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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631815/expansion-of-sesquiterpene-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-pepper-confers-nonhost-resistance-to-the-irish-potato-famine-pathogen
#1
Hyun-Ah Lee, Sejun Kim, Seungill Kim, Doil Choi
Chemical barriers contribute to nonhost resistance, which is defined as the resistance of an entire plant species to nonadapted pathogen species. However, the molecular basis of metabolic defense in nonhost resistance remains elusive. Here, we report genetic evidence for the essential role of phytoalexin capsidiol in nonhost resistance of pepper (Capsicum spp.) to potato late blight Phytophthora infestans using transcriptome and genome analyses. Two different genes for capsidiol biosynthesis, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS) and 5-epi-aristolochene-1,3-dihydroxylase (EAH), belong to multigene families...
June 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602402/growth-media-affect-the-volatilome-and-antimicrobial-activity-against-phytophthora-infestans-in-four-lysobacter-type-strains
#2
Valentina Lazazzara, Michele Perazzolli, Ilaria Pertot, Franco Biasioli, Gerardo Puopolo, Luca Cappellin
Bacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecological roles in soil microbial interactions. Lysobacter spp. are key determinants of soil suppressiveness against phytopathogens and the production of non-volatile antimicrobial metabolites has been extensively characterised. However, the chemical composition and antagonistic properties of the Lysobacter volatilome have been poorly investigated. In this work, VOC emission profiles of four Lysobacter type strains grown on a sugar-rich and a protein-rich medium were analysed using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry...
August 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597158/fabrication-optimization-and-characterization-of-noble-silver-nanoparticles-from-sugarcane-leaf-saccharum-officinarum-extract-for-antifungal-application
#3
Manikandan Velu, Jeong-Ho Lee, Woo-Suk Chang, Nanh Lovanh, Yool-Jin Park, Palaniyappan Jayanthi, Velmurugan Palanivel, Byung-Taek Oh
Metal nanoparticles obtained from green route are gaining significant prominence as a result of their potential applications in nanomedicine and material engineering. Overall metal nanoparticles studied, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) clutch prominent place in nanoparticles research field. Herein, we have reported the green synthesis of Saccharum officinarum leaf biomass extract-mediated synthesis of AgNPs. Initial nanoparticle production was confirmed by visual observation as color change from light yellow to bright brown color with yellow shade and spectrophotometrically at 450 nm and the various reaction conditions were optimized...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592945/defense-response-and-suppression-of-phytophthora-blight-disease-of-pepper-by-water-extract-from-spent-mushroom-substrate-of-lentinula-edodes
#4
Dae-Sun Kang, Kyong-Jin Min, A-Min Kwak, Sang-Yeop Lee, Hee-Wan Kang
The spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS) of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592652/pedigree-based-analysis-in-a-multiparental-population-of-octoploid-strawberry-reveals-qtl-alleles-conferring-resistance-to-phytophthora-cactorum
#5
Jozer Mangandi, Sujeet Verma, Luis Osorio, Natalia A Peres, Eric van de Weg, Vance M Whitaker
Understanding the genetic architecture of traits in breeding programs can be critical for making genetic progress. Important factors include the number of loci controlling a trait, allele frequencies at those loci, and allele effects in breeding germplasm. To this end, multiparental populations offer many advantages for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses compared to biparental populations. These include increased power for QTL detection, the ability to sample a larger number of segregating loci and alleles, and estimation of allele effects across diverse genetic backgrounds...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581342/multiple-disease-resistance-loci-affect-soil-borne-disease-resistance-in-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum-l
#6
Katherine Drake-Stowe, Nicolas Bakaher, Simon Goepfert, Berangere Philippon, Regis Mark, Paul D Peterson, Ramsey Lewis
Phytophthora nicotianae and Ralstonia solanacearum are two of the most important pathogens affecting tobacco worldwide. Greater insight on genetic systems controlling resistance to these two soil-borne pathogens, as well as identification of DNA markers associated with genomic regions controlling this resistance, could aid in variety development. An evaluation of 50 historical tobacco lines revealed a high positive correlation between resistances to the two pathogens, preliminarily suggesting that some genomic regions may confer resistance to both pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580151/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-cucumber-fruit-peels-reveal-a-developmental-increase-in-terpenoid-glycosides-associated-with-age-related-resistance-to-phytophthora-capsici
#7
Ben N Mansfeld, Marivi Colle, Yunyan Kang, A Daniel Jones, Rebecca Grumet
