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cocoa physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811749/acute-cocoa-flavanols-intake-has-minimal-effects-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-production-in-healthy-cyclists-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Danusa Dias Soares, Amandine Descat, Marie-José Drittij-Reijnders, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Wilhelm Stahl, Elsa Heyman, Romain Meeusen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa flavanols (CF) can stimulate vasodilation by improved nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. This study aimed to examine whether acute CF intake can affect exercise-induced changes in antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, inflammation and NO production, as well as exercise performance and recovery in well-trained cyclists. METHODS: Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, VO2max: 30 ± 3 years, 63...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#2
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560212/enhancing-human-cognition-with-cocoa-flavonoids
#3
REVIEW
Valentina Socci, Daniela Tempesta, Giovambattista Desideri, Luigi De Gennaro, Michele Ferrara
Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276197/phenyl-%C3%AE-valerolactones-flavan-3-ol-colonic-metabolites-protect-brown-adipocytes-from-oxidative-stress-without-affecting-their-differentiation-or-function
#4
Laura Mele, Stefania Carobbio, Nicoletta Brindani, Claudio Curti, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca, Guillaume Bidault, Pedro Mena, Ilaria Zanotti, Michele Vacca, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: Consumption of products rich in flavan-3-ols, such as tea and cocoa, has been associated with decreased obesity, partially dependent on their capacity to enhance energy expenditure. Despite these phenolics having been reported to increase the thermogenic program in brown and white adipose tissue, flavan-3-ols are vastly metabolised in vivo to phenyl-γ-valerolactones. Therefore, we hypothesize that phenyl-γ-valerolactones may directly stimulate the differentiation and the activation of brown adipocytes...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260703/streptomyces-cameroonensis-sp-nov-a-geldanamycin-producer-that-promotes-theobroma-cacao-growth
#5
Thaddée Boudjeko, Romaric Armel Mouafo Tchinda, Mina Zitouni, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou Nana, Sylvain Lerat, Carole Beaulieu
The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4(T), was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4(T) exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4(T) also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity...
March 31, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208630/cocoa-and-grape-seed-byproducts-as-a-source-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-proanthocyanidins
#6
María De La Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Jorge Joven, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185867/an-experimental-evaluation-of-the-role-of-the-stress-axis-in-mediating-predator-prey-interactions-in-wild-marine-fish
#7
Michael J Lawrence, Erika J Eliason, Jacob W Brownscombe, Kathleen M Gilmour, John W Mandelman, Steven J Cooke
The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, through corticosteroid secretion, is an integral mechanism regulating internal homeostasis when vertebrates are faced with a stressor. However, continued HPI-axis stimulation can produce homeostatic overload, where corticosteroids are detrimental to organismal function. This overload condition may play an important role in mediating predator-prey interactions, because chronically/previously stressed animals may have higher rates of predator-induced mortality...
May 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142243/neuroprotective-effects-of-bioavailable-polyphenol-derived-metabolites-against-oxidative-stress-induced-cytotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#8
Antonio González-Sarrías, María Ángeles Núñez-Sánchez, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Juan Carlos Espín
Oxidative stress is involved in cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary polyphenols can exert health benefits, but their direct effects on neuronal cells are debatable because most phenolics are metabolized and do not reach the brain as they occur in the dietary sources. Herein, we evaluate the effects of a panel of bioavailable polyphenols and derived metabolites at physiologically relevant conditions against H2O2-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Among the 19 metabolites tested, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and urolithins prevented neuronal apoptosis via attenuation of ROS levels, increased REDOX activity, and decreased oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by preventing the caspase-3 activation via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in SH-SY5Y cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035345/high-flavonoid-intake-induces-cognitive-improvements-linked-to-changes-in-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-two-randomised-controlled-trials
#9
Sara Neshatdoust, Caroline Saunders, Sophie M Castle, David Vauzour, Claire Williams, Laurie Butler, Julie A Lovegrove, Jeremy P E Spencer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have indicated the beneficial impact of dietary flavonoid intake on human cognitive performance. Although the mechanisms that mediate such improvements are currently unclear, animal and human trial data suggest that changes in neurotrophin expression, and related signalling apparatus, may be involved. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and changes in human cognitive performance following flavonoid intake. METHODS: The relationship between serum levels of BDNF and age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and cognition at baseline, and following flavonoid intake, was investigated in two distinct randomised, controlled clinical trials...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916427/tea-cocoa-coffee-and-affective-disorders-vicious-or-virtuous-cycle
