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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607033/perception-of-root-active-cle-peptides-requires-coryne-function-in-the-phloem-vasculature
#1
Ora Hazak, Benjamin Brandt, Pietro Cattaneo, Julia Santiago, Antia Rodriguez-Villalon, Michael Hothorn, Christian S Hardtke
Arabidopsis root development is orchestrated by signaling pathways that consist of different CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide ligands and their cognate CLAVATA (CLV) and BARELY ANY MERISTEM (BAM) receptors. How and where different CLE peptides trigger specific morphological or physiological changes in the root is poorly understood. Here, we report that the receptor-like protein CLAVATA 2 (CLV2) and the pseudokinase CORYNE (CRN) are necessary to fully sense root-active CLE peptides. We uncover BAM3 as the CLE45 receptor in the root and biochemically map its peptide binding surface...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597418/influence-of-led-light-spectra-on-in-vitro-somatic-embryogenesis-and-lc-ms-analysis-of-chlorogenic-acid-and-rutin-in-peucedanum-japonicum-thunb-a-medicinal-herb
#2
Chia-Chen Chen, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal, Maw-Rong Lee, Ren-Jye Lee, Chao-Lin Kuo, Chi-Rei Wu, Hsin-Sheng Tsay, Hung-Chi Chang
BACKGROUND: Peucedanum japonicum Thunb, an important medicinal herb is reported to possess pharmacological properties such as anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation. The present study aimed to develop an in vitro plant regeneration system of P. japonicum via somatic embryogenesis and to analyse chlorogenic acid and rutin contents in a few commercially available plant products of P. japonicum in Japan and Taiwan markets, and tissue culture plants derived from somatic embryos...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584112/causes-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-mode-in-metazoans
#3
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
In animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ lines, the cell lineages that produce sperm and eggs. PGCs form in embryogenesis, typically by one of two modes: a likely ancestral mode wherein germ cells are induced during embryogenesis by cell-cell signaling (induction) or a derived mechanism whereby germ cells are specified by using germ plasm-that is, maternally specified germ-line determinants (inheritance). The causes of the shift to germ plasm for PGC specification in some animal clades remain largely unknown, but its repeated convergent evolution raises the question of whether it may result from or confer an innate selective advantage...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554310/ion-channel-and-neurotransmitter-modulators-as-electroceutical-approaches-to-the-control-of-cancer
#4
Jack Tuszynski, Tatiana M Tilli, Michael Levin
The activities of individual cells must be tightly coordinated in order to build and maintain complex 3-dimensional body structures during embryogenesis and regeneration. Thus, one way to view cancer is within systems biology as a network disorder affecting the ability of cells to properly interact with a morphodynamic field of instructive signals that keeps proliferation and migration orchestrated toward the anatomical needs of the host organism. One layer of this set of instructive microenvironmental cues is bioelectrical...
May 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553064/degeneration-pattern-in-somatic-embryos-of-pinus-sylvestris-l
#5
Malin Abrahamsson, Silvia Valladares, Irene Merino, Emma Larsson, Sara von Arnold
Somatic embryos can be used for propagating forest trees vegetatively, which is of great importance for capturing the genetic gain in breeding programs. However, many economically important Pinus species are difficult or impossible to propagate via somatic embryogenesis. In order to get a better understanding of the difficulties to propagate Pinus species via somatic embryogenesis, we are studying the developmental pathway of somatic embryos in different cell lines. In a previous study, we showed that the morphology of early somatic embryos in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) differs between cell lines giving rise to normal or abnormal cotyledonary embryos...
2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526530/insights-into-the-early-stage-of-pinus-nigra-arn-somatic-embryogenesis-using-discovery-proteomics
#6
Katarína Klubicová, Lubica Uvácková, Maksym Danchenko, Peter Nemecek, Ludovít Skultéty, Ján Salaj, Terézia Salaj
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#7
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501323/reliable-and-practical-methods-for-cryopreservation-of-embryogenic-cultures-and-cold-storage-of-somatic-embryos-of-norway-spruce
#8
Saila Varis, Susanna Ahola, Laura Jaakola, Tuija Aronen
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is considered as the most-effective method for vegetative propagation of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst). For mass propagation, a cryopreservation method able to handle large numbers of embryogenic tissues (ETs) reliably and at low costs is needed. The aim of the present study was to compare pretreatments, cryoprotectants and slow-cooling devices for cryopreservation of Norway spruce ETs, with 12 variations of methods and a total of 136 spruce genotypes. Secondly, possible applications for cold storage of mature somatic embryos were studied with the aim of developing a flexible time window for embling production...
