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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#1
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852223/diversity-evolution-and-expression-profiles-of-histone-acetyltransferases-and-deacetylases-in-oomycetes
#2
Xiao-Wen Wang, Li-Yun Guo, Miao Han, Kun Shan
BACKGROUND: Oomycetes are a group of fungus-like eukaryotes with diverse microorganisms living in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Many of them are important pathogens of plants and animals, causing severe economic losses. Based on previous study, gene expression in eukaryotic cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification. However, little is known about epigenetic mechanisms of oomycetes. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the candidate genes in regulating histone acetylation in oomycetes genomes through bioinformatics approaches and identified a group of diverse histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), along with three putative novel HATs...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827009/phenazine-1-carboxylic-acid-production-by-pseudomonas-fluorescens-lbum636-alters-phytophthora-infestans-growth-and-late-blight-development
#3
Christopher K Morrison, Tanya Arseneault, Amy Novinscak, Martin Filion
Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, one of the most devastating diseases affecting potato production. Alternative approaches for controlling late blight are being increasingly sought due to increasing environmental concerns over the use of chemical pesticides and the increasing resistance of P. infestans to fungicides. Our research group has isolated a new strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (LBUM636) of biocontrol interest producing the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Wild-type LBUM636 was shown to significantly inhibit the growth of P...
November 9, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826309/overexpression-of-nictaba-like-lectin-genes-from-glycine-max-confers-tolerance-toward-pseudomonas-syringae-infection-aphid-infestation-and-salt-stress-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-plants
#4
Sofie Van Holle, Guy Smagghe, Els J M Van Damme
Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL) groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max), referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812174/genetic-variation-within-clonal-lineages-of-phytophthora-infestans-revealed-through-genotyping-by-sequencing-and-implications-for-late-blight-epidemiology
#5
Zachariah R Hansen, Kathryne L Everts, William E Fry, Amanda J Gevens, Niklaus J Grünwald, Beth K Gugino, Dennis A Johnson, Steven B Johnson, Howard S Judelson, Brian J Knaus, Margaret T McGrath, Kevin L Myers, Jean B Ristaino, Pamela D Roberts, Gary A Secor, Christine D Smart
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was performed on 257 Phytophthora infestans isolates belonging to four clonal lineages to study within-lineage diversity. The four lineages used in the study were US-8 (n = 28), US-11 (n = 27), US-23 (n = 166), and US-24 (n = 36), with isolates originating from 23 of the United States and Ontario, Canada. The majority of isolates were collected between 2010 and 2014 (94%), with the remaining isolates collected from 1994 to 2009, and 2015. Between 3,774 and 5,070 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within each lineage and were used to investigate relationships among individuals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801966/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-between-resistant-and-susceptible-tomato-allows-the-identification-of-lncrna16397-conferring-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-by-co-expressing-glutaredoxin
#6
Jun Cui, Yushi Luan, Ning Jiang, Hang Bao, Jun Meng
The rapid development of omics sequencing technology has facilitated the identification of thousands of lncRNAs in plant species, but the role of lncRNAs in plant-pathogen interactions remains largely unexplored. We used comparative transcriptome analysis of Phytophthora infestans-resistant and susceptible tomatoes to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and lncRNAs (DELs) and examine lncRNA-mRNA networks. A total of 1,037 DEGs and 688 DELs were identified between P. infestans-resistant and susceptible tomatoes...
November 1, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801078/oomycete-species-associated-with-soybean-seedlings-in-north-america-part-i-identification-and-pathogenicity-characterization
#7
Alejandro Rojas, Janette L Jacobs, Stephanie Napieralski, Behirda Karaj, Carl A Bradley, Tom Chase, Paul Esker, Loren Giesler, Douglas Jardine, Dean Malvick, Sam Markell, Berlin D Nelson, Alison Robertson, John C Rupe, Damon Smith, Laura Sweets, Albert Tenuta, Kiersten Wise, Martin I Chilvers
Oomycete pathogens are commonly associated with soybean root rot, and have been estimated to reduce soybean yields in the United States by 1.5 million tons on an annual basis.  Limited information exists regarding the frequency and diversity of oomycete species across the major soybean producing regions in North America. A survey was conducted across 11 major soybean producing states in the U.S. and the province of Ontario, Canada. In 2011, 2,378 oomycete cultures were isolated from soybean seedling roots on a semi-selective medium (CMA-PARPB) and identified by sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA...
