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somatic embryogenesis

Upinder S Gill, Juan C Serrani-Yarce, Hee-Kyung Lee, Kirankumar S Mysore
Brachypodium distachyon is a model grass species for economically important cereal crops. Efforts are in progress to develop useful functional genomic resources in Brachypodium. A tobacco retrotransposon, Tnt1, has been used successfully in recent past to generate insertional mutagenesis in several dicot plant species. Tnt1 retrotransposon replicates, transposes, and inserts at multiple random genomic locations in the plant genome. Transposition occurs only during somatic embryogenesis but not during seed transmission...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marjan Roshanfekrrad, Reza Zarghami, Hassan Hassani, Hedayat Zakizadeh, Ali Salari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Somatic embryogenesis techniques are used for cloning a wide range of varieties of date palms around the world. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method with the lowest cost and the greatest potential to obtain in vitro plantlets of date palm cv. Medjool. Also, produce embryogenic callus and somatic embryos without using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). METHODOLOGY: In this study, produced plantlets through somatic embryogenesis were used in vitro roots as explant cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing three level of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) (0, 3 and 6 mg L-1) plus two level of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0 and 2 mg L-1) plus 0...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
R G Rutledge, D Stewart, C Overton, K Klimaszewska
Within a plantation of clonal somatic embryo-derived white spruce trees that belonged to four genotypes, one genotype (G6) has consistently responded for the last 16 years, to the induction of somatic embryogenesis within primordial shoot explants. Analysis of fourteen individuals within this genotype subsequently revealed a group of clonal trees that were nonresponsive. This in turn provided a unique opportunity to conduct differential gene expression analysis in the absence of genotype-specific factors. Absolute qPCR was first used to expand the analysis of several genes previously identified via microarray analysis to be differentially expressed during SE induction, along with the inclusion of two nonresponsive genotypes...
2017: PloS One
Akanksha Singh, Paramjit Khurana
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) belong to a small gene family of receptor-like kinases involved in signal transduction. A total of 54 genes were shortlisted from the wheat genome survey sequence of which 5 were classified as SERKs and 49 were identified as SERK-like (SERLs). Tissue- specific expression of TaSERKs at major developmental stages of wheat corroborates their indispensable role during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. TaSERK transcripts show inherent differences in their hormonal sensitivities, i...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria Ninova, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Matthew Ronshaugen
BACKGROUND: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of short (~26-31-nucleotide) non-protein-coding RNAs expressed in the metazoan germline. The piRNA pathway in arthropods is best understood in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster, where it acts to silence active transposable elements (TEs). Maternal loading of piRNAs in oocytes is further required for the inheritance of piRNA-mediated transposon defence. However, our understanding of the diversity, evolution and function of the piRNA complement beyond drosophilids is limited...
September 26, 2017: Genome Biology
Igor A Yakovlev, Carl G Fossdal
Epigenetic memory in Norway spruce affects the timing of bud burst and bud set, vitally important adaptive traits for this long-lived forest species. Epigenetic memory is established in response to the temperature conditions during embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at different epitype inducing (EpI) temperatures closely mimics the natural processes of epigenetic memory formation in seeds, giving rise to epigenetically different clonal plants in a reproducible and predictable manner, with respect to altered bud phenology...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Shera Lesly, Jennifer L Bandura, Brian R Calvi
Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty (hd) and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd(272-9) , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality...
September 23, 2017: Genetics
Zhiqian Li, Chen Zhang, Yurui Guo, Weili Niu, Yuejin Wang, Yan Xu
BACKGROUND: The HD-Zip family has a diversity of functions during plant development. In this study, we identify 33 HD-Zip transcription factors in grape and detect their expressions in ovules and somatic embryos, as well as in various vegetative organs. RESULTS: A genome-wide survey for HD-Zip transcription factors in Vitis was conducted based on the 12 X grape genome (V. vinifera L.). A total of 33 members were identified and classified into four subfamilies (I-IV) based on phylogeny analysis with Arabidopsis, rice and maize...
September 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hugh J Clarke
Prior to ovulation, the mammalian oocyte undergoes a process of differentiation within the ovarian follicle that confers on it the ability to give rise to an embryo. Differentiation comprises two phases-growth, during which the oocyte increases more than 100-fold in volume as it accumulates macromolecules and organelles that will sustain early embryogenesis; and meiotic maturation, during which the oocyte executes the first meiotic division and prepares for the second division. Entry of an oocyte into the growth phase appears to be triggered when the adjacent granulosa cells produce specific growth factors...
