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theobroma cacao

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126366/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential-for-polyphenol-rich-cocoa-extract-obtained-by-agroindustrial-residue
#1
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, Mara Silvia Pinheiro Arruda, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Attilio Converti, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa
Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract...
November 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111715/environmental-growing-conditions-in-five-production-systems-induce-stress-response-and-affect-chemical-composition-of-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-beans
#2
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans deriving from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090642/aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-in-different-cocoa-clones-theobroma-cacao-l-developed-in-the-southern-region-of-bahia-brazil
#3
Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues Miranda, Tassia Cavalcante Pires, Eliete da Silva Bispo, Elisa Yoko Hirooka
Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes "witch's broom disease", research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease, however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, Aspergillus for example, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but which can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins...
November 1, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084273/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-cacao-wrky-transcription-factors-and-analysis-of-their-expression-in-response-to-witches-broom-disease
#4
Dayanne Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Daniel Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Luiz-Eduardo Del-Bem, Emily Bronze Dos Santos, Raner José Santana Silva, Karina Peres Gramacho, Michel Vincentz, Fabienne Micheli
Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048566/deciphering-the-theobroma-cacao-self-incompatibility-system-from-genomics-to-diagnostic-markers-for-self-compatibility
#5
Claire Lanaud, Olivier Fouet, Thierry Legavre, Uilson Lopes, Olivier Sounigo, Marie Claire Eyango, Benoit Mermaz, Marcos Ramos Da Silva, Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano, Xavier Argout, Gabor Gyapay, Herman Ebai Ebaiarrey, Kelly Colonges, Christine Sanier, Ronan Rivallan, Géraldine Mastin, Nicholas Cryer, Michel Boccara, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni, Karina Peres Gramacho, Didier Clément, Zoe Wilson
Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023007/optimization-of-culture-medium-for-the-growth-of-candida-sp-and-blastobotrys-sp-as-starter-culture-in-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-theobroma-cacao-using-response-surface-methodology-rsm
#6
N H Mahazar, Z Zakuan, H Norhayati, A S MeorHussin, Y Rukayadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985014/cacao-biotechnology-current-status-and-future-prospects
#7
REVIEW
Anushka M Wickramasuriya, Jim M Dunwell
Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955758/doxorubicin-induced-neuro-and-cardiotoxicities-in-experimental-rats-protection-against-oxidative-damage-by-theobroma-cacao-stem-bark
#8
A M Kosoko, O J Olurinde, O A Akinloye
80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group): baseline, normal saline (2 mL), α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight), 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE). All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX) intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days' oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946303/substantial-equivalence-analysis-in-fruits-from-three-theobroma-species-through-chemical-composition-and-protein-profiling
#9
Walter Pérez-Mora, Jesús V Jorrin-Novo, Luz Marina Melgarejo
Substantial equivalence studies were performed in three Theobroma spp., cacao, bicolor and grandiflorum through chemical composition analysis and protein profiling of fruit (pulp juice and seeds). Principal component analysis of sugar, organic acid, and phenol content in pulp juice revealed equivalence among the three species, with differences in some of the compounds that may result in different organoleptic properties. Proteins were extracted from seeds and pulp juice, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis and major spots subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and identification...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#10
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858747/soil-cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-in-honduras
#11
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Gauggel, M López, D Perla, V Gonzalez, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) is a trace metal without essential biological functions that is toxic to plants, animals and humans at low concentrations. It occurs naturally in soils, but inputs from anthropogenic sources have increased soil Cd contents worldwide. Cadmium uptake by cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to bring into force values for maximum Cd concentrations in cocoa products that would be exceeded by current products of various provenances from Latin America...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#12
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800846/saprotrophic-proteomes-of-biotypes-of-the-witches-broom-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#13
Sandra Pierre, Gareth W Griffith, Russell M Morphew, Luis A J Mur, Ian M Scott
Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774480/-effect-of-mixed-edaphic-bacterial-inoculants-in-the-early-development-of-improved-cocoa-cultivars-theobroma-cacao-l-in-a-traditional-agroforestry-system-of-oaxaca-mexico
#14
E Hipólito-Romero, M G Carcaño-Montiel, J M Ramos-Prado, E A Vázquez-Cabañas, L López-Reyes, J Ricaño-Rodríguez
Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia...
