Read by QxMD icon Read

somatic embryogenesis

Ponnusamy Baskaran, Aloka Kumari, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Johannes Van Staden
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Reetika Singh, Sarvesh Pratap Kashyap, Nishi Kumari, Major Singh
Somatic embryogenic system was developed in Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. using rachis as explants from a mature tree. Explants showed callus initiation on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with TDZ (1-Phenyl-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea), zeatin or 6-benzylaminopurine. Induction of somatic embryogenesis was achieved on both MS basal medium and MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine. Hundred percent embryogenesis was observed on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine with maximum intensity of embryogenesis (51...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Misty R Riddle, Erik A Spickard, Angela Jevince, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
The differentiated cell identities and structure of fully formed organs are generally stable after their development. In contrast, we report here that development of the C. elegans proximal somatic gonad (hermaphrodite uterus and spermathecae, and male vas deferens) can be redirected into intestine-like organs by brief expression of the ELT-7 GATA transcription factor. This process converts one developing organ into another and can hence be considered "transorganogenesis." We show that, following pulsed ELT-7 expression, cells of the uterus activate and maintain intestine-specific gene expression and are transformed at the ultrastructural level to form an epithelial tube resembling the normal intestine formed during embryogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Biology
Liyuan Fu, Mingxiang Zhang, Kristen Mastrantoni, Mark Perfetto, Shuo Wei, Jianbo Yao
LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8) is a germ cell-specific transcription factor essential for the development of oocytes during early oogenesis. In mice, Lhx8 deficiency causes postnatal oocyte loss and affects the expression of many oocyte-specific genes. The aims of this study were to characterize the bovine Lhx8 gene, determine its mRNA expression during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, and evaluate its interactions with other oocyte-specific transcription factors. The bovine Lhx8 gene encodes a protein of 377 amino acids...
2016: PloS One
Xiyu Ma, Guangyuan Xu, Ping He, Libo Shan
Plants have evolved a large number of cell surface-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), many of which are implicated in sensing extrinsic and intrinsic signals, and govern diverse cellular responses. The signaling pathways mediated by RLKs and RLPs converge at a small group of RLKs, somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), via ligand-induced heterodimerization and transphosphorylation. As shared coreceptors in diverse signaling receptorsomes, SERKs exhibit functional plasticity yet maintain a high degree of signaling specificity...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Zongli Chu, Junying Chen, Haixia Xu, Zhongdong Dong, Feng Chen, Dangqun Cui
Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zheying Min, Hao Lin, Xuechen Zhu, Li Gao, Aftab A Khand, Qinghua Tao
Ascl1 is a multi-functional regulator of neural development in invertebrates and vertebrates. Ectopic expression of Ascl1 can generate functional neurons from non-neural somatic cells. The abnormal expression of ASCL1 has been reported in several types of carcinomas. We have previously identified Ascl1 as a crucial maternal regulator of the germ layer pattern formation in Xenopus Functional studies have indicated that the maternally-supplied Ascl1 renders embryonic cells a propensity to adopt neural fates on one hand, and represses the mesendoderm formation on the other...
September 13, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Kelly G Sullivan, Maya Emmons-Bell, Michael Levin
A key problem in evolutionary developmental biology is identifying the sources of instructive information that determine species-specific anatomical pattern. Understanding the inputs to large-scale morphology is also crucial for efforts to manipulate pattern formation in regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. Recent studies have revealed a physiological system of communication among cells that regulates pattern during embryogenesis and regeneration in vertebrate and invertebrate models. Somatic tissues form networks using the same ion channels, electrical synapses, and neurotransmitter mechanisms exploited by the brain for information-processing...
July 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Sumita Jha
This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Michael J Fairchild, Lulu Yang, Katharine Goodwin, Guy Tanentzapf
Stem cells can be controlled by their local microenvironment, known as the stem cell niche. The Drosophila testes contain a morphologically distinct niche called the hub, composed of a cluster of between 8 and 20 cells known as hub cells, which contact and regulate germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Both hub cells and CySCs originate from somatic gonadal precursor cells during embryogenesis, but whereas hub cells, once specified, cease all mitotic activity, CySCs remain mitotic into adulthood [1, 2]...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Maeghan O'Neill, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Min Fan, Minmin Wang, Ming-Yi Bai
Plant receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain and an intracellular kinase domain, which enable plant perceiving diverse extracellular stimuli to trigger the intracellular signal transduction. The somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) code the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), and have been demonstrated to associate with multiple ligand-binding receptors to regulate plant growth, root development, male fertility, stomatal development and movement, and immune responses...
