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somatic embryogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330564/proteomic-analysis-of-stipe-explants-reveals-differentially-expressed-proteins-involved-in-early-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-of-the-tree-fern-cyathea-delgadii-sternb
#1
Lucyna Domżalska, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska, Małgorzata Grzyb, Mirosław Sobczak, Jan J Rybczyński, Anna Mikuła
Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330141/evaluation-of-biochemical-markers-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-silybum-marianum-l
#2
Bilal Haider Abbasi, Huma Ali, Buhara Yücesan, Sabahat Saeed, Khalid Rehman, Mubarak Ali Khan
In present report effects of explants type, basal media and plant growth regulators (PGRs) were tested for induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in medicinally important plant Silybum marianum L. Leaf, petiole and root explants were exploited in vitro on B5 (Gamborg), SH (Schenk and Hildebrandt) and MS (Murashige and Skoog) media for induction of embryogenic callus followed by somatic embryogenesis. Highest callus induction frequency (76 ± 4.8 %) was recorded when petiole explants of in vitro derived plantlets were cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 1...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329761/somatic-mutations-reveal-asymmetric-cellular-dynamics-in-the-early-human-embryo
#3
Young Seok Ju, Inigo Martincorena, Moritz Gerstung, Mia Petljak, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Raheleh Rahbari, David C Wedge, Helen R Davies, Manasa Ramakrishna, Anthony Fullam, Sancha Martin, Christopher Alder, Nikita Patel, Steve Gamble, Sarah O'Meara, Dilip D Giri, Torril Sauer, Sarah E Pinder, Colin A Purdie, Åke Borg, Henk Stunnenberg, Marc van de Vijver, Benita K T Tan, Carlos Caldas, Andrew Tutt, Naoto T Ueno, Laura J van 't Veer, John W M Martens, Christos Sotiriou, Stian Knappskog, Paul N Span, Sunil R Lakhani, Jórunn Erla Eyfjörd, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Andrea Richardson, Alastair M Thompson, Alain Viari, Matthew E Hurles, Serena Nik-Zainal, Peter J Campbell, Michael R Stratton
Somatic cells acquire mutations throughout the course of an individual's life. Mutations occurring early in embryogenesis are often present in a substantial proportion of, but not all, cells in postnatal humans and thus have particular characteristics and effects. Depending on their location in the genome and the proportion of cells they are present in, these mosaic mutations can cause a wide range of genetic disease syndromes and predispose carriers to cancer. They have a high chance of being transmitted to offspring as de novo germline mutations and, in principle, can provide insights into early human embryonic cell lineages and their contributions to adult tissues...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315794/initiation-of-leaf-somatic-embryogenesis-involves-high-pectin-esterification-auxin-accumulation-and-dna-demethylation-in-quercus-alba
#4
Elena Corredoira, Vanesa Cano, Ivett Bárány, María-Teresa Solís, Héctor Rodríguez, Ana-María Vieitez, María C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
Somatic embryogenesis is considered a convenient tool for investigating the regulating mechanisms of embryo formation; it is also a feasible system for in vitro regeneration procedures, with many advantages in woody species. Nevertheless, trees have shown recalcitrance to somatic embryogenesis, and its efficiency remains very low in many cases. Consequently, despite the clear potential of somatic embryogenesis in tree breeding programs, its application is limited since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation have not yet been completely elucidated...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300473/cells-on-the-move-modulation-of-guidance-cues-during-germ-cell-migration
#5
Girish Deshpande, Justinn Barr, Offer Gerlitz, Lyubov Lebedeva, Yulii Shidlovskii, Paul Schedl
In Drosophila melanogaster the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are formed on the outside surface of the early embryo, while the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) are specified during mid-embryogenesis. To form the primitive embryonic gonad, the PGCs travel from outside of the embryo, across the mid-gut and then migrate through the mesoderm to the SGPs. The migratory path of PGCs is dictated by a series of attractive and repulsive cues. Studies in our lab have shown that one of the key chemoattractants is the Hedgehog (Hh) ligand...
