosynthesized in plants in response to pathogen, environmental, and chemical stresses that often have potent bioactivities, rendering them promising for use as therapeutics or scaffolds for pharmaceutical development. Glyceollin I is an isoflavonoid phytoalexin from soybean that exhibits potent anticancer activities and is not economical to synthesize. Here, we tested a range of source tissues from soybean, in addition to chemical and biotic elicitors, to understand how to enhance the bioproduction of glyceollin I...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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