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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#1
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858747/soil-cadmium-uptake-by-cocoa-in-honduras
#2
A Gramlich, S Tandy, C Gauggel, M López, D Perla, V Gonzalez, R Schulin
Cadmium (Cd) is a trace metal without essential biological functions that is toxic to plants, animals and humans at low concentrations. It occurs naturally in soils, but inputs from anthropogenic sources have increased soil Cd contents worldwide. Cadmium uptake by cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to bring into force values for maximum Cd concentrations in cocoa products that would be exceeded by current products of various provenances from Latin America...
August 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#3
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800846/saprotrophic-proteomes-of-biotypes-of-the-witches-broom-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#4
Sandra Pierre, Gareth W Griffith, Russell M Morphew, Luis A J Mur, Ian M Scott
Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774480/-effect-of-mixed-edaphic-bacterial-inoculants-in-the-early-development-of-improved-cocoa-cultivars-theobroma-cacao-l-in-a-traditional-agroforestry-system-of-oaxaca-mexico
#5
E Hipólito-Romero, M G Carcaño-Montiel, J M Ramos-Prado, E A Vázquez-Cabañas, L López-Reyes, J Ricaño-Rodríguez
Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia...
July 31, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762033/inducible-somatic-embryogenesis-in-theobroma-cacao-achieved-using-the-dex-activatable-transcription-factor-glucocorticoid-receptor-fusion
#6
Morgan E Shires, Sergio L Florez, Tina S Lai, Wayne R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: To carry out mass propagation of superior plants to improve agricultural and silvicultural production though advancements in plant cell totipotency, or the ability of differentiated somatic plant cells to regenerate an entire plant. RESULTS: The first demonstration of a titratable control over somatic embryo formation in a commercially relevant plant, Theobroma cacao (Chocolate tree), was achieved using a dexamethasone activatable chimeric transcription factor...
July 31, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712318/phylogenetic-studies-and-comparative-chloroplast-genome-analyses-elucidate-the-basal-position-of-halophyte-nitraria-sibirica-nitrariaceae-in-the-sapindales
#7
Lu Lu, Xia Li, Zhaodong Hao, Liming Yang, Jingbo Zhang, Ye Peng, Haibin Xu, Ye Lu, Jin Zhang, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen, Tielong Cheng
Nitraria sibirica is a halophyte and belongs to the family Nitrariaceae. The chloroplast genome of Nitraria sibirica (159,466 bp) has a quadripartite structure, which consists of a large single-copy (87,914 bp) region, a small single-copy (18,316 bp) region, and a pair of inverted repeats (26,618 bp). Sequencing analyses indicate that the chloroplast genome contains 113 distinct genes, including 79 peptide-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. We also identified 105 perfect simple sequence repeats, 12 most divergent non-coding regions, and 6 most divergent coding regions when compared to the chloroplast genomes of the Sapindales plants...
July 15, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683423/heavy-metal-accumulation-in-leaves-and-beans-of-cacao-theobroma-cacao-l-in-major-cacao-growing-regions-in-peru
#8
Enrique Arévalo-Gardini, Cesar O Arévalo-Hernández, Virupax C Baligar, Zhenli L He
Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco)...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682071/comprehensive-chemical-fingerprinting-of-high-quality-cocoa-at-early-stages-of-processing-effectiveness-of-combined-untargeted-and-targeted-approaches-for-classification-and-discrimination
#9
Federico Magagna, Alessandro Guglielmetti, Erica Liberto, Stephen E Reichenbach, Elena Allegrucci, Guido Gobino, Carlo Bicchi, Chiara Cordero
This study investigates chemical information of volatile fractions of high-quality cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Malvaceae) from different origins (Mexico, Ecuador, Venezuela, Columbia, Java, Trinidad, and Sao Tomè) produced for fine chocolate. This study explores the evolution of the entire pattern of volatiles in relation to cocoa processing (raw, roasted, steamed, and ground beans). Advanced chemical fingerprinting (e.g., combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry allows advanced pattern recognition for classification, discrimination, and sensory-quality characterization...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679727/exposure-to-the-leaf-litter-microbiome-of-healthy-adults-protects-seedlings-from-pathogen-damage
#10
Natalie Christian, Edward Allen Herre, Luis C Mejia, Keith Clay
It is increasingly recognized that microbiota affect host health and physiology. However, it is unclear what factors shape microbiome community assembly in nature, and how microbiome assembly can be manipulated to improve host health. All plant leaves host foliar endophytic fungi, which make up a diverse, environmentally acquired fungal microbiota. Here, we experimentally manipulated assembly of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) fungal microbiome in nature and tested the effect of assembly outcome on host health...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646332/a-rational-approach-for-the-improvement-of-biomass-production-and-lipid-profile-in-cacao-cell-suspensions
#11
Adriana María Gallego Rúa, Luisa Fernanda Rojas, Aura Ines Urrea Trujillo, Oriana Parra Zuleta, Cristian David Correa Alvarez, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
Cocoa butter (CB) is produced in the seeds of Theobroma cacao representing 50% of its dry weight. The lipid composition plays an important role in the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of the CB, making this fat a valuable resource for the production of chocolates, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this paper, are described experimental strategies used for a rational improvement of biomass production and fatty acids in cacao cell suspension cultures. First, the lipid profile in four cacao varieties is characterized, and then, one variety is selected to induce cell suspensions using a direct method without previous establishment of a callus phase...
