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somatic embryogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721076/hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer-function-mechanism-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Chuanqing Wu, Xiaojie Zhu, Weizhen Liu, Tuo Ruan, Kaixiong Tao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal cancers worldwide. It is a complicated and often fatal cancer, and is related to a high disease-related mortality. Around 90% of mortalities are caused by the metastasis of CRC. Current treatment statistics shows a less than 5% 5-year survival for patients with metastatic disease. The development and metastasis of CRC involve multiple factors and mechanisms. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in embryogenesis and somatic development...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717174/over-expression-of-kdsoc1-gene-affected-plantlet-morphogenesis-in-kalanchoe-daigremontiana
#2
Chen Zhu, Li Wang, Jinhua Chen, Chenglan Liu, Huiming Zeng, Huafang Wang
Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685479/neoteric-trends-in-tissue-culture-mediated-biotechnology-of-indian-ipecac-tylophora-indica-burm-f-merrill
#3
REVIEW
Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu
Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684628/defects-in-dosage-compensation-impact-global-gene-regulation-in-the-mouse-trophoblast
#4
Yuka Sakata, Koji Nagao, Yuko Hoki, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Chikashi Obuse, Takashi Sado
Xist RNA responsible for X inactivation is one of the most important epigenetic players for embryogenesis of female mammals. Of the several repeats conserved in Xist RNA, the A-repeat has been shown to be essential for its silencing function in differentiating ES cells. Here, we introduced a new Xist allele into the mouse, which produces mutated Xist RNA lacking the A-repeat (Xist(CAGΔ5') ). Xist(CAGΔ5') RNA expressed in the embryo coated the X chromosome but failed to silence it. Although imprinted X inactivation was substantially compromised upon paternal transmission, allele-specific RNA-seq in the trophoblast revealed that Xist(CAGΔ5') RNA still retained some silencing ability...
July 6, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681159/selectable-marker-independent-transformation-of-recalcitrant-maize-inbred-b73-and-sorghum-p898012-mediated-by-morphogenic-regulators-baby-boom-and-wuschel2
#5
Muruganantham Mookkan, Kimberly Nelson-Vasilchik, Joel Hague, Zhanyuan J Zhang, Albert P Kausch
Discriminatory co-expression of maize BBM and WUS transcriptional factor genes promoted somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of recalcitrant maize inbred B73 and sorghum P898012 genotypes without use of a selectable marker gene. The use of morphogenic regulators to overcome barriers in plant transformation is a revolutionary breakthrough for basic plant science and crop applications. Current standard plant transformation systems are bottlenecks for genetic, genomic, and crop improvement studies...
July 5, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678868/carbohydrate-mediated-responses-during-zygotic-and-early-somatic-embryogenesis-in-the-endangered-conifer-araucaria-angustifolia
#6
Bruno V Navarro, Paula Elbl, Amanda P De Souza, Vinicius Jardim, Leandro F de Oliveira, Amanda F Macedo, André L W Dos Santos, Marcos S Buckeridge, Eny I S Floh
Three zygotic developmental stages and two somatic Araucaria angustifolia cell lines with contrasting embryogenic potential were analyzed to identify the carbohydrate-mediated responses associated with embryo formation. Using a comparison between zygotic and somatic embryogenesis systems, the non-structural carbohydrate content, cell wall sugar composition and expression of genes involved in sugar sensing were analyzed, and a network analysis was used to identify coordinated features during embryogenesis. We observed that carbohydrate-mediated responses occur mainly during the early stages of zygotic embryo formation, and that during seed development there are coordinated changes that affect the development of the different structures (embryo and megagametophyte)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676820/arabinogalactan-proteins-are-involved-in-salt-adaptation-and-vesicle-trafficking-in-tobacco-by-2-cell-cultures
#7
Enrique Olmos, Jesús García De La Garma, Maria C Gomez-Jimenez, Nieves Fernandez-Garcia
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667644/somatic-embryogenesis-in-guava-psidium-guajava-l-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Madhu Kamle, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly perishable fruit crop comparable to mango owing to its high medicinal value and intense aroma. The presence of high genetic variability limits the chances of further expansion of guava improvement using biotechnological interventions. Conventional methods of guava improvement encountered with restricted achievement in progress of disease resistant varieties because of existing high genetic variability in the germplasm. There is a considerable demand for the establishment of successful and efficient regeneration protocols via somatic embryogenesis...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665924/somatic-pik3ca-mutations-are-present-in-multiple-tissues-of-facial-infiltrating-lipomatosis