The oomycete, Phytophthora capsici, infects cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit. An age-related resistance (ARR) to this pathogen was previously observed in fruit of cultivar 'Vlaspik' and shown to be associated with the peel. Young fruits are highly susceptible, but develop resistance at ~10-12 days post pollination (dpp). Peels from resistant (16 dpp) versus susceptible (8 dpp) age fruit are enriched with genes associated with defense, and methanolic extracts from resistant age peels inhibit pathogen growth...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570700/transcriptome-analysis-of-phytophthora-litchii-reveals-pathogenicity-arsenals-and-confirms-taxonomic-status
#8
Jinhua Sun, Zhaoyin Gao, Xinchun Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zou, Lulu Cao, Jiabao Wang
Litchi downy blight, caused by Peronophythora litchii, is one of the major diseases of litchi and has caused severe economic losses. P. litchii has the unique ability to produce downy mildew like sporangiophores under artificial culture. The pathogen had been placed in a new family Peronophytophthoraceae by some authors. In this study, the whole transcriptome of P. litchii from mycelia, sporangia, and zoospores was sequenced for the first time. A set of 23637 transcripts with an average length of 1284 bp was assembled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560165/draft-genome-of-the-oomycete-pathogen-phytophthora-cactorum-strain-lv007-isolated-from-european-beech-fagus-sylvatica
#9
Laura J Grenville-Briggs, Sandeep K Kushwaha, Michelle R Cleary, Johanna Witzell, Eugene I Savenkov, Stephen C Whisson, Aakash Chawade, Ramesh R Vetukuri
Phytophthora cactorum is a broad host range phytopathogenic oomycete. P. cactorum strain LV007 was isolated from a diseased European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Malmö, Sweden in 2016. The draft genome of P. cactorum strain LV007 is 67.81 Mb. It contains 15,567 contigs and 21,876 predicted protein-coding genes. As reported for other phytopathogenic Phytophthora species, cytoplasmic effector proteins including RxLR and CRN families were identified. The genome sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession NBIJ00000000...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558041/earlier-occurrence-and-increased-explanatory-power-of-climate-for-the-first-incidence-of-potato-late-blight-caused-by-phytophthora-infestans-in-fennoscandia
#10
Veiko Lehsten, Lars Wiik, Asko Hannukkala, Erik Andreasson, Deliang Chen, Tinghai Ou, Erland Liljeroth, Åsa Lankinen, Laura Grenville-Briggs
BACKGROUND: Late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) is a devastating potato disease that has been found to occur earlier in the season over the last decades in Fennoscandia. Up until now the reasons for this change have not been investigated. Possible explanations for this change are climate alterations, changes in potato production or changes in pathogen biology, such as increased fitness or changes in gene flow within P. infestans populations. The first incidence of late blight is of high economic importance since fungicidal applications should be typically applied two weeks before the first signs of late blight and are repeated on average once a week...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553307/gmwrky31-and-gmhdl56-enhances-resistance-to-phytophthora-sojae-by-regulating-defense-related-gene-expression-in-soybean
#11
Sujie Fan, Lidong Dong, Dan Han, Feng Zhang, Junjiang Wu, Liangyu Jiang, Qun Cheng, Rongpeng Li, Wencheng Lu, Fanshan Meng, Shuzhen Zhang, Pengfei Xu
Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. The molecular mechanism of the soybean response to P. sojae is largely unclear. We report a novel WRKY transcription factor (TF) in soybean, GmWRKY31, in the host response to P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmWRKY31 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. GmWRKY31 was targeted to the nucleus, where it bound to the W-box and acted as an activator of gene transcription...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535608/antifungal-activities-of-dimeric-sesquiterpenes-shizukaols-c-and-f-isolated-from-chloranthus-japonicus-sieb
#12
Tae Hoon Kang, Yun Mi Lee, Won Jung Lee, Eui Il Hwang, Ki Duk Park, Gyang Ja Choi, Jae Sun Moon, Ho-Yong Park, Sung Uk Kim
Two dimeric sesquitepenes were separated from Chloranthus japonicus Sieb. and identified as shizukaols C and F. They exhibited potent antifungal activities (MICs = 4-16 μg/ml) in vitro against various plant pathogenic fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora infestans, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Alternaria kikuchana, and Magnaporthe grisea. Shizukaol C showed 88% and 91% protective activities in the greenhouse against Puccinia recondite (wheat leaf rust) and Phytophthora infestans (tomato late blight), respectively, at 100 µg/ml; shizukaol F exhibited 93% antifungal activity against Puccinia recondite at the same concentration...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526937/molecular-confirmation-of-intraspecific-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-hybrids-and-their-evaluation-against-late-blight-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#13