March 16, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290060/morpho-histological-histochemical-and-molecular-evidences-related-to-cellular-reprogramming-during-somatic-embryogenesis-of-the-model-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#6
Evelyn Jardim Oliveira, Andréa Dias Koehler, Diego Ismael Rocha, Lorena Melo Vieira, Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro, Elyabe Monteiro de Matos, Ana Claudia Ferreira da Cruz, Thais Cristina Ribeiro da Silva, Francisco André Ossamu Tanaka, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira, Wagner Campos Otoni
The wild grass species Brachypodium distachyon (L.) has been proposed as a new model for temperate grasses. Among the biotechnological tools already developed for the species, an efficient induction protocol of somatic embryogenesis (SE) using immature zygotic embryos has provided the basis for genetic transformation studies. However, a systematic work to better understanding the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the SE process of this grass species is still missing. Here, we present new insights at the morpho-histological, histochemical, and molecular aspects of B...
March 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#7
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261842/sperm-rna-preparation-for-transcriptomic-analysis-review-of-the-techniques-and-personal-experience
#8
S El Fekih, M-H Nguyen, A Perrin, D Beauvillard, F Morel, A Saad, H Ben Ali, M De Braekeleer
In the last 10 years, several approaches, including microarrays, have been applied to investigate sperm transcript levels. However, success using microarray profiling is highly dependent of the quality of the RNA obtained. Therefore, the development of methods that deliver highly purified and intact RNA is of utmost importance. The three steps used to achieve this goal, purification of spermatozoa, RNA extraction and evaluation of RNA quality, are reviewed. Following that review and preliminary experiments, we processed sperm samples from seven normozoospermic men with a combination of gradient centrifugation and somatic cell lysis...
March 6, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255787/expression-profiling-of-auxin-response-factor-genes-during-somatic-embryogenesis-induction-in-arabidopsis
#9
Barbara Wójcikowska, Małgorzata D Gaj
Extensive modulation of numerous ARF transcripts in the embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis indicates a substantial role of auxin signaling in the mechanism of somatic embryogenesis induction. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is induced by auxin in plants and auxin signaling is considered to play a key role in the molecular mechanism that controls the embryogenic transition of plant somatic cells. Accordingly, the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes in embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis was analyzed. The study revealed that 14 of the 22 ARFs were transcribed during SE in Arabidopsis...
March 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246394/somatic-embryogenesis-of-immature-cunninghamia-lanceolata-lamb-hook-zygotic-embryos
#10
Ruiyang Hu, Yuhan Sun, Bo Wu, Hongjing Duan, Huiquan Zheng, Dehuo Hu, Huazhong Lin, Zaikang Tong, Jinliang Xu, Yun Li
Two efficient somatic embryogenesis systems were developed in Chinese fir, the most important conifer for industrial wood production in China. Three development stages (cleavage polyembryony, dominant embryo, and precotyledon) of immature embryos derived from 25 genotypes of open-pollinated mother trees were used as initial explants. Cleavage polyembryony-stage embryos with a 12.44% induction rate was the most embryogenic response stage. The highest frequency of embryogenic callus (13.86%) induction was obtained from DCR medium supplemented with 1...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199692/cellular-localization-of-the-arabidopsis-class-2-phytoglobin-influences-somatic-embryogenesis
#11
Cara Godee, Mohamed M Mira, Owen Wally, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167951/micrornas-are-intensively-regulated-during-induction-of-somatic-embryogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#12
Katarzyna Szyrajew, Dawid Bielewicz, Jakub Dolata, Anna M Wójcik, Katarzyna Nowak, Aleksandra Szczygieł-Sommer, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Artur Jarmolowski, Małgorzata D Gaj
Several genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) were indicated to have a key role in the induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE), which is triggered in the somatic cells of plants. In order to further explore the genetic regulatory network that is involved in the embryogenic transition induced in plant somatic cells, micro-RNA (miRNAs) molecules, the products of MIRNA (MIR) genes and the common regulators of TF transcripts, were analyzed in an embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis thaliana. In total, the expression of 190 genes of the 114 MIRNA families was monitored during SE induction and the levels of the primary (pri-miRNAs) transcripts vs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124254/probing-activation-and-deactivation-of-the-brassinosteroid-insensitive1-receptor-kinase-by-immunoprecipitation
#13
Sara Martins, Grégory Vert, Yvon Jaillais
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are sterol-derived hormones that control plant growth and development. The BR receptor complex is encoded by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and members of the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE family. For activation and deactivation, the BR receptor complex uses different posttranslational modifications and recruits various partner proteins. Here, we describe optimized immunoprecipitation protocols and variants for biochemical analyses of posttranslational modifications of BRI1 and of protein-protein interactions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124252/identification-of-brassinosteroid-signaling-complexes-by-coimmunoprecipitation-and-mass-spectrometry