#9
Javier A Couto, Dennis J Konczyk, Matthew P Vivero, Harry P W Kozakewich, Joseph Upton, Xi Fu, Bonnie L Padwa, John B Mulliken, Matthew L Warman, Arin K Greene
BACKGROUND: Facial infiltrating lipomatosis (FIL) is a congenital disorder that causes overgrowth of one side of the face. The purpose of this study was to determine if PIK3CA mutations are present in tissues outside of the subcutaneous adipose. METHODS: FIL tissues from 3 patients were dissected to enrich for cells from skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oris muscle, buccal fat, zygomatic bone, and mucosal neuroma. Endothelial cells within affected tissue also were enriched using CD31-microbeads...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648844/novel-functions-for-the-rna-binding-protein-etr-1-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-reproduction-and-engulfment-of-germline-apoptotic-cell-corpses
#10
Ruby Boateng, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Andy Golden, Anna K Allen
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential regulators of gene expression that act through a variety of mechanisms to ensure the proper post-transcriptional regulation of their target RNAs. RBPs in multiple species have been identified as playing crucial roles during development and as having important functions in various adult organ systems, including the heart, nervous, muscle, and reproductive systems. ETR-1, a highly conserved ELAV-Type RNA-binding protein belonging to the CELF/Bruno protein family, has been previously reported to be involved in C...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607033/perception-of-root-active-cle-peptides-requires-coryne-function-in-the-phloem-vasculature
#11
Ora Hazak, Benjamin Brandt, Pietro Cattaneo, Julia Santiago, Antia Rodriguez-Villalon, Michael Hothorn, Christian S Hardtke
Arabidopsis root development is orchestrated by signaling pathways that consist of different CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide ligands and their cognate CLAVATA (CLV) and BARELY ANY MERISTEM (BAM) receptors. How and where different CLE peptides trigger specific morphological or physiological changes in the root is poorly understood. Here, we report that the receptor-like protein CLAVATA 2 (CLV2) and the pseudokinase CORYNE (CRN) are necessary to fully sense root-active CLE peptides. We uncover BAM3 as the CLE45 receptor in the root and biochemically map its peptide binding surface...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597418/influence-of-led-light-spectra-on-in-vitro-somatic-embryogenesis-and-lc-ms-analysis-of-chlorogenic-acid-and-rutin-in-peucedanum-japonicum-thunb-a-medicinal-herb
#12
Chia-Chen Chen, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal, Maw-Rong Lee, Ren-Jye Lee, Chao-Lin Kuo, Chi-Rei Wu, Hsin-Sheng Tsay, Hung-Chi Chang
BACKGROUND: Peucedanum japonicum Thunb, an important medicinal herb is reported to possess pharmacological properties such as anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation. The present study aimed to develop an in vitro plant regeneration system of P. japonicum via somatic embryogenesis and to analyse chlorogenic acid and rutin contents in a few commercially available plant products of P. japonicum in Japan and Taiwan markets, and tissue culture plants derived from somatic embryos...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584112/causes-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-mode-in-metazoans
#13
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
In animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ lines, the cell lineages that produce sperm and eggs. PGCs form in embryogenesis, typically by one of two modes: a likely ancestral mode wherein germ cells are induced during embryogenesis by cell-cell signaling (induction) or a derived mechanism whereby germ cells are specified by using germ plasm-that is, maternally specified germ-line determinants (inheritance). The causes of the shift to germ plasm for PGC specification in some animal clades remain largely unknown, but its repeated convergent evolution raises the question of whether it may result from or confer an innate selective advantage...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554310/ion-channel-and-neurotransmitter-modulators-as-electroceutical-approaches-to-the-control-of-cancer
#14
Jack Tuszynski, Tatiana M Tilli, Michael Levin
The activities of individual cells must be tightly coordinated in order to build and maintain complex 3-dimensional body structures during embryogenesis and regeneration. Thus, one way to view cancer is within systems biology as a network disorder affecting the ability of cells to properly interact with a morphodynamic field of instructive signals that keeps proliferation and migration orchestrated toward the anatomical needs of the host organism. One layer of this set of instructive microenvironmental cues is bioelectrical...
