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cocoa physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618858/stress-and-food-deprivation-linking-physiological-state-to-migration-success-in-a-teleost-fish
#1
Jonathan D Midwood, Martin H Larsen, Kim Aarestrup, Steven J Cooke
Food deprivation is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how food deprivation interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial migration, whereby a portion of the population smoltifies and migrates to the ocean, and the rest remain in their natal stream. This distinct, natural dichotomy of life-history strategies provides an excellent opportunity to explore the roles of energetic state (as affected by food deprivation) and activation of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322722/the-environmental-and-intrinsic-yeast-diversity-of-cuban-cocoa-bean-heap-fermentations
#2
Yurelkys Fernández Maura, Tom Balzarini, Pablo Clapé Borges, Pierre Evrard, Luc De Vuyst, H-M Daniel
The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968378/beneficial-effects-of-cocoa-coffee-green-tea-and-garcinia-complex-supplement-on-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#3
Chi-Chang Huang, Yu-Tang Tung, Wen-Ching Huang, Yi-Ming Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Mei-Chich Hsu
BACKGROUND: Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. METHODS: To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614018/from-sodium-intake-restriction-to-nitrate-supplementation-different-measures-with-converging-mechanistic-pathways
#4
P Clifton
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is at the centre of endothelial physiology producing nitric oxide which dilates blood vessels, inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduces adhesion molecule production. The laminar shear stress is a common test used usually as the flow mediated dilatation test (FMD) which is sensitive to saturated fat, sodium and potassium although with the latter ion it is possible potassium has direct effects on ion channels in the smooth muscle cell as well as the endothelial cell...
December 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425801/molecular-identification-and-physiological-characterization-of-yeasts-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-acetic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-heap-and-box-cocoa-bean-fermentations-in-west-africa
#5
Simonetta Visintin, Valentina Alessandria, Antonio Valente, Paola Dolci, Luca Cocolin
Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S...
January 4, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26126077/cocoa-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-signaling-cardiometabolic-protection
#6
REVIEW
Davide Grassi, Giovambattista Desideri, Francesca Mai, Letizia Martella, Martina De Feo, Daniele Soddu, Emanuela Fellini, Mariangela Veneri, Cosimo A Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830226/the-activity-of-tccys4-modified-by-variations-in-ph-and-temperature-can-affect-symptoms-of-witches-broom-disease-of-cocoa-caused-by-the-fungus-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#7
Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas, Cristiane Ferreira Souza, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Wanius Garcia, Alex Alan Furtado de Almeida, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711140/factors-affecting-the-absorption-metabolism-and-excretion-of-cocoa-flavanols-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Tania Cifuentes-Gomez, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Isidro Gonzalez-Salvador, María Elena Alañon, Jeremy P E Spencer
Cocoa is rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, the cardiovascular health benefits of which have been extensively reported. The appearance of flavanol metabolites in the systemic circulation after flavanol-rich food consumption is likely to mediate the physiological effects on the vascular system, and these levels are influenced by numerous factors, including food matrix, processing, intake, age, gender, or genetic polymorphisms, among others. This review will focus on our current understanding of factors affecting the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in humans...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25566818/identification-of-predominant-yeasts-associated-with-artisan-mexican-cocoa-fermentations-using-culture-dependent-and-culture-independent-approaches
#9
A Arana-Sánchez, L E Segura-García, M Kirchmayr, I Orozco-Ávila, E Lugo-Cervantes, A Gschaedler-Mathis
The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site...
February 2015: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551798/flavan-3-ols-theobromine-and-the-effects-of-cocoa-and-chocolate-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#10
REVIEW
Lindsey M Berends, Vera van der Velpen, Aedin Cassidy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is growing interest surrounding the potential health benefits of cocoa and chocolate, the relative contribution of bioactive constituents for these effects remains unclear. This review summarizes the recent research on the cardiometabolic effects of cocoa and chocolate with a focus on two key constituents: flavan-3-ols and theobromine. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses suggest beneficial cardiometabolic effects of chocolate following short-term intake, including improvements in flow-mediated dilatation, blood pressure, lipoprotein levels and biomarkers of insulin resistance...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25546248/potent-inhibition-of-vegfr-2-activation-by-tight-binding-of-green-tea-epigallocatechin-gallate-and-apple-procyanidins-to-vegf-relevance-to-angiogenesis
#11
Christina W A Moyle, Ana B Cerezo, Mark S Winterbone, Wendy J Hollands, Yuri Alexeev, Paul W Needs, Paul A Kroon
SCOPE: Excessive concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drive angiogenesis and cause complications such as increased growth of tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the potent inhibition of VEGF signalling by polyphenols. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show that the polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and procyanidin oligomers from apples potently inhibit VEGF-induced VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) signalling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by directly interacting with VEGF...