Amjad Hameed, Muhammad Yussouf Saleem, Khalid Pervaiz Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib, Qumer Iqbal, Muhammad Asghar
Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. Diseases are the number one concern in the development of high-yield and disease-resistant tomato hybrids which is the foremost priority of breeders. Present study was conducted (1) to develop DNA-based markers for genetic confirmation of tomato F1 hybrids, (2) to utilize sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker linked to the Ph-3 gene for Phytophthora infestans resistance in tomato and (3) to evaluate male and female parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids against late blight (LB) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522546/the-rxlr-motif-of-the-host-targeting-effector-avr3a-of-phytophthora-infestans-is-cleaved-before-secretion
#14
Stephan Wawra, Franziska Trusch, Anja Matena, Kostis Apostolakis, Uwe Linne, Igor Zhukov, Jan Stanek, Wiktor Koźmiński, Ian Davidson, Chris J Secombes, Peter Bayer, Pieter van West
When plant-pathogenic oomycetes infect their hosts, they employ a large arsenal of effector proteins to establish a successful infection. Some effector proteins are secreted and are destined to be translocated and function inside host cells. The largest group of translocated proteins from oomycetes are the RxLR effectors, defined by their conserved N-terminal Arg-Xaa-Leu-Arg (RxLR) motif. However, the precise role of this motif in the host cell translocation process is unclear. Here detailed biochemical studies of the RxLR effector AVR3a from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans are presented...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519717/phytophthora-cinnamomi
#15
Adrienne R Hardham, Leila M Blackman
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most devastating plant pathogens in the world. It infects close to 5,000 species of plants, including many of importance in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. Inadvertent introduction of P. cinnamomi into natural ecosystems, including a number of recognised Global Biodiversity Hotspots, has disastrous consequences for the environment and biodiversity of flora and fauna. The genus Phytophthora belongs to the Class Oomycetes, a group of fungus-like organisms that initiate plant disease through the production of motile zoospores...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512457/the-25-26-nt-small-rnas-in-phytophthora-parasitica-are-associated-with-efficient-silencing-of-homologous-endogenous-genes
#16
Jinbu Jia, Wenqin Lu, Chengcheng Zhong, Ran Zhou, Junjie Xu, Wei Liu, Xiuhong Gou, Qinhu Wang, Junliang Yin, Cheng Xu, Weixing Shan
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important non-coding RNA regulators, playing key roles in developmental regulation, transposon suppression, environmental response, host-pathogen interaction and other diverse biological processes. However, their roles in oomycetes are poorly understood. Here, we performed sRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of Phytophthora parasitica at stages of vegetative growth and infection of Arabidopsis roots to examine diversity and function of sRNAs in P. parasitica, a model hemibiotrophic oomycete plant pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511691/tomato-root-microbiota-and-phytophthora-parasitica-associated-disease
#17
Marie Larousse, Corinne Rancurel, Camille Syska, Ferran Palero, Catherine Etienne, Benoît Industri, Xavier Nesme, Marc Bardin, Eric Galiana
BACKGROUND: Interactions between pathogenic oomycetes and microbiota residing on the surface of the host plant root are unknown, despite being critical to inoculum constitution. The nature of these interactions was explored for the polyphagous and telluric species Phytophthora parasitica. RESULTS: Composition of the rhizospheric microbiota of Solanum lycopersicum was characterized using deep re-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to analyze tomato roots either free of or partly covered with P...
May 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510502/the-impact-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-on-the-physiology-of-phytophthora-infestans-the-causative-agent-of-potato-late-blight
#18
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500315/network-and-role-analysis-of-autophagy-in-phytophthora-sojae
#19
Linlin Chen, Xiong Zhang, Wen Wang, Xuejing Geng, Yan Shi, Risong Na, Daolong Dou, Honglian Li
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes with roles in development and the virulence of plant fungal pathogens. However, few reports on autophagy in oomycete species have been published. Here, we identified 26 autophagy-related genes (ATGs) belonging to 20 different groups in Phytophthora sojae using a genome-wide survey, and core ATGs in oomycetes were used to construct a preliminary autophagy pathway model. Expression profile analysis revealed that these ATGs are broadly expressed and that the majority of them significantly increase during infection stages, suggesting a central role for autophagy in virulence...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#20
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
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