May 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553064/degeneration-pattern-in-somatic-embryos-of-pinus-sylvestris-l
#15
Malin Abrahamsson, Silvia Valladares, Irene Merino, Emma Larsson, Sara von Arnold
Somatic embryos can be used for propagating forest trees vegetatively, which is of great importance for capturing the genetic gain in breeding programs. However, many economically important Pinus species are difficult or impossible to propagate via somatic embryogenesis. In order to get a better understanding of the difficulties to propagate Pinus species via somatic embryogenesis, we are studying the developmental pathway of somatic embryos in different cell lines. In a previous study, we showed that the morphology of early somatic embryos in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) differs between cell lines giving rise to normal or abnormal cotyledonary embryos...
2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526530/insights-into-the-early-stage-of-pinus-nigra-arn-somatic-embryogenesis-using-discovery-proteomics
#16
Katarína Klubicová, Lubica Uvácková, Maksym Danchenko, Peter Nemecek, Ludovít Skultéty, Ján Salaj, Terézia Salaj
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#17
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501323/reliable-and-practical-methods-for-cryopreservation-of-embryogenic-cultures-and-cold-storage-of-somatic-embryos-of-norway-spruce
#18
Saila Varis, Susanna Ahola, Laura Jaakola, Tuija Aronen
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is considered as the most-effective method for vegetative propagation of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst). For mass propagation, a cryopreservation method able to handle large numbers of embryogenic tissues (ETs) reliably and at low costs is needed. The aim of the present study was to compare pretreatments, cryoprotectants and slow-cooling devices for cryopreservation of Norway spruce ETs, with 12 variations of methods and a total of 136 spruce genotypes. Secondly, possible applications for cold storage of mature somatic embryos were studied with the aim of developing a flexible time window for embling production...
May 10, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500251/expression-of-distinct-maternal-and-somatic-5-8s-18s-and-28s-rrna-types-during-zebrafish-development
#19
Mauro D Locati, Johanna F B Pagano, Geneviève Girard, Wim A Ensink, Marina van Olst, Selina van Leeuwen, Ulrike Nehrdich, Herman P Spaink, Han Rauwerda, Martijs J Jonker, Rob J Dekker, Timo M Breit
There is mounting evidence that the ribosome is not a static translation machinery, but a cell-specific, adaptive system. Ribosomal variations have mostly been studied at the protein level, even though the essential transcriptional functions are primarily performed by rRNAs. At the RNA level, oocyte-specific 5S rRNAs are long known for Xenopus. Recently, we described for zebrafish a similar system in which the sole maternal-type 5S rRNA present in eggs, is replaced completely during embryonic development by a somatic-type...
May 12, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496454/expression-analyses-of-embryogenesis-associated-genes-during-somatic-embryogenesis-of-adiantum-capillus-veneris-l-in-vitro-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-reproductive-organs-in-land-plants
#20
Xia Li, Jing-Dan Han, Yu-Han Fang, Shu-Nong Bai, Guang-Yuan Rao
An efficient in vitro regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis (SE) was developed for a fern species Adiantum capillus-veneris. Adventitious shoots, green globular bodies (GGBs) and calli were obtained with the maximal induction rate on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium of low concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) (0-1.0 mg/L), 2.0 mg/L BA without 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5-1.0 mg/L 6-BA, respectively. Cyto-morphological and histological changes in the shoot development via calli and GGBs were examined...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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