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somatic embryogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#1
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#2
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors required for production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059165/conserved-role-of-ovo-in-germline-development-in-mouse-and-drosophila
#3
Makoto Hayashi, Yuko Shinozuka, Shuji Shigenobu, Masanao Sato, Michihiko Sugimoto, Seiji Ito, Kuniya Abe, Satoru Kobayashi
Ovo, which encodes a transcription factor with Zn-finger domains, is evolutionarily conserved among animals. In Drosophila, in addition to its zygotic function for egg production, maternal ovo activity is required in primordial germ cells (PGCs) for expression of germline genes such as vasa and nanos. In this study, we found that maternal Ovo accumulates in PGC nuclei during embryogenesis. In these cells, ovo serves a dual function: activation of genes expressed predominantly in PGCs, and conversely suppression of somatic genes...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003516/linking-maternal-and-somatic-5s-rrna-types-with-different-sequence-specific-non-ltr-retrotransposons
#4
Mauro D Locati, Johanna F B Pagano, Wim A Ensink, Marina van Olst, Selina van Leeuwen, Ulrike Nehrdich, Kongju Zhu, Herman P Spaink, Geneviève Girard, Han Rauwerda, Martijs J Jonker, Rob J Dekker, Timo M Breit
5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue, identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions...
December 21, 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002611/cryopreservation-of-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-callus-and-subsequent-plant-regeneration
#5
D Sun, Y-F Yu, H-Y Qin, P-L Xu, Y Zhao, Y-X Liu, Z-X Wang, S-T Fan, Y-M Yang, J Ai
Cryopreservation has been proven significance as a technique for promising the long-term conservation of plant germplasms. This study aimed to establish a cryopreservation protocol for calli of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, and to explore the effects of different process parameters on callus viability. Effects of desiccation duration, cryoprotectants and cryopreservation methods, thawing temperature, and post-culture conditions on the viability of cryopreserved calli were assessed. Among different cryoprotectants and freezing procedures, the highest survival was recorded when the water content of callus after 30 min desiccation was 57...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969001/glutathione-and-abscisic-acid-supplementation-influences-somatic-embryo-maturation-and-hormone-endogenous-levels-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-podocarpus-lambertii-klotzsch-ex-endl
#6
Hugo Pacheco de Freitas Fraga, Leila do Nascimento Vieira, Catarina Corrêa Puttkammer, Henrique Pessoa Dos Santos, Julio de Andrade Garighan, Miguel Pedro Guerra
Here we propose a protocol for embryogenic cultures induction, proliferation and maturation for the Brazilian conifer Podocarpus lambertii, and investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and glutathione (GSH) supplementation on the maturation phase. ABA, zeatin (Z) and salicylic acid (SA) endogenous levels were quantified. Number of somatic embryos obtained in ABA-supplemented treatment was significant higher than in ABA-free treatment, showing the relevance of ABA supplementation during somatic embryos maturation...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965401/bovine-pirna-like-rnas-are-associated-with-both-mobile-elements-and-mrnas
#7
Stewart J Russell, Mehool Patel, Graham Gilchrist, Leanne Stalker, Daniel Gillis, David Rosenkranz, Jonathan LaMarre
PIWI proteins and their associated piRNAs have been the focus of intensive research for the past decade, and their participation in the maintenance of genomic integrity during spermatogenesis has been well established. Recent studies have suggested important roles for the PIWI/piRNA system outside of gametogenesis, based on the presence of piRNAs and PIWI proteins in several somatic tissues, cancers, and the early embryo. Here we investigated the small-RNA complement present in bovine gonads, gametes, and embryos through next generation sequencing...
December 13, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920157/two-serk-receptor-like-kinases-interact-with-ems1-to-control-anther-cell-fate-determination
#8
Zhiyong Li, Yao Wang, Jian Huang, Nagib Ahsan, Gabriel Biener, Joel Paprocki, Jay J Thelen, Valerica Raicu, Dazhong Zhao
Cell signaling pathways mediated by leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are essential for plant growth, development, and defense. The EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) LRR-RLK and its small protein ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) play a fundamental role in somatic and reproductive cell differentiation during early anther development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, it is unclear whether other cell surface molecules serve as coregulators of EMS1. Here, we show that SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1) and SERK2 LRR-RLKs act redundantly as coregulatory and physical partners of EMS1...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911846/dna-methylome-of-the-20-gigabase-norway-spruce-genome
#9
Israel Ausin, Suhua Feng, Chaowei Yu, Wanlu Liu, Hsuan Yu Kuo, Elise L Jacobsen, Jixian Zhai, Javier Gallego-Bartolome, Lin Wang, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Nathaniel R Street, Steven E Jacobsen, Haifeng Wang
DNA methylation plays important roles in many biological processes, such as silencing of transposable elements, imprinting, and regulating gene expression. Many studies of DNA methylation have shown its essential roles in angiosperms (flowering plants). However, few studies have examined the roles and patterns of DNA methylation in gymnosperms. Here, we present genome-wide high coverage single-base resolution methylation maps of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from both needles and somatic embryogenesis culture cells via whole genome bisulfite sequencing...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909790/strigolactones-affect-tomato-hormone-profile-and-somatic-embryogenesis
#10
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898696/regulation-of-gonad-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-btb-family-transcription-factors
#11
Diane Silva, Kenneth W Olsen, Magdalena N Bednarz, Andrew Droste, Christopher P Lenkeit, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Emily R Temple-Wood, Jennifer C Jemc
