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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911846/dna-methylome-of-the-20-gigabase-norway-spruce-genome
#1
Israel Ausin, Suhua Feng, Chaowei Yu, Wanlu Liu, Hsuan Yu Kuo, Elise L Jacobsen, Jixian Zhai, Javier Gallego-Bartolome, Lin Wang, Ulrika Egertsdotter, Nathaniel R Street, Steven E Jacobsen, Haifeng Wang
DNA methylation plays important roles in many biological processes, such as silencing of transposable elements, imprinting, and regulating gene expression. Many studies of DNA methylation have shown its essential roles in angiosperms (flowering plants). However, few studies have examined the roles and patterns of DNA methylation in gymnosperms. Here, we present genome-wide high coverage single-base resolution methylation maps of Norway spruce (Picea abies) from both needles and somatic embryogenesis culture cells via whole genome bisulfite sequencing...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909790/strigolactones-affect-tomato-hormone-profile-and-somatic-embryogenesis
#2
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898696/regulation-of-gonad-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-btb-family-transcription-factors
#3
Diane Silva, Kenneth W Olsen, Magdalena N Bednarz, Andrew Droste, Christopher P Lenkeit, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Emily R Temple-Wood, Jennifer C Jemc
During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893856/spatial-distribution-of-selected-chemical-cell-wall-components-in-the-embryogenic-callus-of-brachypodium-distachyon
#4
Alexander Betekhtin, Magdalena Rojek, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Robert Gawecki, Jagna Karcz, Ewa Kurczynska, Robert Hasterok
Brachypodium distachyon L. Beauv. (Brachypodium) is a species that has become an excellent model system for gaining a better understanding of various areas of grass biology and improving plant breeding. Although there are some studies of an in vitro Brachypodium culture including somatic embryogenesis, detailed knowledge of the composition of the main cell wall components in the embryogenic callus in this species is missing. Therefore, using the immunocytochemical approach, we targeted 17 different antigens of which five were against the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), three were against extensins, six recognised pectic epitopes and two recognised hemicelluloses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879674/transcriptome-analysis-of-mrna-and-mirna-in-somatic-embryos-of-larix-leptolepis-subjected-to-hydrogen-treatment
#5
Yali Liu, Suying Han, Xiangming Ding, Xinmin Li, Lifeng Zhang, Wanfeng Li, Haiyan Xu, Zhexin Li, Liwang Qi
Hydrogen is a therapeutic antioxidant that has been used extensively in clinical trials. It also acts as a bioactive molecule that can alleviate abiotic stress in plants. However, the biological effects of hydrogen in somatic embryos and the underlying molecular basis remain largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and physiological influence of exogenous H₂ treatment during somatic embryogenesis was characterized in Larix leptolepis Gordon. The results showed that exposure to hydrogen increased the proportions of active pro-embryogenic cells and normal somatic embryos...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875251/the-impact-of-transposable-elements-on-mammalian-development
#6
REVIEW
Jose L Garcia-Perez, Thomas J Widmann, Ian R Adams
Despite often being classified as selfish or junk DNA, transposable elements (TEs) are a group of abundant genetic sequences that have a significant impact on mammalian development and genome regulation. In recent years, our understanding of how pre-existing TEs affect genome architecture, gene regulatory networks and protein function during mammalian embryogenesis has dramatically expanded. In addition, the mobilization of active TEs in selected cell types has been shown to generate genetic variation during development and in fully differentiated tissues...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857452/embryonic-development-and-a-quantitative-model-of-programmed-dna-elimination-in-mesocyclops-edax-s-a-forbes-1891-copepoda-cyclopoida
#7
Michelle K Clower, Ashton S Holub, Rebecca T Smith, Grace A Wyngaard
The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination...
2016: Journal of Crustacean Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835015/setting-the-clock-for-fail-safe-early-embryogenesis
#8
Rolf Fickentscher, Philipp Struntz, Matthias Weiss
The embryogenesis of the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a remarkably robust self-organization phenomenon. Cell migration trajectories in the early embryo, for example, are well explained by mechanical cues that push cells into positions where they experience the least repulsive forces. Yet, how this mechanically guided progress in development is properly timed has remained elusive so far. Here, we show that cell volumes and division times are strongly anticorrelated during the early embryogenesis of C...
October 28, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829356/alternative-evolution-of-a-spheroidal-colony-in-volvocine-algae-developmental-analysis-of-embryogenesis-in-astrephomene-volvocales-chlorophyta
#9
Shota Yamashita, Yoko Arakaki, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Akira Noga, Masafumi Hirono, Hisayoshi Nozaki
BACKGROUND: Volvocine algae, which range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox with a germ-soma division of labor, are a model for the evolution of multicellularity. Within this group, the spheroidal colony might have evolved in two independent lineages: Volvocaceae and the goniacean Astrephomene. Astrephomene produces spheroidal colonies with posterior somatic cells. The feature that distinguishes Astrephomene from the volvocacean algae is lack of inversion during embryogenesis; the volvocacean embryo undergoes inversion after successive divisions to orient flagella toward the outside...
November 9, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818605/the-potential-of-using-biotechnology-to-improve-cassava-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Paul Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Alejandro Brand, Adriana Medina, Mónica Prías, Roosevelt Escobar, Juan Martinez, Paula Díaz, Camilo López, Willy M Roca, Joe Tohme
The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into the future. The history of the development of the first transgenic cassava plant serves as the basis to explore molecular aspects of somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus production...
