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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220439/effectoromics-based-identification-of-cell-surface-receptors-in-potato
#1
Emmanouil Domazakis, Xiao Lin, Carolina Aguilera-Galvez, Doret Wouters, Gerard Bijsterbosch, Pieter J Wolters, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
In modern resistance breeding, effectors have emerged as tools for accelerating and improving the identification of immune receptors. Effector-assisted breeding was pioneered for identifying resistance genes (R genes) against Phytophthora infestans in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here we show that effectoromics approaches are also well suitable for identifying pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize apoplastic effectors. To detect genotypes that recognize apoplastic proteins of P. infestans, routine agroinfiltration and potato virus X (PVX) agroinfection methods can be applied...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220433/small-rna-and-mrna-profiling-of-arabidopsis-in-response-to-phytophthora-infection-and-pamp-treatment
#2
Yingnan Hou, Wenbo Ma
Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs) regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Well known for their roles in development, smRNAs have emerged as important regulators of plant immunity. Upon pathogen perception, accumulation of specific smRNAs are found to be altered, presumably as a host defense response. Therefore, identification of differentially accumulated smRNAs and their target genes would provide important insight into the regulation mechanism of immune responses. Here, we describe the detailed experimental procedure using Illumina sequencing to analyze the expression profiles of smRNAs and mRNAs in Arabidopsis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218268/rapid-and-sensitive-diagnoses-of-dry-root-rot-pathogen-of-chickpea-rhizoctonia-bataticola-taub-butler-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#3
Raju Ghosh, Avijit Tarafdar, Mamta Sharma
Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216607/the-cell-death-triggered-by-the-nuclear-localized-rxlr-effector-pitg_22798-from-phytophthora-infestans-is-suppressed-by-the-effector-avr3b
#4
Hongyang Wang, Yajuan Ren, Jing Zhou, Juan Du, Juan Hou, Rui Jiang, Haixia Wang, Zhendong Tian, Conghua Xie
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, potentially secrete many RxLR effector proteins into plant cells to modulate plant immune responses and promote colonization. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these RxLR effectors suppress plant immune responses are largely unknown. Here we describe an RxLR effector PITG_22798 (Gene accession: XM_002998349) that was upregulated during early infection of potato by P. infestans. By employment of agroinfiltration, we observed that PITG_22798 triggers cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213898/nuclear-localization-of-a-putative-phytophthora-sojae-bzip1-transcription-factor-is-mediated-by-multiple-targeting-motifs
#5
Yufeng Fang, Brett M Tyler
Oomycetes are fungal-like eukaryotic microbes in the kingdom Stramenopila. We recently found that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses nuclear localization signals (NLSs) for translocation of proteins into the nucleus that differ from conventional well-characterized NLSs from mammals and yeast. Here we have characterized in depth the nuclear localization signals of a P. sojae basic leucine zipper transcription factor, PsbZIP1. Nuclear localization of PsbZIP1 was determined by a central conserved region overlapping the DNA binding domain...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210240/distinctive-nuclear-localization-signals-in-the-oomycete-phytophthora-sojae
#6
Yufeng Fang, Hyo Sang Jang, Gregory W Watson, Dulani P Wellappili, Brett M Tyler
To date, nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that target proteins to nuclei in oomycetes have not been defined, but have been assumed to be the same as in higher eukaryotes. Here, we use the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae as a model to investigate these sequences in oomycetes. By establishing a reliable in vivo NLS assay based on confocal microscopy, we found that many canonical monopartite and bipartite classical NLSs (cNLSs) mediated nuclear import poorly in P. sojae. We found that efficient localization of P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208159/two-previously-unknown-phytophthora-species-associated-with-brown-rot-of-pomelo-citrus-grandis-fruits-in-vietnam
#7
Ivana Puglisi, Alessandro De Patrizio, Leonardo Schena, Thomas Jung, Maria Evoli, Antonella Pane, Nguyen Van Hoa, Mai Van Tri, Sandra Wright, Mauritz Ramstedt, Christer Olsson, Roberto Faedda, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Santa Olga Cacciola
Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197856/determination-of-substrate-preferences-for-desaturases-and-elongases-for-production-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-from-oleic-acid-in-engineered-canola
#8
Jenny Lindberg Yilmaz, Ze Long Lim, Mirela Beganovic, Steven Breazeale, Carl Andre, Sten Stymne, Patricia Vrinten, Toralf Senger
Production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plant seed oils has been pursued to improve availability of these omega-3 fatty acids that provide important human health benefits. Canola (Brassica napus), through the introduction of 10 enzymes, can convert oleic acid (OLA) into EPA and ultimately DHA through a pathway consisting of two elongation and five desaturation steps. Herein we present an assessment of the substrate specificity of the seven desaturases and three elongases that were introduced into canola by expressing individual proteins in yeast...
