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somatic embryogenesis

Taejeong Bae, Livia Tomasini, Jessica Mariani, Bo Zhou, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Daniel Franjic, Mihovil Pletikos, Reenal Pattni, Bo-Juen Chen, Elisa Venturini, Bridget Riley-Gillis, Nenad Sestan, Alexander E Urban, Alexej Abyzov, Flora M Vaccarino
Somatic mosaicism in the human brain may alter function of individual neurons. We analyzed genomes of single cells from the forebrains of three human fetuses (15 to 21 weeks post-conception) using clonal cell populations. We detected 200-400 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) per cell. SNV patterns resembled those found in cancer cell genomes, indicating a role of background mutagenesis in cancer. SNVs with a frequency of >2% in brain were shared with the spleen, revealing a pregastrulation origin. We reconstructed cell lineages for the first five post-zygotic cleavages and calculated a mutation rate of ~1...
December 7, 2017: Science
Hua-Guo Zhu, Wen-Han Cheng, Wen-Gang Tian, Yang-Jun Li, Feng Liu, Fei Xue, Qian-Hao Zhu, Yu-Qiang Sun, Jie Sun
KEY MESSAGE: iTRAQ based proteomic identified key proteins and provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis in cotton. Somatic embryogenesis, which involves cell dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, has been used as a model system for understanding molecular events of plant embryo development in vitro. In this study, we performed comparative proteomics analysis using samples of non-embryogenic callus (NEC), embryogenic callus (EC) and somatic embryo (SE) using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology...
December 6, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Naholi D Alejandri-Ramírez, Elva C Chávez-Hernández, Jose L Contreras-Guerra, Jose L Reyes, Tzvetanka D Dinkova
Somatic embryogenesis represents an alternative developmental process used to achieve genetic transformation and to approach key questions in maize development. It is known that embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration are accompanied by microRNA expression changes. However, small RNA (sRNA) populations have not been explored during the proliferative callus subculture establishment and their impact on maintaining the dedifferentiated status and embryogenic potential is far from being completely understood...
November 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
L Bolognini, F Donato, A Lucchetti, I Olivotto, C Truzzi, B Randazzo, M Antonucci, S Illuminati, F Grati
This work aims to provide deeper knowledge on reproductive biology of P. kerathurus in a multidisciplinary way. Upon 789 examined females, 285 were found inseminated. The logistic equation enabled to estimate the size at first maturity at 30.7 mm CL for female. The Gono-Somatic Index (GSI) showed a pronounced seasonality, ranged from 0.80 ± 0.34 to 11.24 ± 5.72. Histological analysis highlighted five stages of ovarian development. Gonadal fatty acids analysis performed with gas chromatograph evidenced a pronounced seasonal variation; total lipids varied from 1...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tània San Pedro, Najet Gammoudi, Rosa Peiró, Antonio Olmos, Carmina Gisbert
BACKGROUND: Somatic embryogenesis is the preferred method for cell to plant regeneration in Vitis vinifera L. However, low frequencies of plant embryo conversion are commonly found. In a previous work we obtained from cut-seeds of a grapevine infected with the Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3), high rates of direct regeneration, embryo plant conversion and sanitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure for regeneration of other grapevine varieties which include some infected with one to three common grapevine viruses (GLRaV-3, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV))...
November 29, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Young H Lim, Zoe Moscato, Keith A Choate
Genetic mosaicism arises when a zygote harbors two or more distinct genotypes, typically due to de novo, somatic mutation during embryogenesis. The clinical manifestations largely depend on the differentiation status of the mutated cell; earlier mutations target pluripotent cells and generate more widespread disease affecting multiple organ systems. If gonadal tissue is spared-as in somatic genomic mosaicism-the mutation and its effects are limited to the proband, whereas mosaicism also affecting the gametes, such as germline or gonosomal mosaicism, is transmissible...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
Carlos Díaz-Castillo
Although in recent years the study of gene expression variation in the absence of genetic or environmental cues or gene expression heterogeneity has intensified considerably, many basic and applied biological fields still remain unaware of how useful the study of gene expression heterogeneity patterns might be for the characterization of biological systems and/or processes. Largely based on the modulator effect chromatin compaction has for gene expression heterogeneity and the extensive changes in chromatin compaction known to occur for specialized cells that are naturally or artificially induced to revert to less specialized states or dedifferentiate, I recently hypothesized that processes that concur with cell dedifferentiation would show an extensive reduction in gene expression heterogeneity...
2017: PeerJ
Ruth E Márquez-López, Cleyre Pérez-Hernández, Ángela Ku-González, Rosa María Galaz-Ávalos, Víctor Manuel Loyola-Vargas
Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling zygotic embryo development, but less is known about their role in the development of somatic embryos. The aim of this study was to determine if indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the PIN1 transporter participate in the induction of somatic embryogenesis (SE) and the development of somatic embryos. The results show that IAA levels gradually increase during pre-treatment and accumulate in the chloroplast. During pre-treatment and the globular stage of SE in C...
November 8, 2017: Protoplasma
María-Teresa Llebrés, María-Belén Pascual, Sandrine Debille, Jean-François Trontin, Luc Harvengt, Concepción Avila, Francisco M Cánovas
Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings...