2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807644/differential-proteome-analysis-during-early-somatic-embryogenesis-in-musa-spp-aaa-cv-grand-naine
#11
Marimuthu Kumaravel, Subbaraya Uma, Suthanthiram Backiyarani, Marimuthu Somasundaram Saraswathi, Muthu Mayil Vaganan, Muthusamy Muthusamy, Kallu Purayil Sajith
Endogenous hormone secretion proteins along with stress and defense proteins play predominant role in banana embryogenesis. This study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism during transition from vegetative to embryogenic state. Banana (Musa spp.) is well known globally as a food fruit crop for millions. The requirement of quality planting material of banana is enormous. Although mass multiplication through tissue culture is in vogue, high-throughput techniques like somatic embryogenesis (SE) as a mass multiplication tool needs to be improved...
November 2, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803191/transcriptional-analysis-of-serk1-and-serk3-coreceptor-mutants
#12
G Wilma van Esse, Colette A Ten Hove, Francesco Guzzonato, H Peter van Esse, Mark Boekschoten, Lars Ridder, Jacques Vervoort, Sacco C de Vries
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) are ligand-binding coreceptors that are able to combine with different ligand-perceiving receptors such as BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2. Phenotypical analysis of serk single mutants is not straightforward because multiple pathways can be affected, while redundancy is observed for a single phenotype. For example, serk1serk3 double mutant roots are insensitive toward brassinosteroids but have a phenotype different from bri1 mutant roots...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794101/gene-regulation-by-the-agl15-transcription-factor-reveals-hormone-interactions-in-somatic-embryogenesis
#13
Qiaolin Zheng, Yumei Zheng, Huihua Ji, Whitney Burnie, Sharyn E Perry
The MADS box transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) and a putative ortholog from soybean (Glycine max), GmAGL15, are able to promote somatic embryogenesis (SE) in these plants when ectopically expressed. SE is an important means of plant regeneration, but many plants, or even particular cultivars, are recalcitrant for this process. Understanding how (Gm)AGL15 promotes SE by identifying and characterizing direct and indirect downstream regulated genes can provide means to improve regeneration by SE for crop improvement and to perform molecular tests of genes...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783182/bottlenecks-in-bog-pine-multiplication-by-somatic-embryogenesis-and-their-visualization-with-the-environmental-scanning-electron-microscope
#14
Helena Vlašínová, Vilem Neděla, Biljana Đorđević, Ladislav Havel
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755960/cell-dedifferentiation-callus-induction-and-somatic-embryogenesis-in-crataegus-spp
#15
N Taimori, D Kahrizi, V Abdossi, A H Papzan
The present study describes the effects of light conditions, different kinds and concentrations of auxins [Naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] with cytokinin (Kin) in MS medium on callus induction and embryogenesis in Crataegus pseudoheterophylla, C. aronia and C.meyeri. At first leave explants sections were cultured on different combinations of plant growth regulators in dark and light for callus initiation and light conditions to evaluation the percentage and duration of survival, callus diameter, callus fresh weight and dry...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752244/acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-and-antibacterial-activity-of-mondia-whitei-adventitious-roots-and-ex-vitro-grown-somatic-embryogenic-biomass
#16
Ponnusamy Baskaran, Aloka Kumari, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Johannes Van Staden
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729724/regeneration-of-soapnut-tree-through-somatic-embryogenesis-and-assessment-of-genetic-fidelity-through-issr-and-rapd-markers
#17
Reetika Singh, Sarvesh Pratap Kashyap, Nishi Kumari, Major Singh
Somatic embryogenic system was developed in Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. using rachis as explants from a mature tree. Explants showed callus initiation on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with TDZ (1-Phenyl-3-(1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea), zeatin or 6-benzylaminopurine. Induction of somatic embryogenesis was achieved on both MS basal medium and MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine. Hundred percent embryogenesis was observed on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 µM 6-benzylaminopurine with maximum intensity of embryogenesis (51...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717645/transorganogenesis-and-transdifferentiation-in-c-elegans-are-dependent-on-differentiated-cell-identity
#18
Misty R Riddle, Erik A Spickard, Angela Jevince, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Pradeep M Joshi, Joel H Rothman
The differentiated cell identities and structure of fully formed organs are generally stable after their development. In contrast, we report here that development of the C. elegans proximal somatic gonad (hermaphrodite uterus and spermathecae, and male vas deferens) can be redirected into intestine-like organs by brief expression of the ELT-7 GATA transcription factor. This process converts one developing organ into another and can hence be considered "transorganogenesis." We show that, following pulsed ELT-7 expression, cells of the uterus activate and maintain intestine-specific gene expression and are transformed at the ultrastructural level to form an epithelial tube resembling the normal intestine formed during embryogenesis...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716808/bovine-lhx8-a-germ-cell-specific-nuclear-factor-interacts-with-figla
#19
Liyuan Fu, Mingxiang Zhang, Kristen Mastrantoni, Mark Perfetto, Shuo Wei, Jianbo Yao
LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8) is a germ cell-specific transcription factor essential for the development of oocytes during early oogenesis. In mice, Lhx8 deficiency causes postnatal oocyte loss and affects the expression of many oocyte-specific genes. The aims of this study were to characterize the bovine Lhx8 gene, determine its mRNA expression during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, and evaluate its interactions with other oocyte-specific transcription factors. The bovine Lhx8 gene encodes a protein of 377 amino acids...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660030/serking-coreceptors-for-receptors
#20
REVIEW
Xiyu Ma, Guangyuan Xu, Ping He, Libo Shan
Plants have evolved a large number of cell surface-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), many of which are implicated in sensing extrinsic and intrinsic signals, and govern diverse cellular responses. The signaling pathways mediated by RLKs and RLPs converge at a small group of RLKs, somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), via ligand-induced heterodimerization and transphosphorylation. As shared coreceptors in diverse signaling receptorsomes, SERKs exhibit functional plasticity yet maintain a high degree of signaling specificity...
December 2016: Trends in Plant Science
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