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somatic embryogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670014/transient-overexpression-of-hvserk2-improves-barley-resistance-to-powdery-mildew
#1
Yingbo Li, Qingwei Li, Guimei Guo, Ting He, Runhong Gao, Muhammad Faheem, Jianhua Huang, Ruiju Lu, Chenghong Liu
Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs) play an essential role in plant response to pathogen infection. Here we identified three SERK genes ( HvSERK1/2/3 ) from barley, and aimed to determine their implication in defense responses to barley powdery mildew ( Bgh ). Although HvSERK1/2/3 share the characteristic domains of the SERK family, only HvSERK2 was significantly induced in barley leaves during Bgh infection. The expression of HvSERK2 was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment, but not by treatment with salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), or abscisic acid (ABA)...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659948/mir156-spls-module-regulates-somatic-embryogenesis-induction-in-citrus-callus
#2
Jian-Mei Long, Chao-Yang Liu, Meng-Qi Feng, Yun Liu, Xiao-Meng Wu, Wen-Wu Guo
As a highly conserved plant miRNA, miR156 has been intensively investigated for its versatile roles in plant development. Herein we report a novel role of miR156 in regulating somatic embryogenesis (SE) of citrus, one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. SE is an important way of regeneration, but SE potential of the preserved citrus embryogenic callus always declined during long-term sub-culturing, becoming a key obstacle for citrus biotechnology. In our study, either overexpression of csi-miR156a or individual knock-down of the two target genes CsSPL3 and CsSPL14 significantly enhanced SE competence of citrus callus, indicating that the effect of miR156-SPLs module was established for the initial phases of SE induction...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651380/a-combined-pathway-of-organogenesis-and-somatic-embryogenesis-for-an-efficient-large-scale-propagation-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-cv-mejhoul
#3
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Ilham Belkoura, Boutaïna Mokhless, Souad Nour
An efficient regeneration system via a combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul. Adventitious buds were obtained from shoot-tip explants with a frequency of 53.3% after 9 months of culture: 6 months on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS/2) medium containing 14.2 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 13.4 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 µM 6-(dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), and 3 months on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651374/biochemical-events-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-coffea-arabica-l
#4
Patrícia Monah Cunha Bartos, Hugo Teixeira Gomes, Lourdes Isabel Velho do Amaral, João Batista Teixeira, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira
Several biochemical components associated with different stages of somatic embryogenesis in coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) are investigated using foliar explants. Soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids and total proteins were extracted and quantified at different stages of somatic embryogenesis, such as foliar segments (initial explants), primary calluses, embryogenic calluses, globular embryos, torpedoes, cotyledonary embryos and mature fruit zygotic embryos. Total soluble sugar levels increased sixfold at the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis induction...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607503/ectopic-expression-of-the-coffea-canephora-serk1-homologue-induced-differential-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-auxin-metabolism-and-in-the-developmental-control-of-embryogenesis
#5
Daniel Pérez-Pascual, Doribet Jiménez-Guillen, Hernán Villanueva-Alonzo, Ramón Souza-Perera, Gregorio Godoy-Hernández, José Juan Zúñiga-Aguilar
Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 (SERK1) is a membrane receptor that might serve as common co-regulator of plant cell differentiation processes by forming heterodimers with specific receptor-like kinases. The Coffea canephora SERK1 homologue (CcSERK1) was cloned in this work, and its early function in the transcription of embryogenesis master genes and of genes encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism was investigated by externally manipulating its expression in embryogenic leaf explants, before the appearance of embryogenic structures...