July 31, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762033/inducible-somatic-embryogenesis-in-theobroma-cacao-achieved-using-the-dex-activatable-transcription-factor-glucocorticoid-receptor-fusion
#15
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
November 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712318/phylogenetic-studies-and-comparative-chloroplast-genome-analyses-elucidate-the-basal-position-of-halophyte-nitraria-sibirica-nitrariaceae-in-the-sapindales
#16
Lu Lu, Xia Li, Zhaodong Hao, Liming Yang, Jingbo Zhang, Ye Peng, Haibin Xu, Ye Lu, Jin Zhang, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen, Tielong Cheng
Nitraria sibirica is a halophyte and belongs to the family Nitrariaceae. The chloroplast genome of Nitraria sibirica (159,466 bp) has a quadripartite structure, which consists of a large single-copy (87,914 bp) region, a small single-copy (18,316 bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (26,618 bp). Sequencing analyses indicate that the chloroplast genome contains 113 distinct genes, including 79 peptide-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. We also identified 105 perfect simple sequence repeats, 12 most divergent non-coding regions, and 6 most divergent coding regions when compared to the chloroplast genomes of the Sapindales plants...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683423/heavy-metal-accumulation-in-leaves-and-beans-of-cacao-theobroma-cacao-l-in-major-cacao-growing-regions-in-peru
#17
Enrique Arévalo-Gardini, Cesar O Arévalo-Hernández, Virupax C Baligar, Zhenli L He
Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco)...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682071/comprehensive-chemical-fingerprinting-of-high-quality-cocoa-at-early-stages-of-processing-effectiveness-of-combined-untargeted-and-targeted-approaches-for-classification-and-discrimination
#18
Federico Magagna, Alessandro Guglielmetti, Erica Liberto, Stephen E Reichenbach, Elena Allegrucci, Guido Gobino, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
This study investigates chemical information of volatile fractions of high-quality cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Malvaceae) from different origins (Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuela, Columbia, Java, Trinidad, and Sao Tomè) produced for fine chocolate. This study explores the evolution of the entire pattern of volatiles in relation to cocoa processing (raw, roasted, steamed, and ground beans). Advanced chemical fingerprinting (e.g., combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry allows advanced pattern recognition for classification, discrimination, and sensory-quality characterization...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679727/exposure-to-the-leaf-litter-microbiome-of-healthy-adults-protects-seedlings-from-pathogen-damage
#19
Natalie Christian, Edward Allen Herre, Luis C Mejia, Keith Clay
It is increasingly recognized that microbiota affect host health and physiology. However, it is unclear what factors shape microbiome community assembly in nature, and how microbiome assembly can be manipulated to improve host health. All plant leaves host foliar endophytic fungi, which make up a diverse, environmentally acquired fungal microbiota. Here, we experimentally manipulated assembly of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) fungal microbiome in nature and tested the effect of assembly outcome on host health...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646332/a-rational-approach-for-the-improvement-of-biomass-production-and-lipid-profile-in-cacao-cell-suspensions
#20
Adriana María Gallego Rúa, Luisa Fernanda Rojas, Aura Ines Urrea Trujillo, Oriana Parra Zuleta, Cristian David Correa Alvarez, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
Cocoa butter (CB) is produced in the seeds of Theobroma cacao representing 50% of its dry weight. The lipid composition plays an important role in the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of the CB, making this fat a valuable resource for the production of chocolates, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, are described experimental strategies used for a rational improvement of biomass production and fatty acids in cacao cell suspension cultures. First, the lipid profile in four cacao varieties is characterized, and then, one variety is selected to induce cell suspensions using a direct method without previous establishment of a callus phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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