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theobroma cacao

Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Brian Folt, Maureen A Donnelly, Craig Guyer
The conspecific attraction hypothesis predicts that individuals are attracted to conspecifics because conspecifics may be cues to quality habitat and/or colonists may benefit from living in aggregations. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are aposematic, territorial, and visually oriented-three characteristics which make dendrobatids an appropriate model to test for conspecific attraction. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using an extensive mark-recapture dataset of the strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Luciel Dos Santos Fernandes, Stefan Royaert, Fábio M Corrêa, Guiliana M Mustiga, Jean-Philippe Marelli, Ronan X Corrêa, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao is an important crop, its beans are key raw materials for the chocolate and cosmetic industries. Ceratocystis wilt of cacao (CWC) caused by Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a lethal disease for the crop. Therefore, the selection of resistant cacao varieties is one of the viable ways to minimize losses in cacao production. In this paper, we described the identification of a major QTL associated with CWC in an F1 mapping population from a cross between a resistant, "TSH 1188," and a susceptible genotype, "CCN 51...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emerson Alves Dos Santos, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Marcia Christina da Silva Branco, Ivanildes Conceição Dos Santos, Dario Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar, Raúl René Valle
Drought is worldwide considered one of the most limiting factors of Theobroma cacao production, which can be intensified by global climate changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotypic correlation among morphological characteristics of cacao progenies submitted to irrigation and drought conditions and their partitions into direct and indirect effects. Path analysis with phenotypic plasticity index was used as criteria for estimation of basic and explanatory variables. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a randomized block 21 x 2 factorial arrangement [21 cacao progenies obtained from complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and drought)] and six replications...
2018: PloS One
Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar, Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Julio A Di Rienzo, Fernando Casanoves
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use...
2018: PloS One
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Thalita Ravazo Tosarini, Priscila Zonzini Ramos, Gerson Profeta de Souza, Renata Moro Baroni, Katlin B Massirer, Rafael M Couñago, Jorge M C Mondego
The PR-1 proteins (pathogenesis-related protein 1) are involved in plant defense mechanisms against various pathogens. The genome of cacao (Theobroma cacao) encodes 14 PR-1 proteins, named TcPR-1a to TcPR-1n. Two of them, TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g, have a C-terminal expansion with high similarity to protein kinase domains, suggesting a receptor-like kinase (RLK) protein architecture. Moreover, TcPR-1g is highly expressed during cacao response to Witches' Broom Disease, caused by the fungus Moniliopthora perniciosa...
January 19, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Maciej Banach
Beyond the well-known effects on cognitive impairment of the Mediterranean diet, a number of studies have investigated the possible action on cognitive decline of different botanicals and phytochemicals, most of which are well-known anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents with a good tolerability and safety profile. In particular, the current literature supports the use of Ginkgo biloba, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and l-theanine, Theobroma cacao, Bacopa monnieri, Crocus sativus and curcumin, which might have a positive impact on cognitive impairment used alone or in combination with other nutraceuticals or traditional drugs...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Emanuele Scollo, David Neville, M Jose Oruna-Concha, Martine Trotin, Rainer Cramer
Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nanoUHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts...
December 27, 2017: Proteomics
Donald Livingstone, Conrad Stack, Guiliana M Mustiga, Dayana C Rodezno, Carmen Suarez, Freddy Amores, Frank A Feltus, Keithanne Mockaitis, Omar E Cornejo, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ashley DuVal, Salvador A Gezan, Guiliana Mustiga, Conrad Stack, Jean-Philippe Marelli, José Chaparro, Donald Livingstone, Stefan Royaert, Juan C Motamayor
Breeding programs of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lindsey Norgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Global Change Biology
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon Berdugo-Cely, Roberto Antonio Coronado, Yeny Patricia Zapata, Constanza Quintero, Gerardo Gallego-Sánchez, Roxana Yockteng
Beans of the species Theobroma cacao L., also known as cacao, are the raw material to produce chocolate. Colombian cacao has been classified as a fine flavor cacao that represents the 5% of cacao world's production. Colombian genetic resources from this species are conserved in ex situ and in-field germplasm banks, since T. cacao has recalcitrant seeds to desication and long-term storage. Currently, the collection of T. cacao of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) has approximately 700 germplasm accessions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bryan A Bailey, Harry C Evans, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Shahin S Ali, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. ; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: Moniliophthora roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. Moniliophthora roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
J Alberto Romero Navarro, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Adriana Arciniegas-Leal, Allan Mata-Quirós, Niina Haiminen, Guiliana Mustiga, Donald Livingstone Iii, Harm van Bakel, David N Kuhn, Laxmi Parida, Andrew Kasarskis, Juan C Motamayor
Chocolate is a highly valued and palatable confectionery product. Chocolate is primarily made from the processed seeds of the tree species Theobroma cacao . Cacao cultivation is highly relevant for small-holder farmers throughout the tropics, yet its productivity remains limited by low yields and widespread pathogens. A panel of 148 improved cacao clones was assembled based on productivity and disease resistance, and phenotypic single-tree replicated clonal evaluation was performed for 8 years. Using high-density markers, the diversity of clones was expressed relative to 10 known ancestral cacao populations, and significant effects of ancestry were observed in productivity and disease resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
E Muller, S Ravel, C Agret, F Abrokwah, H Dzahini-Obiatey, I Galyuon, K Kouakou, E C Jeyaseelan, J Allainguillaume, A Wetten
Cacao swollen shoot virus is a member of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus and is naturally transmitted to Theobroma cacao (L.) by several mealybug species. CSSV populations in West African countries are highly variable and genetically structured into several different groups based on the diversity in the first part of ORF3 which encodes the movement protein. To unravel the extent of isolate diversity and address the problems of low titer and mixed viral sequences in samples, we used Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq technology...
January 15, 2018: Virus Research
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, Mara Silvia Pinheiro Arruda, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Attilio Converti, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa
Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract...
November 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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