#10
REVIEW
Tatiana García-Blanco, Alberto Dávalos, Francesco Visioli
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618858/stress-and-food-deprivation-linking-physiological-state-to-migration-success-in-a-teleost-fish
#11
Jonathan D Midwood, Martin H Larsen, Kim Aarestrup, Steven J Cooke
Food deprivation is a naturally occurring stressor that is thought to influence the ultimate life-history strategy of individuals. Little is known about how food deprivation interacts with other stressors to influence migration success. European populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) exhibit partial migration, whereby a portion of the population smoltifies and migrates to the ocean, and the rest remain in their natal stream. This distinct, natural dichotomy of life-history strategies provides an excellent opportunity to explore the roles of energetic state (as affected by food deprivation) and activation of the glucocorticoid stress response in determining life-history strategy and survival of a migratory species...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322722/the-environmental-and-intrinsic-yeast-diversity-of-cuban-cocoa-bean-heap-fermentations
#12
Yurelkys Fernández Maura, Tom Balzarini, Pablo Clapé Borges, Pierre Evrard, Luc De Vuyst, H-M Daniel
The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968378/beneficial-effects-of-cocoa-coffee-green-tea-and-garcinia-complex-supplement-on-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats
#13
Chi-Chang Huang, Yu-Tang Tung, Wen-Ching Huang, Yi-Ming Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Mei-Chich Hsu
BACKGROUND: Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. METHODS: To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614018/from-sodium-intake-restriction-to-nitrate-supplementation-different-measures-with-converging-mechanistic-pathways
#14
P Clifton
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is at the centre of endothelial physiology producing nitric oxide which dilates blood vessels, inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduces adhesion molecule production. The laminar shear stress is a common test used usually as the flow mediated dilatation test (FMD) which is sensitive to saturated fat, sodium and potassium although with the latter ion it is possible potassium has direct effects on ion channels in the smooth muscle cell as well as the endothelial cell...
December 2015: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425801/molecular-identification-and-physiological-characterization-of-yeasts-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-acetic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-heap-and-box-cocoa-bean-fermentations-in-west-africa
#15
Simonetta Visintin, Valentina Alessandria, Antonio Valente, Paola Dolci, Luca Cocolin
Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S...
January 4, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26126077/cocoa-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-signaling-cardiometabolic-protection
#16
REVIEW
Davide Grassi, Giovambattista Desideri, Francesca Mai, Letizia Martella, Martina De Feo, Daniele Soddu, Emanuela Fellini, Mariangela Veneri, Cosimo A Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25830226/the-activity-of-tccys4-modified-by-variations-in-ph-and-temperature-can-affect-symptoms-of-witches-broom-disease-of-cocoa-caused-by-the-fungus-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#17
Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas, Cristiane Ferreira Souza, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Wanius Garcia, Alex Alan Furtado de Almeida, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711140/factors-affecting-the-absorption-metabolism-and-excretion-of-cocoa-flavanols-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Tania Cifuentes-Gomez, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Isidro Gonzalez-Salvador, María Elena Alañon, Jeremy P E Spencer
Cocoa is rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, the cardiovascular health benefits of which have been extensively reported. The appearance of flavanol metabolites in the systemic circulation after flavanol-rich food consumption is likely to mediate the physiological effects on the vascular system, and these levels are influenced by numerous factors, including food matrix, processing, intake, age, gender, or genetic polymorphisms, among others. This review will focus on our current understanding of factors affecting the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in humans...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25566818/identification-of-predominant-yeasts-associated-with-artisan-mexican-cocoa-fermentations-using-culture-dependent-and-culture-independent-approaches
#19
A Arana-Sánchez, L E Segura-García, M Kirchmayr, I Orozco-Ávila, E Lugo-Cervantes, A Gschaedler-Mathis
The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site...
February 2015: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551798/flavan-3-ols-theobromine-and-the-effects-of-cocoa-and-chocolate-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#20
REVIEW
Lindsey M Berends, Vera van der Velpen, Aedin Cassidy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is growing interest surrounding the potential health benefits of cocoa and chocolate, the relative contribution of bioactive constituents for these effects remains unclear. This review summarizes the recent research on the cardiometabolic effects of cocoa and chocolate with a focus on two key constituents: flavan-3-ols and theobromine. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses suggest beneficial cardiometabolic effects of chocolate following short-term intake, including improvements in flow-mediated dilatation, blood pressure, lipoprotein levels and biomarkers of insulin resistance...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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