February 14, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195475/metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-curvularia-sp-m12-act-as-motility-inhibitors-against-phytophthora-capsici-zoospores
#9
Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol, Jannatul Farthouse, Mohammad Tofazzal Islam, Anja Schüffler, Hartmut Laatsch
The endophytic fungus Curvularia sp., strain M12, was isolated from a leaf of the medicinal plant Murraya koenigii and cultured on rice medium followed by chemical screening of the culture extract. Chromatographic analysis led to the isolation of four new compounds, murranofuran A (1), murranolide A (2), murranopyrone (3a), and murranoic acid A (4a), along with six known metabolites, N-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)acetamide (5), curvularin (6), (S)-dehydrocurvularin (7), pyrenolide A (8), modiolide A (9), and 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylisocoumarin (10)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186564/phytophthora-megakarya-and-p-palmivora-closely-related-causal-agents-of-cacao-black-pod-rot-underwent-increases-in-genome-sizes-and-gene-numbers-by-different-mechanisms
#10
Shahin S Ali, Jonathan Shao, David J Lary, Brent Kronmiller, Danyu Shen, Mary D Strem, Ishmael Amoako-Attah, Andrew Yaw Akrofi, B A Didier Begoude, G Martijn Ten Hoopen, Klotioloma Coulibaly, Boubacar Ismaël Kebe, Rachel L Melnick, Mark J Guiltinan, Brett M Tyler, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Bryan A Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174578/extracellular-alkalinization-as-a-defense-response-in-potato-cells
#11
Natalia Moroz, Karen R Fritch, Matthew J Marcec, Diwaker Tripathi, Andrei Smertenko, Kiwamu Tanaka
A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168927/genotypic-diversity-of-phytophthora-cinnamomi-and-p-plurivora-in-maryland-s-nurseries-and-mid-atlantic-forests
#12
Justine Beaulieu, Blain B Ford, Yilmaz Balci
Genetic diversity of two Phytophthora species, P. cinnamomi (102 isolates) and P. plurivora (186), commonly encountered in Maryland nurseries and forests in the Mid-Atlantic United States was characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Expected heterozygosity and other indices suggested a lower level of diversity among P. cinnamomi than P. plurivora. Hierarchical clustering showed P. cinnamomi isolates separated into four clusters, and two of the largest clusters were closely related, containing 80% of the isolates...
February 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167883/enhancement-of-seed-dehiscence-by-seed-treatment-with-talaromyces-flavus-gg01-and-gg04-in-ginseng-panax-ginseng
#13
Min-Jeong Kim, Chang-Ki Shim, Yong-Ki Kim, Sung-Jun Hong, Jong-Ho Park, Eun-Jung Han, Seok-Cheol Kim
Seed dehiscence of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five Talaromyces flavus isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia nivalis, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora capsici...