September 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Stefanie Duchow, Renate I Dahlke, Thomas Geske, Wolfgang Blaschek, Birgit Classen
Root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides, native to South Africa, are used globally for the treatment of common cold and cough. Due to an increasing economic commercialization of P. sidoides remedies, wild collections of root material should be accompanied by effective methods for plant propagation like somatic embryogenesis. Based on this, the influence of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of P. sidoides has been investigated. High-molecular weight AGPs have been isolated from dried roots as well as from cell cultures of P...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Wen-Han Cheng, Hua-Guo Zhu, Wen-Gang Tian, Shou-Hong Zhu, Xian-Peng Xiong, Yu-Qiang Sun, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the key step for genetic improvement of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through genetic engineering mediated by Agrobacteria, but the molecular mechanisms underlying SE in cotton is still unclear. Here, RNA-Sequencing was used to analyze the genes expressed during SE and their expression dynamics using RNAs isolated from non-embryogenic callus (NEC), embryogenic callus (EC) and somatic embryos (SEs). A total of 101, 670 unigenes were de novo assembled. The genes differentially expressed (DEGs) amongst NEC, EC and SEs were identified, annotated and classified...
October 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
I López-Lerma, B Ferrer, I Zarzoso, J Hernández-Losa, V García-Patos
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has a critical role in embryogenesis.(1) Hh signaling remains active in a more limited extent throughout the life with a key role in the somatic stem cell populations through modulation of self-renewal activity. Moreover, Hh signaling is aberrantly activated in a number of malignancies and the most common way to target this pathway is modulate Smoothened (SMO).(1,2) A 79-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 3-month history of erythematous papules and hyperkeratotic lesions over the face...
August 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Renata Orłowska, Joanna Machczyńska, Sylwia Oleszczuk, Janusz Zimny, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek
BACKGROUND: In vitro plant regeneration via androgenesis or somatic embryogenesis is capable of inducing (epi)mutations that may affect sexual progenies. While epimutations are associated with DNA methylation, mutations could be due to the movement of transposons. The common notion is that both processes are linked. It is being assumed that demethylation activates transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of methylation changes and their relation with TEs activation in tissue cultures requires uniquely derived donor plants (Ds), their regenerants (Rs) and respective progeny (Ps) that would allow discrimination of processes not related to changes introduced via in vitro cultures...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Manita Wittayarat, Yoko Sato, Lanh Thi Kim Do, Kaywalee Chatdarong, Theerawat Tharasanit, Mongkol Techakumphu, Masayasu Taniguchi, Takeshige Otoi
This study aimed to determine the acetylation at lysine 9/18/23 of histone H3 (H3K9ac/H3K18ac/H3K23ac; H3K9/18/23 ac) and the di-methylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2) during early embryogenesis among trichostatin A (TSA)-treated interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) cat-cow (TSA-iSCNT) embryos, TSA-untreated iSCNT cat-cow control (control) embryos and bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos, because TSA-iSCNT embryos can develop to blastocysts. Compared to the control embryos, higher expressions of H3K9/18/23 ac were observed in TSA-iSCNT embryos and IVF embryos at most following stages (2 h post-fusion / post-insemination (PF/PI) to eight-cell stage)...
August 9, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Martina Rinčić, Ivan Y Iourov, Thomas Liehr
BACKGROUND: Chromosome counting is a process in which cells determine somehow their intrinsic chromosome number(s). The best-studied cellular mechanism that involves chromosome counting is 'chromosome-kissing' and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) mechanism. It is necessary for the well-known dosage compensation between the genders in mammals to balance the number of active X-chromosomes (Xa) with regard to diploid set of autosomes. At the onset of XCI, two X-chromosomes are coming in close proximity and pair physically by a specific segment denominated X-pairing region (Xpr) that involves the SLC16A2 gene...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Wenjing Tao, Lina Sun, Jinlin Chen, Hongjuan Shi, Deshou Wang
Argonaute proteins are key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex and have multiple roles in RNA-directed regulatory pathways. Argonaute genes can be divided into two subfamilies: the Ago (interacting with microRNA/small interfering RNA) and Piwi subfamilies (interacting with piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)). In the present study, genome-wide analyses firstly yielded the identification of different members of Agos and Piwis in the tilapia, coelacanth, spotted gar, and elephant shark. The additional teleost Ago3b was generated following the fish-specific genome duplication event...
September 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Adam M Reitzel, Kevin Pang, Mark Q Martindale
BACKGROUND: An essential developmental pathway in sexually reproducing animals is the specification of germ cells and the differentiation of mature gametes, sperm and oocytes. The "germline" genes vasa, nanos and piwi are commonly identified in primordial germ cells, suggesting a molecular signature for the germline throughout animals. However, these genes are also expressed in a diverse set of somatic stem cells throughout the animal kingdom leaving open significant questions for whether they are required for germline specification...
2016: EvoDevo
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"