April 1, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593791/histopathological-characterization-and-whole-exome-sequencing-of-ectopic-thyroid-fetal-architecture-in-a-functional-ectopic-gland-from-adult-patient
#6
Rosalinda Yasato Camargo, Cristina Takami Kanamura, Celso Ubirajara Friguglietti, Célia Regina Nogueira, Sonia Iorcansky, Alfio José Tincani, Ana Karina Bezerra, Ester Brust, Fernanda Christtanini Koyama, Anamaria Aranha Camargo, Fernanda Orpinelli R Rego, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto Galante, Geraldo Medeiros-Neto, Ileana Gabriela Sanchez Rubio
Ectopic thyroid results from a migration defect of the developing gland during embryogenesis causing congenital hypothyroidism. But it has also been detected in asymptomatic individuals. This study aimed to investigate the histopathological, functional, and genetic features of human ectopic thyroids. Six samples were histologically examined, and the expression of the specific thyroid proteins was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Two samples were submitted to whole exome sequencing. An oropharynx sample showed immature fetal architecture tissue with clusters or cords of oval thyrocytes and small follicles; one sample exhibited a normal thyroid pattern while four showed colloid goiter...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576069/effects-of-ghwus-from-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-on-somatic-embryogenesis-and-shoot-regeneration
#7
Yanqing Xiao, Yanli Chen, Yanpeng Ding, Jie Wu, Peng Wang, Ya Yu, Xi Wei, Ye Wang, Chaojun Zhang, Fuguang Li, Xiaoyang Ge
The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene encodes a plant-specific homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulator, which plays important roles during embryogenesis, as well as in the formation of shoot and flower meristems. Here, we isolated two homologues of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS (AtWUS), GhWUS1a_At and GhWUS1b_At, from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Domain analysis suggested that the two putative GhWUS proteins contained a highly conserved DNA-binding HOX domain and a WUS-box. Expression profile analysis showed that GhWUSs were predominantly expressed during the embryoid stage...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566053/the-development-of-functional-mapping-by-three-sex-related-loci-on-the-third-whorl-of-different-sex-types-of-carica-papaya-l
#8
Chen-Yu Lee, Hui-Jun Lin, Kotapati Kasi Viswanath, Chih-Peng Lin, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Pei-Hsun Chiu, Chan-Tai Chiu, Ren-Huang Wang, Shih-Wen Chin, Fure-Chyi Chen
Carica papaya L. is an important economic crop worldwide and is used as a model plant for sex-determination research. To study the different flower sex types, we screened sex-related genes using alternative splicing sequences (AS-seqs) from a transcriptome database of the three flower sex types, i.e., males, females, and hermaphrodites, established at 28 days before flowering using 15 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of C. papaya L. After screening, the cDNA regions of the three sex-related loci, including short vegetative phase-like (CpSVPL), the chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A-like (CpCAF1AL), and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (CpSERK), which contained eight sex-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the different sex types of C...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542357/treating-donor-cells-with-2-pcpa-corrects-aberrant-histone-h3k4-dimethylation-and-improves-cloned-goat-embryo-development
#9
Tingchao Mao, Chengquan Han, Ruizhi Deng, Biao Wei, Peng Meng, Yan Luo, Yong Zhang
Epigenetic modifications extensively occur in mammalian embryonic development and cell differentiation process. They play an essential role in the reprogramming of nuclei during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and subsequent in vitro embryonic development. Recently, SCNT embryos have been verified to contain a subnormal level of histone H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) in contrast to in vitro fertilized embryos. This finding suggested that increasing H3K4me2 levels may ameliorate the aberrant development of cloned embryos...
March 15, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541410/hepatocyte-specific-expression-of-an-oncogenic-variant-of-%C3%AE-catenin-results-in-lethal-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#10
Ursula J Lemberger, Claudia D Fuchs, Christian Schöfer, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Tatjana Stojakovic, Makoto M Taketo, Michael Trauner, Gerda Egger, Christoph H Österreicher
Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, metabolism and malignant transformation of different organs including the liver. Continuous β-catenin signaling due to somatic mutations in exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene is associated with different liver diseases including cancer and cholestasis. Results: Expression of a degradation resistant form of β-catenin in hepatocytes resulted in 100% mortality within 31 days after birth...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525406/sperm-epigenetics-and-influence-of-environmental-factors
#11
REVIEW
Ida Donkin, Romain Barrès
BACKGROUND: Developmental programming of the embryo is controlled by genetic information but also dictated by epigenetic information contained in spermatozoa. Lifestyle and environmental factors not only influence health in one individual but can also affect the phenotype of the following generations. This is mediated via epigenetic inheritance i.e., gametic transmission of environmentally-driven epigenetic information to the offspring. Evidence is accumulating that preconceptional exposure to certain lifestyle and environmental factors, such as diet, physical activity, and smoking, affects the phenotype of the next generation through remodeling of the epigenetic blueprint of spermatozoa...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515323/morphological-analyses-and-variation-in-carbohydrate-content-during-the-maturation-of-somatic-embryos-of-carica-papaya
#12
Ellen Moura Vale, Ricardo Souza Reis, Lucas Zanchetta Passamani, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Vanildo Silveira
Efficient protocols for somatic embryogenesis of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) have great potential for selecting elite hybrid genotypes. Addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a nonplasmolyzing osmotic agent, to a maturation medium increases the production of somatic embryos in C . papaya . To study the effects of PEG on somatic embryogenesis of C . papaya , we analyzed somatic embryo development and carbohydrate profile changes during maturation treatments with PEG (6%) or without PEG (control). PEG treatment (6%) increased the number of normal mature somatic embryos followed by somatic plantlet production...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511799/overexpression-of-vppr10-1-by-an-efficient-transformation-method-enhances-downy-mildew-resistance-in-v-vinifera
#13
Hang Su, Yun-Tong Jiao, Fang-Fang Wang, Yue-E Liu, Wei-Li Niu, Guo-Tian Liu, Yan Xu
Putrescine and spermidine increase the transformation efficiency of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson seedless. Accumulation of VpPR10.1 in transgenic V. vinifera Thompson seedless, likely increases its resistance to downy mildew. A more efficient method is described for facilitating Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless somatic embryogenesis using polyamines (PAs). The efficacies of putrescine, spermidine and spermine are identified at a range of concentrations (10 µM, 100 µM and 1 mM) added to the culture medium during somatic embryo growth...