February 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166383/efficient-genome-editing-in-the-oomycete-phytophthora-sojae-using-crispr-cas9
#14
Yufeng Fang, Linkai Cui, Biao Gu, Felipe Arredondo, Brett M Tyler
Phytophthora is a filamentous fungus-like microorganism, but belongs to the oomycetes, in the kingdom Stramenopila. Phytophthora species are notorious as plant destroyers, causing multibillion-dollar damage to agriculture and natural ecosystems worldwide annually. For a long time, genome editing has been unattainable in oomycetes, because of their extremely low rate of homologous recombination. The recent implementation of the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system in the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae, an experimental model for oomycetes, has opened up a powerful new research capability for the oomycete community...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160617/reinforcing-plant-evolutionary-genomics-using-ancient-dna
#15
REVIEW
Rafal M Gutaker, Hernán A Burbano
Improved understanding of ancient DNA (aDNA) biochemical properties coupled with application of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods enabled sequencing and authenticating genomes of historical samples. This advancement ignited a revolution in plant evolutionary genomics by allowing direct observations of past molecular diversity. Analyses of genomes sequenced from temporally distributed samples of Gossypium sp., Phytophthora infestans and Arabidopsis thaliana improved our understanding of the evolutionary rates and time scales at which genome remodeling takes place...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152045/comparative-analysis-of-sterol-acquisition-in-the-oomycetes-saprolegnia-parasitica-and-phytophthora-infestans
#16
Paul Dahlin, Vaibhav Srivastava, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
The oomycete class includes pathogens of animals and plants which are responsible for some of the most significant global losses in agriculture and aquaculture. There is a need to replace traditional chemical means of controlling oomycete growth with more targeted approaches, and the inhibition of sterol synthesis is one promising area. To better direct these efforts, we have studied sterol acquisition in two model organisms: the sterol-autotrophic Saprolegnia parasitica, and the sterol-heterotrophic Phytophthora infestans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145468/the-srnaome-mining-revealed-existence-of-unique-signature-small-rnas-derived-from-5-8srrna-from-piper-nigrum-and-other-plant-lineages
#17
Srinivasan Asha, E V Soniya
Small RNAs derived from ribosomal RNAs (srRNAs) are rarely explored in the high-throughput data of plant systems. Here, we analyzed srRNAs from the deep-sequenced small RNA libraries of Piper nigrum, a unique magnoliid plant. The 5' end of the putative long form of 5.8S rRNA (5.8SLrRNA) was identified as the site for biogenesis of highly abundant srRNAs that are unique among the Piperaceae family of plants. A subsequent comparative analysis of the ninety-seven sRNAomes of diverse plants successfully uncovered the abundant existence and precise cleavage of unique rRF signature small RNAs upstream of a novel 5' consensus sequence of the 5...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134594/expression-of-the-potato-late-blight-resistance-gene-rpi-phu1-and-phytophthora-infestans-effectors-in-the-compatible-and-incompatible-interactions-in-potato
#18
Emil Stefańczyk, Sylwester Sobkowiak, Marta Brylińska, Jadwiga Śliwka
This study describes late blight resistance of potato breeding lines resulting from crosses between cv. Sárpo Mira and Rpi-phu1 gene donors. The progeny is investigated for the presence of Rpi-Smira1 and Rpi-phu1 resistance genes. Interestingly, in detached leaflet tests, plants with both R genes withstand the infection of the Phytophthora infestans isolate virulent to each gene separately, either due to interaction of these genes or presence of additional resistance loci. The interaction was studied further in three chosen breeding lines on the transcriptional level...
January 30, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134441/distinct-regions-of-the-phytophthora-essential-effector-avh238-determine-its-function-in-cell-death-activation-and-plant-immunity-suppression
#19
Bo Yang, Qunqing Wang, Maofeng Jing, Baodian Guo, Jiawei Wu, Haonan Wang, Yang Wang, Long Lin, Yan Wang, Wenwu Ye, Suomeng Dong, Yuanchao Wang
Phytophthora pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate host innate immunity, thus facilitating infection. Among the RXLR effectors highly induced during Phytophthora sojae infection, Avh238 not only contributes to pathogen virulence but also triggers plant cell death. However, the detailed molecular basis of Avh238 functions remains largely unknown. We mapped the regions responsible for Avh238 functions in pathogen virulence and plant cell death induction using a strategy that combines investigation of natural variation and large-scale mutagenesis assays...
January 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133579/the-wild-tomato-species-solanum-chilense-shows-variation-in-pathogen-resistance-between-geographically-distinct-populations
#20
Remco Stam, Daniela Scheikl, Aurélien Tellier
Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense...
2017: PeerJ
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