May 10, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500251/expression-of-distinct-maternal-and-somatic-5-8s-18s-and-28s-rrna-types-during-zebrafish-development
#9
Mauro D Locati, Johanna F B Pagano, Geneviève Girard, Wim A Ensink, Marina van Olst, Selina van Leeuwen, Ulrike Nehrdich, Herman P Spaink, Han Rauwerda, Martijs J Jonker, Rob J Dekker, Timo M Breit
There is mounting evidence that the ribosome is not a static translation machinery, but a cell-specific, adaptive system. Ribosomal variations have mostly been studied at the protein level, even though the essential transcriptional functions are primarily performed by rRNAs. At the RNA level, oocyte-specific 5S rRNAs are long known for Xenopus. Recently, we described for zebrafish a similar system in which the sole maternal-type 5S rRNA present in eggs, is replaced completely during embryonic development by a somatic-type...
May 12, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496454/expression-analyses-of-embryogenesis-associated-genes-during-somatic-embryogenesis-of-adiantum-capillus-veneris-l-in-vitro-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-reproductive-organs-in-land-plants
#10
Xia Li, Jing-Dan Han, Yu-Han Fang, Shu-Nong Bai, Guang-Yuan Rao
An efficient in vitro regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed for a fern species Adiantum capillus-veneris. Adventitious shoots, green globular bodies (GGBs) and calli were obtained with the maximal induction rate on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium of low concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) (0-1.0 mg/L), 2.0 mg/L BA without 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5-1.0 mg/L 6-BA, respectively. Cyto-morphological and histological changes in the shoot development via calli and GGBs were examined...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486552/identification-of-novel-mirnas-and-mirna-expression-profiling-in-embryogenic-tissues-of-picea-balfouriana-treated-by-6-benzylaminopurine
#11
Qingfen Li, Cheng Deng, Yan Xia, Lisheng Kong, Hanguo Zhang, Shougong Zhang, Junhui Wang
Here, we compared miRNA expression profiles in embryonic cell cultures of the conifer Picea balfouriana following application of the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP). We used next-generation sequencing to analyze three libraries of small RNAs from the treated embryogenic cell cultures and generated 24,000,000 raw reads from each of the libraries. Over 70 differentially regulated micro RNA (miRNA) families (≥2 fold change in expression) were identified between pairs of treatments. A quantitative analysis showed that miR3633 and miR1026 were upregulated in tissues with the highest embryogenic ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473835/small-rna-and-transcriptome-sequencing-reveal-a-potential-mirna-mediated-interaction-network-that-functions-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-lilium-pumilum-dc-fisch
#12
Jing Zhang, Bingyang Xue, Meizhu Gai, Shengli Song, Nana Jia, Hongmei Sun
Plant somatic embryos are widely used in the fields of germplasm conservation, breeding for genetic engineering and artificial seed production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in somatic embryogenesis (SE) regulation. However, their regulatory roles during various stages of SE remain unclear. In this study, six types of embryogenic samples of Lilium pumilum DC. Fisch., including organogenic callus, embryogenic callus induced for 4 weeks, embryogenic callus induced for 6 weeks, globular embryos, torpedo embryos and cotyledon embryos, were prepared for small RNA sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461734/auxin-and-nutritional-stress-coupled-somatic-embryogenesis-in-oldenlandia-umbellata-l
#13
S R Saranya Krishnan, E A Siril
Somatic embryos were induced from internodal segment derived callus of Oldenlandia umbellata L., in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Initially calli were developed from internodes of microshoots inoculated in 2.5 µM NAA supplemented medium. Then calli were transferred to 2,4-D added medium for somatic embryogenesis. Nutritional stress coupled with higher concentration of 2,4-D triggered somatic embryogenesis. Nutritional stress was induced by culturing callus in a fixed amount of medium for a period up to 20 weeks without any external supply of nutrients...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461725/nmr-based-metabolomic-analysis-of-wild-greenhouse-and-in-vitro-regenerated-shoots-of-cymbopogon-schoenanthus-subsp-proximus-with-gc-ms-assessment-of-proximadiol
#14
Asmaa Abdelsalam, Ehab Mahran, Kamal Chowdhury, Arezue Boroujerdi, Ahmed El-Bakry
Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus is a wild plant distributed in subtropical and east Africa extending from the north to the southern parts of Egypt. Widely used in folk medicine, it is the source of the diuretic sesquiterpene proximadiol. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic analysis of polar extracts of shoots from wild, greenhouse, somatic embryos, and direct and indirect organogenic in vitro cultures was carried out. Metabolic profiling yielded 39 compounds, of which common metabolites were 15 (38...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461724/genome-wide-transcriptome-profiling-of-carica-papaya-l-embryogenic-callus
