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somatic embryogenesis

Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Willy Antoni Abreu de Oliveira, Frederic Lluis
The technology to derive embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells from early embryonic stages and adult somatic cells, respectively, emerged as a powerful resource to enable the establishment of new in vitro models, which recapitulate early developmental processes and disease. Additionally, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an invaluable source of relevant differentiated cell types with immense potential for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapies. Pluripotent stem cells support self-renewal, potency and proliferation for extensive periods of culture in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Genes
Ira L Blitz
The creation of mutant lines by genome editing is accelerating genetic analysis in many organisms. CRISPR/Cas9 methods have been adapted for use in the African clawed frog, Xenopus, a longstanding model organism for biomedical research. Traditional breeding schemes for creating homozygous mutant lines with CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis have several time-consuming and laborious steps. To facilitate the creation of mutant embryos, particularly to overcome the obstacles associated with knocking out genes that are essential for embryogenesis, a new method called leapfrogging was developed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tahereh Keshvari, Abdollah Najaphy, Danial Kahrizi, Alireza Zebarjadi
Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) from Asteraceae family is a useful medicinal plant that prevents and cures diabetes, blood pressure, weight gain and tooth decay. Due to self-incompatibility in stevia, somatic embryo investigation for artificial seed production is valuable in this plant. In order to evaluate the callus induction characteristics in stevia, a factorial experiment was laid out based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors included ten hormone combinations and control, two kinds of media (MS and B5) and two types of explants (leaf and internode)...
February 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Saikat Gantait, Songul Gurel, Ekrem Gurel
The present study reports the role of auxin and its transport inhibitor during the establishment of an efficient and optimized protocol for the somatic embryogenesis in Digitalis trojana Ivan. Hypocotyl segments (5 mm long) were placed vertically in the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with three sets [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) alone or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) alone or IAA-TIBA combination] of formulations of plant growth regulators, to assess their differential influence on induction and proliferation of somatic embryos (SEs)...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Marco A Ramírez-Mosqueda, Lourdes G Iglesias-Andreu, Luis Sáenz, Iván Córdova
This work aimed to evaluate the embryogenic competence of different tissues from different stages (friable callus, bud-regenerating callus, and whole buds) of Vanilla planifolia, through the molecular detection of the somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (VpSERK) and knotted-like homeobox (VpKNOX1) genes. RNA was extracted with Trizol®, cDNA was obtained, and the studied transcripts were amplified. Using non-specific primers, VpSERK and VpSTM gene expression was detected in the three stages evaluated...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Taiza da Cunha Soares, Carliane Rebeca Coelho da Silva, Julita Maria Frota Chagas Carvalho, José Jaime Vasconcelos Cavalcanti, Liziane Maria de Lima, Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho, Liv Soares Severino, Roseane Cavalcanti Dos Santos
Substantial progress is being reported in the techniques for plant transformation, but successful regeneration of some genotypes remains a challenging step in the attempts to transform some recalcitrant species. GhSERK1 gene is involved on embryo formation, and its overexpression enhances the embryogenic competence. In this study we validate a short GhSERK1 probe in order to identify embryogenic cotton genotypes using RT-qPCR and blotting assays. Cotton genotypes with contrasting somatic embryogenic capacity were tested using in vitro procedures...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Mauro D Locati, Johanna F B Pagano, Farah Abdullah, Wim A Ensink, Marina van Olst, Selina van Leeuwen, Ulrike Nehrdich, Herman P Spaink, Han Rauwerda, Martijs J Jonker, Rob J Dekker, Timo Breit
rRNAs are non-coding RNAs present in all prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes there are four rRNAs: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, originating from a common precursor (45S), and 5S. We have recently discovered the existence of two distinct developmental types of rRNA: a maternal-type, present in eggs and a somatic-type, expressed in adult tissues. Lately, next-generation sequencing has allowed the discovery of new small-RNAs deriving from longer non-coding RNAs, including small-RNAs from rRNAs (srRNAs). Here, we systemically investigated srRNAs of maternal- or somatic-type 18S, 5...
February 9, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Jamile L D Cipriano, Ana Cláudia F Cruz, Karina C Mancini, Edilson R Schmildt, José Carlos Lopes, Wagner C Otoni, Rodrigo S Alexandre
The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Junghyun Ryu, Randall S Prather, Kiho Lee
Pigs are an important resource in agriculture and serve as a model for human diseases. Due to their physiological and anatomical similarities with humans, pigs can recapitulate symptoms of human diseases, making them a useful model in biomedicine. However, in the past pig models have not been widely used partially because of the difficulty in genetic modification. The lack of true embryonic stem cells in pigs forced researchers to utilize genetic modification in somatic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to generate genetically engineered (GE) pigs carrying site-specific modifications...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yixuan Wang, Chengchen Zhao, Zhenzhen Hou, Yuanyuan Yang, Yan Bi, Hong Wang, Yong Zhang, Shaorong Gao
Derivation of human naïve cells in the ground state of pluripotency provides promising avenues for developmental biology studies and therapeutic manipulations. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of human naïve pluripotency remain poorly understood. Using the human inducible reprogramming system together with the 5iLAF naïve induction strategy, integrative analysis of transcriptional and epigenetic dynamics across the transition from human fibroblasts to naïve iPSCs revealed ordered waves of gene network activation sharing signatures with those found during embryonic development from late embryogenesis to pre-implantation stages...
