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cocoa pod borer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24306393/components-of-female-sex-pheromone-of-cocoa-pod-borer-moth-conopomorpha-cramerella
#1
P S Beevor, A Cork, D R Hall, B F Nesbitt, R K Day, J D Mumford
The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0...
January 1986: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23520451/shade-tree-diversity-cocoa-pest-damage-yield-compensating-inputs-and-farmers-net-returns-in-west-africa
#2
Hervé Bertin Bisseleua Daghela, Hervé Bertin Daghela Bisseleua, Daniel Fotio, Yede, Alain Didier Missoup, Stefan Vidal
Cocoa agroforests can significantly support biodiversity, yet intensification of farming practices is degrading agroforestry habitats and compromising ecosystem services such as biological pest control. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between agricultural matrix, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked shade index calculated from eight vegetation variables, with insect pests and beneficial insects (ants, wasps and spiders) in 20 cocoa agroforests differing in woody and herbaceous vegetation diversity...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21861656/sexual-dimorphism-of-pupae-and-adults-of-the-cocoa-pod-borer-conopomorpha-cramerella
#3
Francisco J Posada, Ike Virdiana, Maisin Navies, Monica Pava-Ripoll, Prakash Hebbar
This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening...
2011: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19765245/cocoa-pod-borer-conopomorpha-cramerella-snellen-in-papua-new-guinea-biosecurity-models-for-new-ireland-and-the-autonomous-region-of-bougainville
#4
Jian D L Yen, Edward K Waters, Andrew J Hamilton
Cocoa Pod Borer (Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen) (CPB) is an important pest of cocoa. Following its emergence as a pest in East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, in 2006, it was considered relevant to assess its potential spread to other cocoa growing regions. Its likelihood of introduction to the islands of Bougainville and New Ireland from East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea, was modeled using Monte Carlo simulation. This dispersal model was based around different scenarios, identifying trends rather than explicitly attempting to encapsulate true values...
February 2010: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18559177/activity-evaluation-of-cocoa-pod-borer-sex-pheromone-in-cacao-fields
#5
Aijun Zhang, Lip Foo Kuang, Navies Maisin, Bhanu Karumuru, David R Hall, Ike Virdiana, Smilja Lambert, Hussin Bin Purung, Shifa Wang, Prakash Hebbar
The previously identified female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, was re-evaluated for its attractive activity in different field conditions. It was found that lures containing 100-mug of synthetic sex pheromone blend, (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates, and the corresponding alcohols in a ratio of 40:60:4:6 in a polyethylene vial attracted male C. cramerella moths in Sabah and peninsular Malaysia and in Sumatra and Sulawesi, Indonesia, suggesting that the same pheromone strain existed in a wide stretch of the Indo-Malayan archipelago...
June 2008: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15787548/a-new-method-for-the-preparation-of-1-5-diynes-synthesis-of-4e-6z-10z-4-6-10-hexadecatrien-1-ol-the-pheromone-component-of-the-cocoa-pod-borer-moth-conopomorpha-cramerella
#6
Albán R Pereira, Jorge A Cabezas
[reaction: see text] A new method for the synthesis of 1,5-diynes, from the reaction of 1,3-dilithiopropyne and propargyl chlorides, was developed. This new methodology was used to prepare (4E,6Z,10Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrien-1-ol, one of the pheromone components of the cocoa pod borer moth Conopomorpha cramerella, in 51% overall yield.
April 1, 2005: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15307664/activity-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-toxins-against-cocoa-pod-borer-larvae
#7
Djoko Santoso, Tetty Chaidamsari, Soekadar Wiryadiputra, Ruud A de Maagd
Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of cocoa pod borer cause the pods of the cocoa tree to ripen prematurely. They are difficult to control with conventional measures. Preliminary assays identified five toxins that were more active than others. In two subsequent bioassays the activity of selected toxins was determined more accurately...
August 2004: Pest Management Science
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