March 2015: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25178739/redox-pioneer-professor-helmut-sies
#12
Dean P Jones, Rafael Radi
Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972)...
December 20, 2014: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24954290/-effects-of-chocolate-consumption-on-physiology-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
François Paillard
Cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavonols. Flavonols exert a favourable effect on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase (NOS), the increased availability of l-arginine (NO donor) and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect via the decreased platelet aggregation, the decreased lipid oxidation and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a modest decrease of blood pressure and a favourable trend towards a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes...
July 2014: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24734311/chocolate-guilty-pleasure-or-healthy-supplement
#14
REVIEW
Laura S Latham, Zeb K Hensen, Deborah S Minor
Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24559192/green-tea-cocoa-and-red-wine-polyphenols-moderately-modulate-intestinal-inflammation-and-do-not-increase-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-production
#15
Nathalie Nicod, Gemma Chiva-Blanch, Elena Giordano, Alberto Dávalos, Robert S Parker, Francesco Visioli
Although polyphenols are often merely perceived as antioxidants, their biological activities are manifold and include anti-inflammatory actions. A new area of research on polyphenols and health concerns their putative role in cholesterol metabolism, in particular, their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c)-raising potential. Indeed, some human studies showed that administration of polyphenol-rich foods such as cocoa, green tea, and extra virgin olive oil modulate and increase HDL-c concentrations. This study assessed the effects of polyphenols on intestinal inflammation, using the physiologically relevant Caco-2 Transwell model and using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger inflammation...
March 12, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24231101/serum-metabolites-of-proanthocyanidin-administered-rats-decrease-lipid-synthesis-in-hepg2-cells
#16
Ligia Guerrero, Maria Margalef, Zara Pons, Mar Quiñones, Lluis Arola, Anna Arola-Arnal, Begoña Muguerza
The regular consumption of flavonoids has been associated with reduced mortality and a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The proanthocyanidins found in plasma are very different from the original flavonoids in food sources. The use of physiologically appropriate conjugates of proanthocyanidins is essential for the in vitro analysis of flavonoid bioactivity. In this study, the effect of different proanthocyanidin-rich extracts, which were obtained from cocoa (CCX), French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol extract, PYC) and grape seed (GSPE), on lipid homeostasis was evaluated...
December 2013: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24113767/dietary-fat-sources-differentially-modulate-intestinal-barrier-and-hepatic-inflammation-in-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-rats
#17
Wei Zhong, Qiong Li, Guoxiang Xie, Xiuhua Sun, Xiaobing Tan, Xinguo Sun, Wei Jia, Zhanxiang Zhou
Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids)...
December 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24056467/dynamics-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-transcriptome-during-bread-dough-fermentation
#18
Elham Aslankoohi, Bo Zhu, Mohammad Naser Rezaei, Karin Voordeckers, Dries De Maeyer, Kathleen Marchal, Emmie Dornez, Christophe M Courtin, Kevin J Verstrepen
The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns...
December 2013: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24033291/impact-of-polyphenols-and-polyphenol-rich-dietary-sources-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#19
REVIEW
Usune Etxeberria, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, Fermín I Milagro, Leixuri Aguirre, J Alfredo Martínez, María P Portillo
Gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and metabolism. Indeed, the relevance of a well-balanced gut microbiota composition to an individual's health status is essential for the person's well-being. Currently, investigations are focused on analyzing the effects of pre- and probiotics as new therapeutic tools to counteract the disruption of intestinal bacterial balance occurring in several diseases. Polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial health effects. However, although specific attention has been paid in recent years to the function of this "biological entity" in the metabolism of polyphenols, less is known about the modulatory capacity of these bioactive compounds on gut microbiota composition...
October 9, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23915496/effects-of-different-tannin-rich-extracts-and-rapeseed-tannin-monomers-on-methane-formation-and-microbial-protein-synthesis-in-vitro
#20
G Wischer, J Boguhn, H Steingaß, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
Tannins, polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to complex with proteins of feed and rumen bacteria. This group of substances has the potential to reduce methane production either with or without negative effects on digestibility and microbial yield. In the first step of this study, 10 tannin-rich extracts from chestnut, mimosa, myrabolan, quebracho, sumach, tara, valonea, oak, cocoa and grape seed, and four rapeseed tannin monomers (pelargonidin, catechin, cyanidin and sinapinic acid) were used in a series of in vitro trials using the Hohenheim gas test, with grass silage as substrate...
November 2013: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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