November 1, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779242/mir1918-enhances-tomato-sensitivity-to-phytophthora-infestans-infection
#8
Yushi Luan, Jun Cui, Weichen Wang, Jun Meng
Late blight of tomato is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In our previous work, we identified and characterized a miR1918 in P. infestans (pi-miR1918), and showed that its sequence is similar to the sequence of tomato miR1918 (sly-miR1918). In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana pre-miR159a as a backbone to synthesize pi-miR1918 via PCR and mutagenesis. The artificial pi-miR1918 was used to investigate the role of miR1918 in tomato-P. infestans interaction. Trangenic tomato plants that overexpressed the artificial pi-miR1918 displayed more serious disease symptoms than wild-type tomato plants after infection with P...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775499/evaluation-of-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae-in-soybean-mini-core-collections-using-an-improved-assay-system
#9
Chang-Jie Jiang, Shoji Sugano, Akito Kaga, Sung Shin Lee, Takuma Sugimoto, Mami Takahashi, Masao Ishimoto
Stem and root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae is devastating to soybean crops worldwide. Developing host resistance to P. sojae, considered the most effective and stable means to control this disease, is partly hampered by limited germplasm resources. In this study, we first modified conventional methods for a P. sojae-resistance assay to a simpler and more cost-effective version in which the P. sojae-inoculum was mixed into the soil and the resistance was evaluated by survival rate (%) of soybean seedlings...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769171/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-of-black-pepper-piper-nigrum-l-and-an-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-phenylpropanoid-metabolism-in-response-to-phytophthora-capsici
#10
Chaoyun Hao, Zhiqiang Xia, Rui Fan, Lehe Tan, Lisong Hu, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756215/isolation-identification-and-characterization-of-paenibacillus-polymyxa-cr1-with-potentials-for-biopesticide-biofertilization-biomass-degradation-and-biofuel-production
#11
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752469/genome-sequences-of-six-phytophthora-species-threatening-forest-ecosystems
#12
Nicolas Feau, Greg Taylor, Angela L Dale, Braham Dhillon, Guillaume J Bilodeau, Inanç Birol, Steven J M Jones, Richard C Hamelin
The Phytophthora genus comprises of some of the most destructive plant pathogens and attack a wide range of hosts including economically valuable tree species, both angiosperm and gymnosperm. Many known species of Phytophthora are invasive and have been introduced through nursery and agricultural trade. As part of a larger project aimed at utilizing genomic data for forest disease diagnostics, pathogen detection and monitoring (The TAIGA project: Tree Aggressors Identification using Genomic Approaches; http://taigaforesthealth...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747953/the-sterol-binding-activity-of-pathogenesis-related-protein-1-reveals-the-mode-of-action-of-an-antimicrobial-protein
#13
Jordi Gamir, Rabih Darwiche, Pieter Van't Hof, Vineet Choudhary, Michael Stumpe, Roger Schneiter, Felix Mauch
Pathogenesis-related proteins played a pioneering role fifty years ago in the discovery of plant innate immunity as a set of proteins that accumulated upon pathogen challenge. The most abundant of these proteins, PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (PR-1) encodes a small antimicrobial protein that has become, as a marker of plant immune signaling, one of the most referred to plant proteins. However, the biochemical activity and mode of action of PR-1 proteins has remained elusive. Here, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the capacity of PR-1 proteins to bind sterols and demonstrate that the inhibitory effect on pathogen growth is caused by sterol sequestration from pathogens...