During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893856/spatial-distribution-of-selected-chemical-cell-wall-components-in-the-embryogenic-callus-of-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Alexander Betekhtin, Magdalena Rojek, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Robert Gawecki, Jagna Karcz, Ewa Kurczynska, Robert Hasterok
Brachypodium distachyon L. Beauv. (Brachypodium) is a species that has become an excellent model system for gaining a better understanding of various areas of grass biology and improving plant breeding. Although there are some studies of an in vitro Brachypodium culture including somatic embryogenesis, detailed knowledge of the composition of the main cell wall components in the embryogenic callus in this species is missing. Therefore, using the immunocytochemical approach, we targeted 17 different antigens of which five were against the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), three were against extensins, six recognised pectic epitopes and two recognised hemicelluloses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879674/transcriptome-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-in-somatic-embryos-of-larix-leptolepis-subjected-to-hydrogen-treatment
#13
Yali Liu, Suying Han, Xiangming Ding, Xinmin Li, Lifeng Zhang, Wanfeng Li, Haiyan Xu, Zhexin Li, Liwang Qi
Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant that has been used extensively in clinical trials. It also acts as a bioactive molecule that can alleviate abiotic stress in plants. However, the biological effects of hydrogen in somatic embryos and the underlying molecular basis remain largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and physiological influence of exogenous H₂ treatment during somatic embryogenesis was characterized in Larix leptolepis Gordon. The results showed that exposure to hydrogen increased the proportions of active pro-embryogenic cells and normal somatic embryos...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875251/the-impact-of-transposable-elements-on-mammalian-development
#14
REVIEW
Jose L Garcia-Perez, Thomas J Widmann, Ian R Adams
Despite often being classified as selfish or junk DNA, transposable elements (TEs) are a group of abundant genetic sequences that have a significant impact on mammalian development and genome regulation. In recent years, our understanding of how pre-existing TEs affect genome architecture, gene regulatory networks and protein function during mammalian embryogenesis has dramatically expanded. In addition, the mobilization of active TEs in selected cell types has been shown to generate genetic variation during development and in fully differentiated tissues...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857452/embryonic-development-and-a-quantitative-model-of-programmed-dna-elimination-in-mesocyclops-edax-s-a-forbes-1891-copepoda-cyclopoida
#15
Michelle K Clower, Ashton S Holub, Rebecca T Smith, Grace A Wyngaard
The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination...
2016: Journal of Crustacean Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835015/setting-the-clock-for-fail-safe-early-embryogenesis
#16
Rolf Fickentscher, Philipp Struntz, Matthias Weiss
The embryogenesis of the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a remarkably robust self-organization phenomenon. Cell migration trajectories in the early embryo, for example, are well explained by mechanical cues that push cells into positions where they experience the least repulsive forces. Yet, how this mechanically guided progress in development is properly timed has remained elusive so far. Here, we show that cell volumes and division times are strongly anticorrelated during the early embryogenesis of C...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829356/alternative-evolution-of-a-spheroidal-colony-in-volvocine-algae-developmental-analysis-of-embryogenesis-in-astrephomene-volvocales-chlorophyta
#17
Shota Yamashita, Yoko Arakaki, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Akira Noga, Masafumi Hirono, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: Volvocine algae, which range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox with a germ-soma division of labor, are a model for the evolution of multicellularity. Within this group, the spheroidal colony might have evolved in two independent lineages: Volvocaceae and the goniacean Astrephomene. Astrephomene produces spheroidal colonies with posterior somatic cells. The feature that distinguishes Astrephomene from the volvocacean algae is lack of inversion during embryogenesis; the volvocacean embryo undergoes inversion after successive divisions to orient flagella toward the outside...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818605/the-potential-of-using-biotechnology-to-improve-cassava-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Alejandro Brand, Adriana Medina, Mónica Prías, Roosevelt Escobar, Juan Martinez, Paula Díaz, Camilo López, Willy M Roca, Joe Tohme
The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807644/differential-proteome-analysis-during-early-somatic-embryogenesis-in-musa-spp-aaa-cv-grand-naine
#19
Marimuthu Kumaravel, Subbaraya Uma, Suthanthiram Backiyarani, Marimuthu Somasundaram Saraswathi, Muthu Mayil Vaganan, Muthusamy Muthusamy, Kallu Purayil Sajith
Endogenous hormone secretion proteins along with stress and defense proteins play predominant role in banana embryogenesis. This study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism during transition from vegetative to embryogenic state. Banana (Musa spp.) is well known globally as a food fruit crop for millions. The requirement of quality planting material of banana is enormous. Although mass multiplication through tissue culture is in vogue, high-throughput techniques like somatic embryogenesis (SE) as a mass multiplication tool needs to be improved...
January 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803191/transcriptional-analysis-of-serk1-and-serk3-coreceptor-mutants
#20
G Wilma van Esse, Colette A Ten Hove, Francesco Guzzonato, H Peter van Esse, Mark Boekschoten, Lars Ridder, Jacques Vervoort, Sacco C de Vries
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are ligand-binding coreceptors that are able to combine with different ligand-perceiving receptors such as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2. Phenotypical analysis of serk single mutants is not straightforward because multiple pathways can be affected, while redundancy is observed for a single phenotype. For example, serk1serk3 double mutant roots are insensitive toward brassinosteroids but have a phenotype different from bri1 mutant roots...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
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