June 23, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#12
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577147/enhancement-of-sorption-capacity-of-cocoa-shell-biomass-modified-with-non-thermal-plasma-for-removal-of-both-cationic-and-anionic-dyes-from-aqueous-solution
#13
Brice Takam, Elie Acayanka, Georges Y Kamgang, Merlin T Pedekwang, Samuel Laminsi
Removal of cationic dye, Azur II, and anionic dye, Reactive Red 2 (RR-2) from aqueous solutions, has been successfully achieved by using a modified agricultural biomaterial waste: cocoa shell husk (Theobroma cacao) treated by gliding arc plasma (CPHP). The biomass in its natural form CPHN and modified form CPHP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Experimental variables such as initial pH, contact time, and temperature were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of CPHN and CPHP...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546652/chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-flexibly-use-introduced-species-for-nesting-and-bark-feeding-in-a-human-dominated-habitat
#14
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Craig B Stanford
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540183/the-draft-genome-of-corchorus-olitorius-cv-jro-524-navin
#15
Debabrata Sarkar, Ajay Kumar Mahato, Pratik Satya, Avijit Kundu, Sangeeta Singh, Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Akshay Singh, Kaushlendra Bahadur, Sasmita Pattnaik, Nisha Singh, Avrajit Chakraborty, Nur Alam Mandal, Debajeet Das, Tista Basu, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Dipnarayan Saha, Subhojit Datta, Chandan Sourav Kar, Jiban Mitra, Karabi Datta, Pran Gobinda Karmakar, Tilak Raj Sharma, Trilochan Mohapatra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Here, we present the draft genome (377.3 Mbp) of Corchorus olitorious cv. JRO-524 (Navin), which is a leading dark jute variety developed from a cross between African (cv. Sudan Green) and indigenous (cv. JRO-632) types. We predicted from the draft genome a total of 57,087 protein-coding genes with annotated functions. We identified a large number of 1765 disease resistance-like and defense response genes in the jute genome. The annotated genes showed the highest sequence similarities with that of Theobroma cacao followed by Gossypium raimondii...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430024/cacao-phylloplane-the-first-battlefield-against-moniliophthora-perniciosa-which-causes-witches-broom-disease
#16
D S M Almeida, K P Gramacho, T H S Cardoso, F Micheli, F C Alvim, C P Pirovani
The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm(-2), respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation...
July 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#17
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299408/differential-gene-expression-of-longan-under-simulated-acid-rain-stress
#18
Shan Zheng, Tengfei Pan, Cuilan Ma, Dongliang Qiu
Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao...
May 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288552/microencapsulation-of-theobroma-cacao-l-waste-extract-optimization-using-response-surface-methodology
#19
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa, Attilio Converti
The cocoa extract (Theobroma cacao L.) has a significant amount of polyphenols (TP) with potent antioxidant activity (AA). This study aims to optimise microencapsulation of the extract of cocoa waste using chitosan and maltodextrin. Microencapsulation tests were performed according to a Box-Behnken factorial design, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology with temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MD) and extract flowrate (EF) as independent variables, and the fraction of encapsulated TP, TP encapsulation yield, AA, yield of drying and solubility index as responses...
March 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264305/two-new-eriophyoid-mite-species-trombidiformes-eriophyoidea-from-the-cocoa-tree-and-a-note-on-i-shevtchenkella-i-i-biseta-i-nalepa
#20
Daniela F S Rodrigues, Denise Navia, Anibal R Oliveira, Francisco Ferragut, Carlos H W Flechtmann
Two new eriophyoid mite species are described from the cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) - the Diptilomiopidae Davisella trevisani n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Brazil; and the Eriophyidae Tetra theobromae n. sp. Rodrigues, Navia & Oliveira, from Costa Rica. The new Davisella species presents an enlarged subcylindrical tubercle bearing pedipalp genual seta d, a novel structure for eriophyoid mites; its functional morphology was discussed. The new Tetra species is the third in this genus described from plants of the Malvaceae...
February 26, 2017: Zootaxa
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