October 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746768/comparative-genomic-analysis-among-four-representative-isolates-of-phytophthora-sojae-reveals-genes-under-evolutionary-selection
#14
Wenwu Ye, Yang Wang, Brett M Tyler, Yuanchao Wang
Comparative genomic analysis is useful for identifying genes affected by evolutionary selection and for studying adaptive variation in gene functions. In Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen, the related study is lacking. We compared sequence data among four isolates of P. sojae, which represent its four major genotypes. These isolates exhibited >99.688%, >99.864%, and >98.981% sequence identities at genome, gene, and non-gene regions, respectively. One hundred and fifty-three positive selection and 139 negative selection candidate genes were identified...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744101/comparison-of-antifungal-activity-of-extracts-from-different-juglans-regia-cultivars-and-juglone
#15
D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736786/genetic-diversity-and-origins-of-the-homoploid-allopolyploid-hybrid-phytophthora-%C3%A3-alni
#16
Jaime Aguayo, Fabien Halkett, Claude Husson, Zoltán Á Nagy, András Szigethy, József Bakonyi, Pascal Frey, Benoit Marçais
: Assessing the process that gives rise to hybrid pathogens is central to understand the evolution of emerging plant diseases. Phytophthora ×alni, a pathogen of alder, results from the homoploid hybridization of two related species, Phytophthora uniformis and Phytophthora ×multiformis Describing genetic characteristics of P. ×alni should help understanding how reproductive mechanisms and historical processes shaped the population structure of this emerging hybrid pathogen. The population genetic structure of P...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723513/the-cell-biology-of-late-blight-disease
#17
Stephen C Whisson, Petra C Boevink, Shumei Wang, Paul Rj Birch
Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714409/filamentous-actin-accumulates-during-plant-cell-penetration-and-cell-wall-plug-formation-in-phytophthora-infestans
#18
Kiki Kots, Harold J G Meijer, Klaas Bouwmeester, Francine Govers, Tijs Ketelaar
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight in potato and tomato. It is a devastating pathogen and there is an urgent need to design alternative strategies to control the disease. To find novel potential drug targets, we used Lifeact-eGFP expressing P. infestans for high resolution live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton in various developmental stages. Previously, we identified actin plaques as structures that are unique for oomycetes. Here we describe two additional novel actin configurations; one associated with plug deposition in germ tubes and the other with appressoria, infection structures formed prior to host cell penetration...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695047/contrasting-regulation-of-no-and-ros-in-potato-defense-associated-metabolism-in-response-to-pathogens-of-different-lifestyles
#19
Jolanta Floryszak-Wieczorek, Magdalena Arasimowicz-Jelonek
Our research provides new insights into how the low and steady-state levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in potato leaves are altered after the challenge with the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans or the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea, with the subsequent rapid and invader-dependent modification of defense responses with opposite effects. Mainly in the avirulent (avr) P. infestans-potato system, NO well balanced with the superoxide level was tuned with a battery of SA-dependent defense genes, leading to the establishment of the hypersensitive response (HR) successfully arresting the pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662058/total-synthesis-of-miuraenamides-a-and-d
#20
Daisuke Ojima, Ayano Yasui, Koh Tohyama, Keita Tokuzumi, Eisuke Toriihara, Kayoko Ito, Arihiro Iwasaki, Tomohiko Tomura, Makoto Ojika, Kiyotake Suenaga
Miuraenamides A and D, cyclodepsipeptides with antimicrobial and antitumor activity, were synthesized. The synthesis of an unsaturated hydroxycarboxylic acid moiety, starting from a chiral epoxide, was achieved by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling as a key step. As a result, the overall yield for miuraenamide A over the longest linear sequence is 3.2%, while the yield of the previously reported procedure is 1.9%. In addition, the cell growth-inhibitory activity and anti-Phytophthora activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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