September 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Akio Tazuke, Tsuguki Kinoshita, Munehiko Asayama
The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) gene Cucumis sativus Somatic Embryogenesis Zinc Finger 1 (CsSEF1) was suggested to be a good marker gene for sugar starvation in fruit. The expression of this gene in fruits is dramatically upregulated in plants that have suffered either complete defoliation or prolonged darkness. CsSEF1 was initially discovered as a gene that was upregulated during somatic embryogenesis. We examined the difference in fruit parts and the effect of pollination on the upregulation of CsSEF1 induced by defoliation treatment...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
M S Pádua, R S Santos, C R G Labory, V C Stein, E G Mendonça, E Alves, L V Paiva
Large-scale propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.) is difficult due to its single apical meristem. Thus, obtaining plants is mainly through seed germination, and a long growing period is required before oil production is possible. An alternative to large-scale seedling production is indirect somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the somatic embryogenesis process in oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq.) with amino acids and low concentrations of auxins. The Tenera hybrid was analyzed by cytochemical and ultrastructural methods and was used to regenerate oil palm plants...
September 4, 2017: Protoplasma
Nádia A Campos, Bart Panis, Sebastien C Carpentier
One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rolf Fickentscher, Matthias Weiss
Asymmetric cell divisions are of fundamental importance for the development of multicellular organisms, e.g. for the generation of founder cells. Prime examples are asymmetric cell divisions in germline precursors during the early embryogenesis of the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the major developmental model organisms. However, due to a lack of quantitative data it has remained unclear how frequent unequal daughter cell sizes emerge in the worm's early embryogenesis, and whether these originate from sterical or biochemical cues...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Johanna Carlsson, Henrik Svennerstam, Thomas Moritz, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Ulrika Ganeteg
Somatic embryogenesis is an in vitro system employed for plant propagation and the study of embryo development. Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development and, hence, the production of healthy embryos during somatic embryogenesis. Glutamine has been shown to increase plant biomass in many in vitro applications, including somatic embryogenesis. However, several aspects of nitrogen nutrition during somatic embryogenesis remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the uptake and assimilation of nitrogen in Norway spruce pro-embryogenic masses to elucidate some of these aspects...
2017: PloS One
Anneke Horstman, Mengfan Li, Iris Heidmann, Mieke Weemen, Baojian Chen, Jose M Muino, Gerco C Angenent, Kim Boutilier
Somatic embryogenesis is an example of induced cellular totipotency, where embryos develop from vegetative cells rather than from gamete fusion. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to growth regulators and/or stress treatments. The BABY BOOM (BBM) and LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC2 transcription factors are key regulators of plant cell totipotency, as ectopic overexpression of either transcription factor induces somatic embryo formation from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings without exogenous growth regulators or stress treatments...
October 2017: Plant Physiology
Aiping Cao, Yinying Zheng, Yu Yu, Xuwen Wang, Dongnan Shao, Jie Sun, Baiming Cui
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a critical transition from vegetative to embryogenic growth in higher plants; however, few studies have investigated the mechanism that regulates SE initial differentiation. Most cotton varieties have not undergone regeneration by SE, so only a few varieties can be used in genetic engineering. Here, two varieties of cotton with different SE capabilities (HD, higher differentiation and LD, lower differentiation) were analyzed by high throughout RNA-Seq at the pre-induction stage (0h) and two induction stages (3h and 3d) under callus-induction medium (CIM)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shivani, Praveen Awasthi, Vikrant Sharma, Navjot Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Siddharth Tiwari
Transcription factors BABY BOOM (BBM), WUSCHEL (WUS), BSD, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC), LEAFY COTYLEDON LIKE (LIL), VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1), CUP SHAPED COTYLEDONS (CUC), BOLITA (BOL), and AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) play a crucial role in somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we identified eighteen genes of these nine transcription factors families from the banana genome database. All genes were analyzed for their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization. Protein sequence analysis indicated the presence of characteristic conserved domains in these transcription factors...
2017: PloS One
Julie Godbout, Laurence Tremblay, Caroline Levasseur, Patricia Lavigne, André Rainville, John Mackay, Jean Bousquet, Nathalie Isabel
Biological material is at the forefront of research programs, as well as application fields such as breeding, aquaculture, and reforestation. While sophisticated techniques are used to produce this material, all too often, there is no strict monitoring during the "production" process to ensure that the specific varieties are the expected ones. Confidence rather than evidence is often applied when the time comes to start a new experiment or to deploy selected varieties in the field. During the last decade, genomics research has led to the development of important resources, which have created opportunities for easily developing tools to assess the conformity of the material along the production chains...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
I A Montalban, P Moncalean
BACKGROUND: Pinus radiata is an economically important conifer, and somatic embryogenesis is being currently used for its propagation. But the embryogenic competence of cultures decreases with culture age. To cope with this, cryopreservation protocols have been developed lately for different Pinus species. Although cryopreservation reduces the costs associated with embryogenic cultures maintenance, the initial investment and the maintenance of cryotanks are expensive when dealing with somatic embryogenesis basic research issues...
May 2017: Cryo Letters
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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