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Feng Zhu, Chengshan Yuan, Fangli Gang, Chaofu Yang, Wenjun Wu, Jiwen Zhang
Oomycetes are one type of the most highly destructive of the diseases that cause damage to some important crop plants, such as potato late blight, cucumber downy mildew and grape downy mildew. As main approach of the ongoing search for new botanical fungicide from plant, the secondary metabolites of D. aspera were investigated. Through efficient bioassay-guided isolation, two new (1, 2), twelve known compounds (3-14) were isolated, and their structures were determined via extensive NMR, HR-ESI-MS, IR. They were isolated from this genus for the first time except for compounds 11, 12...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Liming Wu, Ziyang Huang, Xi Li, Liumin Ma, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Jia Liu, Rainer Borriss, Zhen Wu, Xuewen Gao
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens. This study analyzed the mechanism by which FZB42 restricts leaf disease caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Nicotiana benthamiana . The oomycete foliar pathogen P. nicotianae is able to reopen stomata which had been closed by the plant innate immune response to initiate penetration and infection. Here, we showed that root colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 restricted pathogen-mediated stomatal reopening in N...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matthew F Pye, Sara M Dye, Renata Sousa Resende, James D MacDonald, Richard M Bostock
Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. We used the tomato- Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhan Hu, Ziwen Wang, Liu Yuxiu, Qingmin Wang
BACKGROUND: Lycoris aurea (L' Herit.) Herb (Amaryllidaceae) is a native pesticide in China. The ethanolic extract of Lycoris aureate bulbs, the total alkaloids of L. aurea bulbs and the main alkaloids of L. aurea bulbs were systematically investigated as part of a novel project to study their antiviral, fungal (phytopathogenic) and insecticidal activities. We also prepared eighteen lycorine derivatives and evaluated their bioactivities. RESULTS: Lycorine had excellent larvacidal activity against Plutella xylostella (LC50 = 10...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Qian Du, Xiangdong Yang, Jinhua Zhang, Xiaofang Zhong, Kyung Seok Kim, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Xiaoyu Li, Zhaoyuan Jiang, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong, Hongyu Pan
Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean (Glycine max) production all over the world. Harpin proteins in many plant pathogenic bacteria were confirmed to enhance disease and insect resistance in crop plants. Here, a harpin protein-encoding gene hrpZpsta from the P. syringae pv. tabaci strain Psta218 was codon-optimized (renamed hrpZm) and introduced into soybean cultivars Williams 82 and Shennong 9 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
May 4, 2018: Transgenic Research
Marianne Elliott, Jennifer Yuzon, Mathu Malar C, Sucheta Tripathy, Mai Bui, Gary A Chastagner, Katie Coats, David M Rizzo, Matteo Garbelotto, Takao Kasuga
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that genome plasticity allows filamentous plant pathogens to adapt to changing environments. Recently, the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has been documented to undergo irreversible phenotypic alterations accompanied by chromosomal aberrations when infecting trunks of mature oak trees (genus Quercus). In contrast, genomes and phenotypes of the pathogen derived from the foliage of California bay (Umbellularia californica) are usually stable...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Marina Arredondo-Santoyo, Ma Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo
The isolation and characterization of fungal strains from poorly described taxa allows undercover attributes of their basic biology useful for biotechnology. Here, a wild fungal strain (CMU-196) from recently described Paraconiothyrium genus was analyzed. CMU-196 was identified as Paraconiothyrium brasiliense by phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). CMU-196 metabolized 57 out of 95 substrates of the Biolog FF microplates. Efficient assimilation of dextrins and glycogen indicates that CMU-196 is a good producer of amylolytic enzymes...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Brian J Knaus, Niklaus J Grünwald
Inference of copy number variation presents a technical challenge because variant callers typically require the copy number of a genome or genomic region to be known a priori . Here we present a method to infer copy number that uses variant call format (VCF) data as input and is implemented in the R package vcfR . This method is based on the relative frequency of each allele (in both genic and non-genic regions) sequenced at heterozygous positions throughout a genome. These heterozygous positions are summarized by using arbitrarily sized windows of heterozygous positions, binning the allele frequencies, and selecting the bin with the greatest abundance of positions...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Johan van den Hoogen, Natalie Verbeek-de Kruif, Francine Govers
The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is a notorious plant pathogen with potato and tomato as its primary hosts. Previous research showed that the heterotrimeric G-protein subunits Gα and Gβ have a role in zoospore motility and virulence, and sporangial development, respectively. Here, we present analyses of the gene encoding a Gγ subunit in P. infestans, Pigpg1. The overall similarity of PiGPG1 with non-oomycete Gγ subunits is low, with only the most conserved amino acids maintained, but similarity with its homologs in other oomycetes is high...
April 25, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Min Yang, Shengchang Duan, Xinyue Mei, Huichuan Huang, Wei Chen, Yixiang Liu, Cunwu Guo, Ting Yang, Wei Wei, Xili Liu, Xiahong He, Yang Dong, Shusheng Zhu
Phytophthora cactorum is a homothallic oomycete pathogen, which has a wide host range and high capability to adapt to host defense compounds and fungicides. Here we report the 121.5 Mb genome assembly of the P. cactorum using the third-generation single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. It is the second largest genome sequenced so far in the Phytophthora genera, which contains 27,981 protein-coding genes. Comparison with other Phytophthora genomes showed that P. cactorum had a closer relationship with P...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ali Amiryousefi, Jaakko Hyvönen, Péter Poczai
Bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) is a native Old World member of the nightshade family. This European diploid species can be found from marshlands to high mountainous regions and it is a common weed that serves as an alternative host and source of resistance genes against plant pathogens such as late blight (Phytophthora infestans). We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of bittersweet, which is 155,580 bp in length and it is characterized by a typical quadripartite structure composed of a large (85,901 bp) and small (18,449 bp) single-copy region interspersed by two identical inverted repeats (25,615 bp)...