March 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499063/transcriptome-analysis-of-embryonic-domains-in-norway-spruce-reveals-potential-regulators-of-suspensor-cell-death
#14
Salim H Reza, Nicolas Delhomme, Nathaniel R Street, Prashanth Ramachandran, Kerstin Dalman, Ove Nilsson, Elena A Minina, Peter V Bozhkov
The terminal differentiation and elimination of the embryo-suspensor is the earliest manifestation of programmed cell death (PCD) during plant ontogenesis. Molecular regulation of suspensor PCD remains poorly understood. Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos provide a powerful model for studying embryo development because of their large size, sequenced genome, and the possibility to obtain a large number of embryos at a specific developmental stage through somatic embryogenesis. Here, we have carried out global gene expression analysis of the Norway spruce embryo-suspensor versus embryonal mass (a gymnosperm analogue of embryo proper) using RNA sequencing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483258/oct4-pou5f1-is-required-for-nanog-expression-in-bovine-blastocysts
#15
Kilian Simmet, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Julia Philippou-Massier, Helmut Blum, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf
Mammalian preimplantation development involves two lineage specifications: first, the CDX2-expressing trophectoderm (TE) and a pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) are separated during blastocyst formation. Second, the pluripotent epiblast (EPI; expressing NANOG) and the differentiated primitive endoderm (PrE; expressing GATA6) diverge within the ICM. Studies in mice revealed that OCT4/POU5F1 is at the center of a pluripotency regulatory network. To study the role of OCT4 in bovine preimplantation development, we generated OCT4 knockout (KO) fibroblasts by CRISPR-Cas9 and produced embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470523/a-late-but-fitter-revertant-cell-explains-the-high-frequency-of-revertant-mosaicism-in-epidermolysis-bullosa
#16
Peter C van den Akker, Anna M G Pasmooij, Hans Joenje, Robert M W Hofstra, Gerard J Te Meerman, Marcel F Jonkman
Revertant mosaicism, or "natural gene therapy", is the phenomenon in which germline mutations are corrected by somatic events. In recent years, revertant mosaicism has been identified in all major types of epidermolysis bullosa, the group of heritable blistering disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding epidermal adhesion proteins. Moreover, revertant mosaicism appears to be present in all patients with a specific subtype of recessive epidermolysis bullosa. We therefore hypothesized that revertant mosaicism should be expected at least in all patients with recessive forms of epidermolysis bullosa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455261/phytoglobins-regulate-nitric-oxide-dependent-abscisic-acid-synthesis-and-ethylene-induced-program-cell-death-in-developing-maize-somatic-embryos
#17
Karuna Kapoor, Mohamed M Mira, Belay T Ayele, Tran-Nguyen Nguyen, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
During maize somatic embryogenesis, suppression of phytoglobins (Pgbs) reduced ABA levels leading to ethylene-induced programmed cell death in the developing embryos. These effects modulate embryonic yield depending on the cellular localization of specific phytoglobin gene expression. Suppression of Zea mays phytoglobins (ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2) during somatic embryogenesis induces programmed cell death (PCD) by elevating nitric oxide (NO). While ZmPgb1.1 is expressed in many embryonic domains and its suppression results in embryo abortion, ZmPgb1...
February 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446008/enhanced-resistance-to-citrus-canker-in-transgenic-mandarin-expressing-xa21-from-rice
#18
Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443926/the-pleiotropic-effects-of-the-canonical-wnt-pathway-in-early-development-and-pluripotency
#19
REVIEW
Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Willy Antoni Abreu de Oliveira, Frederic Lluis
The technology to derive embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells from early embryonic stages and adult somatic cells, respectively, emerged as a powerful resource to enable the establishment of new in vitro models, which recapitulate early developmental processes and disease. Additionally, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an invaluable source of relevant differentiated cell types with immense potential for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapies. Pluripotent stem cells support self-renewal, potency and proliferation for extensive periods of culture in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443056/primordial-germ-cell-transplantation-for-crispr-cas9-based-leapfrogging-in-xenopus
#20
Ira L Blitz
The creation of mutant lines by genome editing is accelerating genetic analysis in many organisms. CRISPR/Cas9 methods have been adapted for use in the African clawed frog, Xenopus, a longstanding model organism for biomedical research. Traditional breeding schemes for creating homozygous mutant lines with CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis have several time-consuming and laborious steps. To facilitate the creation of mutant embryos, particularly to overcome the obstacles associated with knocking out genes that are essential for embryogenesis, a new method called leapfrogging was developed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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