November 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Anastasia Lukianchikov, Grace Hancock, Jill Zimmerman, Matthew Lowe, Rachel Kim, Zoran Galic, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Steven E Jacobsen, Amander T Clark
In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
T C Mamedes-Rodrigues, D S Batista, N M Vieira, E M Matos, D Fernandes, A Nunes-Nesi, C D Cruz, L F Viccini, F T S Nogueira, W C Otoni
Brachypodium distachyon, a model species for forage grasses and cereal crops, has been used in studies seeking improved biomass production and increased crop yield for biofuel production purposes. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the morphogenetic pathway that supports in vitro regeneration of such species. However, there are gaps in terms of studies on the metabolic profile and genetic stability along successive subcultures. The physiological variables and the metabolic profile of embryogenic callus (EC) and embryogenic structures (ES) from successive subcultures (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, and 360-day-old subcultures) were analyzed...
October 28, 2017: Protoplasma
Kiyoung Eun, Seon-Ung Hwang, Yeon Woo Jeong, Sunyoung Seo, Seon Yong Lee, Woo Suk Hwang, Sang-Hwan Hyun, Hyunggee Kim
BACKGROUND: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful biotechnological tool for transgenic animal production using genetically modified somatic cells (GMSCs). However, there are several limitations preventing successful transgenic animal generation by SCNT, such as obtaining proper somatic donor cells with a sufficiently long life span and proliferative capacity for generating GMSCs. Here, we established simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40LT)-mediated lifespan-extended canine fibroblast cells (SV40LT-K9 cells) and evaluated their potential as nuclei donors for SCNT, based on cellular integrity and SCNT embryo development...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
Yun Lin, Zhigang Zhao, Shirong Zhou, Linglong Liu, Weiyi Kong, Haiyuan Chen, Wuhua Long, Zhiming Feng, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate several aspects of plant growth and development. Although extensive studies have shown that BR signaling is conservative in higher plants, the molecular mechanism of regulating plant architecture in rice still remains to be explored. Here, we characterized a rice mutant named top bending panicle1 (tbp1). Compared to wild type, tbp1 mutant plants displayed semi-dwarf stature, erect leaves, small and round grains, as well as more tillers. Remarkably, the panicles of tbp1 plants were shorter and denser, and the tops of the panicles were curved by rolling of the base of flag leaves, which was later verified as due to reduced bulliform cell numbers...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Upinder S Gill, Juan C Serrani-Yarce, Hee-Kyung Lee, Kirankumar S Mysore
Brachypodium distachyon is a model grass species for economically important cereal crops. Efforts are in progress to develop useful functional genomic resources in Brachypodium. A tobacco retrotransposon, Tnt1, has been used successfully in recent past to generate insertional mutagenesis in several dicot plant species. Tnt1 retrotransposon replicates, transposes, and inserts at multiple random genomic locations in the plant genome. Transposition occurs only during somatic embryogenesis but not during seed transmission...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marjan Roshanfekrrad, Reza Zarghami, Hassan Hassani, Hedayat Zakizadeh, Ali Salari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Somatic embryogenesis techniques are used for cloning a wide range of varieties of date palms around the world. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method with the lowest cost and the greatest potential to obtain in vitro plantlets of date palm cv. Medjool. Also, produce embryogenic callus and somatic embryos without using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). METHODOLOGY: In this study, produced plantlets through somatic embryogenesis were used in vitro roots as explant cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media containing three level of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) (0, 3 and 6 mg L-1) plus two level of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0 and 2 mg L-1) plus 0...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
R G Rutledge, D Stewart, C Overton, K Klimaszewska
Within a plantation of clonal somatic embryo-derived white spruce trees that belonged to four genotypes, one genotype (G6) has consistently responded for the last 16 years, to the induction of somatic embryogenesis within primordial shoot explants. Analysis of fourteen individuals within this genotype subsequently revealed a group of clonal trees that were nonresponsive. This in turn provided a unique opportunity to conduct differential gene expression analysis in the absence of genotype-specific factors. Absolute qPCR was first used to expand the analysis of several genes previously identified via microarray analysis to be differentially expressed during SE induction, along with the inclusion of two nonresponsive genotypes...
2017: PloS One
Akanksha Singh, Paramjit Khurana
Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) belong to a small gene family of receptor-like kinases involved in signal transduction. A total of 54 genes were shortlisted from the wheat genome survey sequence of which 5 were classified as SERKs and 49 were identified as SERK-like (SERLs). Tissue- specific expression of TaSERKs at major developmental stages of wheat corroborates their indispensable role during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. TaSERK transcripts show inherent differences in their hormonal sensitivities, i...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria Ninova, Sam Griffiths-Jones, Matthew Ronshaugen
BACKGROUND: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of short (~26-31-nucleotide) non-protein-coding RNAs expressed in the metazoan germline. The piRNA pathway in arthropods is best understood in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster, where it acts to silence active transposable elements (TEs). Maternal loading of piRNAs in oocytes is further required for the inheritance of piRNA-mediated transposon defence. However, our understanding of the diversity, evolution and function of the piRNA complement beyond drosophilids is limited...
September 26, 2017: Genome Biology
Igor A Yakovlev, Carl G Fossdal
Epigenetic memory in Norway spruce affects the timing of bud burst and bud set, vitally important adaptive traits for this long-lived forest species. Epigenetic memory is established in response to the temperature conditions during embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis at different epitype inducing (EpI) temperatures closely mimics the natural processes of epigenetic memory formation in seeds, giving rise to epigenetically different clonal plants in a reproducible and predictable manner, with respect to altered bud phenology...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Shera Lesly, Jennifer L Bandura, Brian R Calvi
Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty (hd), and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd(272-9) , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality...
November 2017: Genetics
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