#14
Walter van Dongen, Luc van Heerde, Sjef Boeren, Sacco C de Vries
A combination of coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) of tagged proteins followed by protein identification and quantitation using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LCMS/MS) has proven to be a reliable method to qualitatively characterize membrane-bound receptor complexes from plants. Success depends on a range of parameters, such as abundance and stability of the complex and functionality of the tagged receptors, efficiency of the protein complex isolation procedure, MS equipment, and analysis software in use...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115159/dnd-protein-functions-as-a-translation-repressor-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#15
Manami Kobayashi, Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Yasuka Ohkawa, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Kunio Inoue
Germline and somatic cell distinction is regulated through a combination of microRNA and germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins in zebrafish. An RNA-binding protein, DND, has been reported to relieve the miR-430-mediated repression of some germ plasm mRNAs such as nanos3 and tdrd7 in primordial germ cells (PGCs). Here, we showed that miR-430-mediated repression is not counteracted by the overexpression of DND protein in somatic cells. Using a λN-box B tethering assay in the embryo, we found that tethering of DND to reporter mRNA results in translation repression without affecting mRNA stability...
January 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114413/visualization-of-bri1-and-serk3-bak1-nanoclusters-in-arabidopsis-roots
#16
Stefan J Hutten, Danny S Hamers, Marije Aan den Toorn, Wilma van Esse, Antsje Nolles, Christoph A Bücherl, Sacco C de Vries, Johannes Hohlbein, Jan Willem Borst
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1). To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102431/totipotency-in-the-mouse
#17
REVIEW
Guangming Wu, Lei Lei, Hans R Schöler
In mammals, the unicellular zygote starts the process of embryogenesis and differentiates into all types of somatic cells, including both fetal and extraembryonic lineages-in a highly organized manner to eventually give rise to an entire multicellular organism comprising more than 200 different tissue types. This feature is referred to as totipotency. Upon fertilization, oocyte maternal factors epigenetically reprogram the genomes of the terminally differentiated oocyte and spermatozoon and turn the zygote into a totipotent cell...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101788/embling-production-in-althaea-officinalis-l-through-somatic-embryogenesis-and-their-appraisal-via-histological-and-scanning-electron-microscopical-studies
#18
Ruphi Naz, Mohammad Anis, Abdulrahman A Alatar
In vitro propagation of a medicinally important plant, Althaea officinalis, has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos (globular to torpedo-shaped embryos) were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium augmented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25.0) alone or combined with N6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μM). These were directly formed from the cut ends and subsequently spread on the whole surface of internodal explants...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095419/prc2-represses-hormone-induced-somatic-embryogenesis-in-vegetative-tissue-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Iva Mozgová, Rafael Muñoz-Viana, Lars Hennig
Many plant cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that allows ectopic organ development. Inducing totipotent states to stimulate somatic embryo (SE) development is, however, challenging due to insufficient understanding of molecular barriers that prevent somatic cell dedifferentiation. Here we show that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-activity imposes a barrier to hormone-mediated transcriptional reprogramming towards somatic embryogenesis in vegetative tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana. We identify factors that enable SE development in PRC2-depleted shoot and root tissue and demonstrate that the establishment of embryogenic potential is marked by ectopic co-activation of crucial developmental regulators that specify shoot, root and embryo identity...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078730/a-fern-aintegumenta-gene-mirrors-baby-boom-in-promoting-apogamy-in-ceratopteris-richardii
#20
Linh T Bui, Dzevida Pandzic, Christopher E Youngstrom, Simon Wallace, Erin E Irish, Péter Szövényi, Chi-Lien Cheng
Asexual reproduction is widespread in land plants, including ferns where 10% of all species are obligate asexuals. In these ferns, apogamous sporophytes are generated directly from gametophytes, bypassing fertilization. In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, a sexual species, apogamy can be induced by culture on high sugar media. BABY BOOM (BBM) genes in angiosperms are known to promote somatic embryogenesis, which like apogamy produce sporophytes without fertilization. Here, a Brassica napus BBM (BnBBM) was used to investigate genetic similarity between apogamy in ferns and somatic embryogenesis in angiosperms...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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