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theobroma cacao

Junea Leandro do Nascimento, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Joedson P Barroso, Pedro A O Mangabeira, Dário Ahnert, Artur G R Sousa, José Vitor S Silva, Virupax C Baligar
The objective of this study was to evaluate Cr toxicity in young plants of the CCN 51 Theobroma cacao genotype at different concentrations of Cr3+ in the soil (0, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg-1 ) through physiological, ultrastructural, antioxidant and molecular changes. Doses of 400 and 600 mg Cr3+ kg-1 soil severely affected foliar gas exchange, promoted by damages in photosynthetic machinery evidenced by the decrease in CO2 fixation. Decreased expression of psbA and psbO genes, changes in enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation also affected leaf gas exchange...
May 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sabitiu A Oyeleke, Abayomi M Ajayi, Solomon Umukoro, A O Aderibigbe, Olusegun George Ademowo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. have been used for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, measles and malaria in ethnomedicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark has not been fully elucidated. AIM: The anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions was investigated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao stem bark (EETc) and its dichloromethane (DCMF), ethylacetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) fractions was investigated in erythrocytes membrane stabilizing assay and carrageenan-induced paw oedema...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Van Thi Thuy Ho, Graham H Fleet, Jian Zhao
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of the bean pulp by microorganisms is essential for developing the precursors of chocolate flavour. Currently, the cocoa fermentation is still conducted by an uncontrolled traditional process via a consortium of indigenous species of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Although the essential contribution of yeasts to the production of good quality beans and, typical chocolate character is generally agreed, the roles of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria are less certain...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Mio Takase, Hideyuki Shigemori
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by aggregation of amyloid β-protein (Aβ). Aβ aggregates through β-sheet formation and induces cytotoxicity against neuronal cells. Inhibition of Aβ aggregation by naturally occurring compounds is thus a promising strategy for the treatment of AD. We have already reported that caffeoylquinic acids and phenylethanoid glycosides, which possess two or more catechol moieties, strongly inhibited Aβ aggregation. Clovamide (1) containing two catechol moieties, isolated from cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L...
April 22, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Michel S McElroy, Alberto J R Navarro, Guiliana Mustiga, Conrad Stack, Salvador Gezan, Geover Peña, Widem Sarabia, Diego Saquicela, Ignacio Sotomayor, Gavin M Douglas, Zoë Migicovsky, Freddy Amores, Omar Tarqui, Sean Myles, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches' broom disease (WBD) and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD), are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri , respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jia-Wen Li, Xiao-Yun Wang, Xin Zhang, Lei Gao, Li-Feng Wang, Xin-Hua Yin
Flavonol (‑)‑epicatechin (EPI) is primarily contained in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao), and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the health of the cardiovascular system. However, the effect and the underlying mechanism of EPI on myocardial ischemia induced cardiac injury has not yet been determined. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect whether EPI inhibited myocardial ischemia injury. An in vivo mouse myocardial ischemia model was induced by the ligation of left descending coronary artery for 7 days...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Adrien Servent, Renaud Boulanger, Fabrice Davrieux, Marie-Neige Pinot, Eric Tardan, Nelly Forestier-Chiron, Clotilde Hue
Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter...
May 2018: Food Research International
Valdeci S Bastos, Maria F S Santos, Laidson P Gomes, Analy M O Leite, Vânia M Flosi Paschoalin, Eduardo M Del Aguila
BACKGROUND: Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities; yeasts, lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria. The spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans by Theobroma cacao TSH565 clonal variety, a highly productive hybrid resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp. was investigated. The natural cocobiota involved in the spontaneous fermentation of this hybrid, in Southern Brazil, was investigated by using both a culture-dependent microbiological and a molecular analysis...
March 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emmy Tuenter, Kenn Foubert, Luc Pieters
Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids...
March 14, 2018: Planta Medica
Brian Folt, Maureen A Donnelly, Craig Guyer
The conspecific attraction hypothesis predicts that individuals are attracted to conspecifics because conspecifics may be cues to quality habitat and/or colonists may benefit from living in aggregations. Poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) are aposematic, territorial, and visually oriented-three characteristics which make dendrobatids an appropriate model to test for conspecific attraction. In this study, we tested this hypothesis using an extensive mark-recapture dataset of the strawberry poison frog ( Oophaga pumilio ) from La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Luciel Dos Santos Fernandes, Stefan Royaert, Fábio M Corrêa, Guiliana M Mustiga, Jean-Philippe Marelli, Ronan X Corrêa, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao is an important crop, its beans are key raw materials for the chocolate and cosmetic industries. Ceratocystis wilt of cacao (CWC) caused by Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a lethal disease for the crop. Therefore, the selection of resistant cacao varieties is one of the viable ways to minimize losses in cacao production. In this paper, we described the identification of a major QTL associated with CWC in an F1 mapping population from a cross between a resistant, "TSH 1188," and a susceptible genotype, "CCN 51...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emerson Alves Dos Santos, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Marcia Christina da Silva Branco, Ivanildes Conceição Dos Santos, Dario Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar, Raúl René Valle
Drought is worldwide considered one of the most limiting factors of Theobroma cacao production, which can be intensified by global climate changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotypic correlation among morphological characteristics of cacao progenies submitted to irrigation and drought conditions and their partitions into direct and indirect effects. Path analysis with phenotypic plasticity index was used as criteria for estimation of basic and explanatory variables. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a randomized block 21 x 2 factorial arrangement [21 cacao progenies obtained from complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and drought)] and six replications...
2018: PloS One
Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar, Marie Ange Ngo Bieng, Luz Marina Melgarejo, Julio A Di Rienzo, Fernando Casanoves
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use...
2018: PloS One
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Thalita Ravazo Tosarini, Priscila Zonzini Ramos, Gerson Souza Profeta, Renata Moro Baroni, Katlin B Massirer, Rafael M Couñago, Jorge M C Mondego
The PR-1 proteins (pathogenesis-related protein 1) are involved in plant defense mechanisms against various pathogens. The genome of cacao (Theobroma cacao) encodes 14 PR-1 proteins, named TcPR-1a to TcPR-1n. Two of them, TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g, have a C-terminal expansion with high similarity to protein kinase domains, suggesting a receptor-like kinase (RLK) protein architecture. Moreover, TcPR-1g is highly expressed during cacao response to Witches' Broom Disease, caused by the fungus Moniliopthora perniciosa...
June 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance...
April 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Maciej Banach
Beyond the well-known effects on cognitive impairment of the Mediterranean diet, a number of studies have investigated the possible action on cognitive decline of different botanicals and phytochemicals, most of which are well-known anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents with a good tolerability and safety profile. In particular, the current literature supports the use of Ginkgo biloba, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and l-theanine, Theobroma cacao, Bacopa monnieri, Crocus sativus and curcumin, which might have a positive impact on cognitive impairment used alone or in combination with other nutraceuticals or traditional drugs...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Emanuele Scollo, David Neville, M Jose Oruna-Concha, Martine Trotin, Rainer Cramer
Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts...
February 2018: Proteomics
Donald Livingstone, Conrad Stack, Guiliana M Mustiga, Dayana C Rodezno, Carmen Suarez, Freddy Amores, Frank A Feltus, Keithanne Mockaitis, Omar E Cornejo, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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