#15
Nur Diyana Jamaluddin, Normah Mohd Noor, Hoe-Han Goh
Genome-wide transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool to study global gene expression patterns in plant development. We report the first transcriptome profile analysis of papaya embryogenic callus to improve our understanding on genes associated with somatic embryogenesis. By using 3' mRNA-sequencing, we generated 6,190,687 processed reads and 47.0% were aligned to papaya genome reference, in which 21,170 (75.4%) of 27,082 annotated genes were found to be expressed but only 41% was expressed at functionally high levels...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460558/improvement-of-tissue-culture-genetic-transformation-and-applications-of-biotechnology-to-brassica
#16
Seyed Ali Ravanfar, Vladimir Orbovic, Mahdi Moradpour, Maheran Abdul Aziz, Ratna Karan, Simon Wallace, Saroj Parajuli
Development of in vitro plant regeneration method from Brassica explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is influenced by many factors such as culture environment, culture medium composition, explant sources, and genotypes which are reviewed in this study. An efficient in vitro regeneration system to allow genetic transformation of Brassica is a crucial tool for improving its economical value. Methods to optimize transformation protocols for the efficient introduction of desirable traits, and a comparative analysis of these methods are also reviewed...
May 2, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458047/a-look-at-plant-immunity-through-the-window-of-the-multitasking-coreceptor-bak1
#17
REVIEW
Shigetaka Yasuda, Kentaro Okada, Yusuke Saijo
Recognition of microbe- and danger-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs and DAMPs, respectively) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is central to innate immunity in both plants and animals. The plant PRRs described to date are all cell surface-localized receptors. According to their ligand-binding ectodomains, each PRR engages a specific coreceptor or adaptor kinase in its signaling complexes to regulate defense signaling. With a focus on the coreceptor RLK BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 (BAK1) and related SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASEs (SERKs), here we review the increasing inventory of BAK1 partners and their functions in plant immunity...
April 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444601/somatic-embryogenesis-from-bud-and-leaf-explants-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-cv-najda
#18
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Ilham Belkoura, Reda Meziani, Boutaïna Mokhless, Souad Nour
An efficient regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm cv. Najda. Adventitious bud and proximal leaf segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins induced embryogenesis after at least 6 months of culture. Somatic embryogenesis induction seemed correlated with the type of the explant, the induction period and the auxin used. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis (86.0%) was obtained on bud explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 45...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432333/metabolomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-maize-embryonic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryo
#19
Fei Ge, Hongmei Hu, Xing Huang, Yanling Zhang, Yanli Wang, Zhaoling Li, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Lujiang Li, Shibin Gao, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
The low ratio of embryonic callus (EC) induction has inhibited the rapid development of maize genetic engineering. Still, little is known to explain the genotype-dependence of EC induction. Here, we performed a large-scale, quantitative analysis of the maize EC metabolome and proteome at three typical induction stages in two inbred lines with a range of EC induction capabilities. Comparison of the metabolomes and proteomes suggests that the differential molecular responses begin at an early stage of development and continue throughout the process of EC formation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410577/a-candidate-rxlr-effector-from-plasmopara-viticola-can-elicit-immune-responses-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#20
Jiang Xiang, Xinlong Li, Ling Yin, Yunxiao Liu, Yali Zhang, Junjie Qu, Jiang Lu
BACKGROUND: Diverse plant pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to alter host processes. Oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of putative RxLR effectors which are likely to play a role in manipulating plant defense responses. The secretome of Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew of grapevine) contains at least 162 candidate RxLR effectors discovered in our recent studies, but their roles in infection and pathogenicity remain to be determined. Here, we characterize in depth one of the putative RxLR effectors, PvRxLR16, which has been reported to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana in our previous study...
April 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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