January 30, 2018: ELife
Yunxia He, Jinggeng Zhou, Libo Shan, Xiangzong Meng
Sessile plants employ a diverse array of plasma membrane-bound receptors to perceive endogenous and exogenous signals for regulation of plant growth, development and immunity. These cell surface receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that harbor different extracellular domains for perception of distinct ligands. Several RLK and RLP signaling pathways converge at the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), which function as shared co-receptors. A repertoire of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) associate with the receptor complexes to relay intracellular signaling...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Angelo Schuabb Heringer, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Vanildo Silveira
Somatic embryogenesis is a biotechnological approach mainly used for the clonal propagation of different plants worldwide. In somatic embryogenesis, embryos arise from somatic cells under appropriate culture conditions. This plasticity in plants is a demonstration of true cellular totipotency and is the best approach among the genetic transformation protocols used for plant regeneration. Despite the importance of somatic embryogenesis, knowledge regarding the control of the somatic embryogenesis process is limited...
January 25, 2018: Proteomics
Stéphane Dussert, Julien Serret, Aldecinei Bastos-Siqueira, Fabienne Morcillo, Eveline Déchamp, Valérie Rofidal, Philippe Lashermes, Hervé Etienne, Thierry Joët
The intermediate seed category was defined in the early 1990s using coffee (Coffea arabica) as a model. In contrast to orthodox seeds, intermediate seeds cannot survive complete drying, which is a major constraint for seed storage, for both biodiversity conservation and agricultural purposes. However, intermediate seeds are considerably more tolerant to drying than recalcitrant seeds, which are highly sensitive to desiccation. To gain insight into the mechanisms governing such differences, changes in desiccation tolerance (DT), hormone content and the transcriptome were analysed in developing coffee seeds...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Peter R Wilton, Arslan Zaidi, Kateryna Makova, Rasmus Nielsen
The mitochondrion has recently emerged as an active player in a myriad of cellular processes. Additionally, it was recently shown that more than 200 diseases are known to be linked to variants in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes interacting with mitochondria. This has reinvigorated interest in its biology and population genetics. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy, or genotypic variation of mitochondria within an individual, is now understood to be common in humans and important in human health. However, it is still not possible to make quantitative predictions about the inheritance of heteroplasmy and its proliferation within the body, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model...
January 17, 2018: Genetics
Anneke Horstman, Marian Bemer, Kim Boutilier
Somatic embryogenesis is a form of induced plant cell totipotency where embryos develop from somatic or vegetative cells in the absence of fertilization. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to stress or growth regulator treatments. Molecular genetics studies have also shown that ectopic expression of specific embryo- and meristem-expressed transcription factors or loss of certain chromatin-modifying proteins induces spontaneous somatic embryogenesis. We begin this review with a general description of the major developmental events that define plant somatic embryogenesis and then focus on the transcriptional regulation of this process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis)...
August 2017: Regeneration
E Magnani, J M Jiménez-Gómez, L Soubigou-Taconnat, L Lepiniec, E Fiume
BACKGROUND: Totipotency is the ability of a cell to regenerate a whole organism. Plant somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a remarkable example of totipotency because somatic cells reverse differentiation, respond to an appropriate stimulus and initiate embryo development. Although SE is an ideal system to investigate de-differentiation and differentiation, we still lack a deep molecular understanding of the phenomenon due to experimental restraints. RESULTS: We applied the INTACT method to specifically isolate the nuclei of those cells undergoing SE among the majority of non-embryogenic cells that make up a callus...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
Shasmita, Manoj K Rai, Soumendra K Naik
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (family: Solanaceae), commonly known as "Indian Ginseng", is a medicinally and industrially important plant of the Indian subcontinent and other warmer parts of the world. The plant has multi-use medicinal potential and has been listed among 36 important cultivated medicinal plants of India that are in high demand for trade due to its pharmaceutical uses. The medicinal importance of this plant is mainly due to the presence of different types of steroidal lactones- withanolides in the roots and leaves...
December 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiaohong Zhou, Renhua Zheng, Guangxin Liu, Yang Xu, Yanwei Zhou, Thomas Laux, Yan Zhen, Scott A Harding, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen
Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook (Chinese fir) is an important tree, commercially and ecologically, in southern China. The traditional regenerating methods are based on organogenesis and cutting propagation. Here, we report the development of a high-frequency somatic embryogenesis (SE) regeneration system synchronized via a liquid culture from immature zygotic embryos. Following synchronization, PEM II cell aggregates were developmentally equivalent in appearance to cleaved zygotic embryos. Embryo and suspensor growth and subsequent occurrence of the apical and then the cotyledonary meristems were similar for zygotic and SE embryo development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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