2018: PloS One
P Umadevi, M Soumya, Johnson K George, M Anandaraj
Plant antimicrobial peptides are the interesting source of studies in defense response as they are essential components of innate immunity which exert rapid defense response. In spite of abundant reports on the isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from many sources, the profile of AMPs expressed/identified from single crop species under certain stress/physiological condition is still unknown. This work describes the AMP signature profile of black pepper and their expression upon Phytophthora infection using label-free quantitative proteomics strategy...
May 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Francesca Buiarelli, Patrizia Di Filippo, Carmela Riccardi, Donatella Pomata, Riccardo Marsiglia, Carla Console, Daniele Puri
Fosetyl-aluminum is a synthetic fungicide administered to plants especially to prevent diseases caused by the members of the Peronosporales and several Phytophthora species. Herein, we present a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze residues of fosetyl-A1 in air particulate matter. This study was performed in perspective of an exposure assessment of this substance of health concern in environments where high levels of fosetly-Al, relatively to airborne particulate matter, can be found after spraying it...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Iga Tomczynska, Michael Stumpe, Felix Mauch
Plant pathogens of the oomycete genus Phytophthora produce virulence factors, known as RxLR effector proteins that are transferred into host cells to suppress disease resistance. Here, we analyse the function of the highly conserved RxLR24 effector of Phytophthora brassicae. RxLR24 was expressed early in the interaction with Arabidopsis plants and ectopic expression in the host enhanced leaf colonization and zoosporangia formation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by mass spectrometry identified different members of the RABA GTPase family as putative RxLR24 targets...
April 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Paul W Tooley, Marsha Browning
We examined the impact of relative humidity (RH) on Phytophthora ramorum sporangia production on Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. When diseased plants were maintained under continuous moisture in a mist tent, sporangia were collected from some plants for 22 weeks. More than 3,000 sporangia/leaf/week were collected over the first 3 weeks but levels declined to <100 sporangia/leaf/week after 7 weeks. We also examined the impact of drying on P. ramorum sporangia production. Diseased, detached leaves were maintained in humidity chambers (100, 96...
April 17, 2018: Phytopathology
Doriane Camille Nyonseu Nzebang, Marie Ide Ngaha Njila, Emma Fortune Bend, Pierre Claver Oundoum Oundoum, Brice Landry Koloko, Calvin Bogning Zangueu, Philippe Belle Ekedi, Modeste Sameza, Dieudonné Massoma Lembè
This study was designed to investigate the acute and subacute toxicity of the aqueous extract from colocasia esculenta (CE) leaves infected by Phytophthora colocsiae (PC) in rats. Toxicity of the aqueous extract was evaluated in both male and female wistar rats after a single administration (Acute model) and during 21 days (subacute model). Acute administration of the extract up to a dose 4000 mg/kg did not induce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality of any rat tested. Therefore, LD50 was estimated to be more than 4000 mg/kg...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yang Wang, Wenwu Ye, Yuanchao Wang
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in oomycete plant pathogens, which cause devastating damage to the economy and ecosystems. We used strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate a computational pipeline to identify lncRNAs in Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen. In total, 940 lncRNAs with 1,010 isoforms were identified from RNA-seq data obtained from four representative stages of P...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zhaoqian Fan, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora capsici Leonian, and Fusarium solani are important plant pathogenic fungi which can cause great crop losses worldwide, but their control methods are limited. It is necessary to develop efficient and green fungicides from abundant marine resources. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible marine polysaccharide which has prospective applications in agriculture. In this paper, to increase the antifungal activity of chitosan for application, novel water-soluble functional chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting polyaminoethyl and diethoxyphosphoryl groups in accordance with a strategy of improving protonation potential...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
A novel type of water soluble chitosan derivatives (TQCSPX) were synthesized including 3-aminopyridine (TQCSP1) and 3-Amino-4-methylpyridine (TQCSP2). The theoretical structures of TQCSPX were calculated by Gaussian 09 and confirmed by FT-IR,1 H NMR,13 C NMR, elemental analysis and XRD. The antifungal properties of TQCSPX against Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici), Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Fusarium solani (F. solani) were evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Clemens L Weiß, Marina Pais, Liliana M Cano, Sophien Kamoun, Hernán A Burbano
BACKGROUND: Intraspecific variation in ploidy occurs in a wide range of species including pathogenic and nonpathogenic eukaryotes such as yeasts and oomycetes. Ploidy can be inferred indirectly - without measuring DNA content - from experiments using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We present nQuire, a statistical framework that distinguishes between diploids, triploids and tetraploids using NGS. The command-line tool models the distribution of base frequencies at variable sites using a Gaussian Mixture Model, and uses maximum likelihood to select the most plausible ploidy model...
April 4, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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