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somatic embryogenesis

Aiping Cao, Yinying Zheng, Yu Yu, Xuwen Wang, Dongnan Shao, Jie Sun, Baiming Cui
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a critical transition from vegetative to embryogenic growth in higher plants; however, few studies have investigated the mechanism that regulates SE initial differentiation. Most cotton varieties have not undergone regeneration by SE, so only a few varieties can be used in genetic engineering. Here, two varieties of cotton with different SE capabilities (HD, higher differentiation and LD, lower differentiation) were analyzed by high throughout RNA-Seq at the pre-induction stage (0h) and two induction stages (3h and 3d) under callus-induction medium (CIM)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shivani, Praveen Awasthi, Vikrant Sharma, Navjot Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Siddharth Tiwari
Transcription factors BABY BOOM (BBM), WUSCHEL (WUS), BSD, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC), LEAFY COTYLEDON LIKE (LIL), VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1), CUP SHAPED COTYLEDONS (CUC), BOLITA (BOL), and AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) play a crucial role in somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we identified eighteen genes of these nine transcription factors families from the banana genome database. All genes were analyzed for their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization. Protein sequence analysis indicated the presence of characteristic conserved domains in these transcription factors...
2017: PloS One
Julie Godbout, Laurence Tremblay, Caroline Levasseur, Patricia Lavigne, André Rainville, John Mackay, Jean Bousquet, Nathalie Isabel
Biological material is at the forefront of research programs, as well as application fields such as breeding, aquaculture, and reforestation. While sophisticated techniques are used to produce this material, all too often, there is no strict monitoring during the "production" process to ensure that the specific varieties are the expected ones. Confidence rather than evidence is often applied when the time comes to start a new experiment or to deploy selected varieties in the field. During the last decade, genomics research has led to the development of important resources, which have created opportunities for easily developing tools to assess the conformity of the material along the production chains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
I A Montalban, P Moncalean
BACKGROUND: Pinus radiata is an economically important conifer, and somatic embryogenesis is being currently used for its propagation. But the embryogenic competence of cultures decreases with culture age. To cope with this, cryopreservation protocols have been developed lately for different Pinus species. Although cryopreservation reduces the costs associated with embryogenic cultures maintenance, the initial investment and the maintenance of cryotanks are expensive when dealing with somatic embryogenesis basic research issues...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
July 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Hussain A Alwael, Poornananda M Naik, Jameel M Al-Khayri
Somatic embryogenesis is considered the most effective method for commercial propagation of date palm. However, the limitation of obtaining synchronized development of somatic embryos remains an impediment. The synchronization of somatic embryo development is ideal for the applications to produce artificial seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) is associated with stress response and influences in vitro growth and development. This chapter describes an effective method to achieve synchronized development of somatic embryos in date palm cell suspension culture...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mansour A Abohatem, Yazid Bakil, Mohmmed Baaziz
Somatic embryogenesis is one of the most important technologies for plant regeneration of elite date palm cultivars. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the development and optimization of this technique from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. This chapter describes a procedure for the rapid development of a large number of somatic embryos from embryogenic cell suspension cultures. An efficient plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures starting with shoot-tip explants to plantlet acclimatization also is fully described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ola H Abdelbar
Somatic embryogenesis is an ideal technique for the micropropagation of date palm using different explant tissue; however, histological studies describing the ontogenesis of plant regeneration are limited. This chapter provides a simple protocol for the histological analysis of the successive developmental stages of direct somatic embryogenesis induced from in vitro leaf explants. Direct somatic embryos are obtained from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine. In order to observe the different developmental stages, histological analysis is carried out on samples at 15-day intervals for 60 days...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eman M M Zayed, Ola H Abdelbar
Rapid production of somatic embryogenesis and date palm regeneration is achieved by culturing immature female inflorescence explants. Inflorescence explants are soft, creamy in color, average 6-7 cm in length, and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Callus induction occurs after 4-5 weeks of culture on the callus induction medium. Subsequently, callus develops embryogenic calli on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Histological samples were collected successively at the culturing time and during morphogenetic changes throughout the developmental stages of somatic embryos...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nazim Boufis, Khayreddine Titouh, Lakhdar Khelifi
In vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool for rapid, large-scale production of healthy true-to-type plants. This approach is suitable to preserve existing natural genetic variability and propagation of variability generated from genetic improvement programs, including crossing, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, and somatic hybridization. This chapter outlines a simplified protocol for date palm regeneration via somatic embryogenesis induced in cell suspension cultures. In this protocol, culture medium composition is manipulated, including plant growth regulators and solid (addition of agar) and liquid media to achieve reduction of production cycle of somatic embryogenesis, which increases the multiplication rate of embryogenic callus and improves the quantity and quality of somatic embryos...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lotfi Fki, Walid Kriaa, Ameni Nasri, Emna Baklouti, Olfa Chkir, Raja B Masmoudi, Alain Rival, Noureddine Drira
This chapter describes an efficient protocol for large-scale micropropagation of date palm. Somatic embryo-derived plants are regenerated from highly proliferating suspension cultures. Friable embryogenic callus is initiated from juvenile leaves using slightly modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Suspension cultures consisting of proembryonic masses are established from highly competent callus for somatic embryogenesis using half-strength MS medium enriched with 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ali M Al-Ali, Chien-Ying Ko, Sultan A Al-Sulaiman, Sami O Al-Otaibi, Abd Ulmoneem H Al-Khamees, Megahed H Ammar
Due to the limitations associated with shoot tip explants in the micropropagation of date palm, inflorescence explants are an ideal alternative. This chapter focuses on the protocol for the induction of callus from inflorescence tissue, establishment for proliferation of somatic embryos, germination, elongation, rooting, and acclimatization. Female inflorescences, 30-40 cm in length, cv. Shaishee, were used for culture initiation. After disinfection, the outer inflorescence cover (spathe) is cut open, and the spikelet explants, 1 cm long, are cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 100 mg/L 2,4-D, 3 mg/L kinetin, and 3 mg/L 2ip and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zeinab E Zayed
Shoot-tip explants obtained from offshoots of adult date palms are an excellent source for callus induction and subsequent somatic embryogenesis. In this protocol, the shoot-tip explants are transferred sequentially to a series of media containing gradually reduced concentrations of plant growth hormones: (a) 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyl adenine (2iP), (b) 7 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, (c) 5 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP, and (d) 3 mg/L 2,4-D and 1 mg/L 2iP. Embryogenic callus differentiates into somatic embryos upon transfer to MS medium containing 0...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rania A Taha
Date palm tolerates salinity, drought, and high temperatures. Arid and semiarid zones, especially the Middle East region, need a huge number of date palms for cultivation. To meet this demand, tissue culture techniques have great potential for mass production of plantlets, especially using the indirect embryogenesis technique; any improvement of these techniques is a worthy objective. Low levels of salinity can enhance growth and development of tolerant plants. A low level of seawater, a natural source of salinity, reduces the time required for micropropagation processes of date palm cv...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eman M M Zayed
This protocol describes in vitro plant regeneration from mature female inflorescence explants of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by reversion of floral state (reproductive phase) to the vegetative state. The mature female inflorescence (fully developed) is cultured on MS induction medium containing 10 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3 mg/L 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), and 2 mg/L paclobutrazol (PBZ) or 2 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA). The basal part of the petals has meristematic cells, which can be induced to initiate callus or direct shoot formation depending on the plant growth regulator amendments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rafał Igielski, Ewa Kępczyńska
Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of numerous developmental processes in plants including zygotic embryogenesis, but their biosynthesis and role during somatic embryogenesis (SE) is mostly unknown. In this study we show that during three week- long induction phase, when cells of leaf explants from non-embryogenic genotype (M9) and embryogenic variant (M9-10a) were forming the callus, all the bioactive gibberellins from non-13-hydroxylation (GA4, GA7) and 13-hydroxylation (GA1, GA5, GA3, GA6) pathways were present, but the contents of only a few of them differed between the tested lines...
2017: PloS One
Chuanqing Wu, Xiaojie Zhu, Weizhen Liu, Tuo Ruan, Kaixiong Tao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal cancers worldwide. It is a complicated and often fatal cancer, and is related to a high disease-related mortality. Around 90% of mortalities are caused by the metastasis of CRC. Current treatment statistics shows a less than 5% 5-year survival for patients with metastatic disease. The development and metastasis of CRC involve multiple factors and mechanisms. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in embryogenesis and somatic development...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Chen Zhu, Li Wang, Jinhua Chen, Chenglan Liu, Huiming Zeng, Huafang Wang
Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu
Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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