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theobroma cacao

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313898/modulation-of-saturation-and-chain-length-of-fatty-acids-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-cocoa-butter-like-lipids
#1
David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Yongjun Wei, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance...
January 4, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289576/botanicals-and-phytochemicals-active-on-cognitive-decline-the-clinical-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Maciej Banach
Beyond the well-known effects on cognitive impairment of the Mediterranean diet, a number of studies have investigated the possible action on cognitive decline of different botanicals and phytochemicals, most of which are well-known anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents with a good tolerability and safety profile. In particular, the current literature supports the use of Ginkgo biloba, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and l-theanine, Theobroma cacao, Bacopa monnieri, Crocus sativus and curcumin, which might have a positive impact on cognitive impairment used alone or in combination with other nutraceuticals or traditional drugs...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280563/characterization-of-the-proteome-of-theobroma-cacao-beans-by-nanouhplc-esi-ms-ms
#3
Emanuele Scollo, David Neville, M Jose Oruna-Concha, Martine Trotin, Rainer Cramer
Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nanoUHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts...
December 27, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259608/a-larger-chocolate-chip-development-of-a-15k-theobroma-cacao-l-snp-array-to-create-high-density-linkage-maps
#4
Donald Livingstone, Conrad Stack, Guiliana M Mustiga, Dayana C Rodezno, Carmen Suarez, Freddy Amores, Frank A Feltus, Keithanne Mockaitis, Omar E Cornejo, Juan C Motamayor
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250097/genetic-parameters-and-the-impact-of-off-types-for-theobroma-cacao-l-in-a-breeding-program-in-brazil
#5
Ashley DuVal, Salvador A Gezan, Guiliana Mustiga, Conrad Stack, Jean-Philippe Marelli, José Chaparro, Donald Livingstone, Stefan Royaert, Juan C Motamayor
Breeding programs of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215784/neither-dark-nor-light-but-shades-in-between-cocoa-merits-a-finer-sampling
#6
Lindsey Norgrove
Abdulai et al. (2017), working in Akumadan in the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana, compared three cocoa (Theobroma cacao) systems in periods of wet, dry and extremely dry weather. These were cocoa grown: (a) in an agroforestry system under a leguminous tree (Albizia ferruginea); (b) in an agroforestry system under one of the most common shade trees (Antiaris toxicaria) in the region; and, (c) under "full sun conditions". During the extremely dry period, the cocoa in agroforestry systems had massive stress, reduced sap flux and high mortality...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209353/colombia-a-source-of-cacao-genetic-diversity-as-revealed-by-the-population-structure-analysis-of-germplasm-bank-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#7
Jaime A Osorio-Guarín, Jhon Berdugo-Cely, Roberto Antonio Coronado, Yeny Patricia Zapata, Constanza Quintero, Gerardo Gallego-Sánchez, Roxana Yockteng
Beans of the species Theobroma cacao L., also known as cacao, are the raw material to produce chocolate. Colombian cacao has been classified as a fine flavor cacao that represents the 5% of cacao world's production. Colombian genetic resources from this species are conserved in ex situ and in-field germplasm banks, since T. cacao has recalcitrant seeds to desication and long-term storage. Currently, the collection of T. cacao of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) has approximately 700 germplasm accessions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194910/monilophthora-roreri-causal-agent-of-cacao-frosty-pod-rot
#8
Bryan A Bailey, Harry C Evans, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Shahin S Ali, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. (1978); Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184558/application-of-genome-wide-association-and-genomic-prediction-for-improvement-of-cacao-productivity-and-resistance-to-black-and-frosty-pod-diseases
#9
J Alberto Romero Navarro, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Adriana Arciniegas-Leal, Allan Mata-Quirós, Niina Haiminen, Guiliana Mustiga, Donald Livingstone Iii, Harm van Bakel, David N Kuhn, Laxmi Parida, Andrew Kasarskis, Juan C Motamayor
Chocolate is a highly valued and palatable confectionery product. Chocolate is primarily made from the processed seeds of the tree species Theobroma cacao. Cacao cultivation is highly relevant for small-holder farmers throughout the tropics, yet its productivity remains limited by low yields and widespread pathogens. A panel of 148 improved cacao clones was assembled based on productivity and disease resistance, and phenotypic single-tree replicated clonal evaluation was performed for 8 years. Using high-density markers, the diversity of clones was expressed relative to 10 known ancestral cacao populations, and significant effects of ancestry were observed in productivity and disease resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169831/next-generation-sequencing-elucidates-cacao-badnavirus-diversity-and-reveals-the-existence-of-more-than-ten-viral-species
#10
E Muller, S Ravel, C Agret, F Abrokwah, H Dzahini-Obiatey, I Galyuon, K Kouakou, E C Jeyaseelan, J Allainguillaume, A Wetten
Cacao swollen shoot virus is a member of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus and is naturally transmitted to Theobroma cacao (L.) by several mealybug species. CSSV populations in West African countries are highly variable and genetically structured into several different groups based on the diversity in the first part of ORF3 which encodes the movement protein. To unravel the extent of isolate diversity and address the problems of low titer and mixed viral sequences in samples, we used Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq technology...
November 21, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126366/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-potential-for-polyphenol-rich-cocoa-extract-obtained-by-agroindustrial-residue
#11
Taís Vanessa Gabbay Alves, Russany Silva da Costa, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro Alberto Casazza, Patrizia Perego, Mara Silvia Pinheiro Arruda, José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior, Attilio Converti, Roseane Maria Ribeiro Costa
Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract...
November 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111715/environmental-growing-conditions-in-five-production-systems-induce-stress-response-and-affect-chemical-composition-of-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-beans
#12
Wiebke Niether, Inga Smit, Laura Armengot, Monika Schneider, Gerhard Gerold, Elke Pawelzik
Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans deriving from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090642/aflatoxins-and-ochratoxin-a-in-different-cocoa-clones-theobroma-cacao-l-developed-in-the-southern-region-of-bahia-brazil
#13
Leonardo Fonseca Maciel, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira Felício, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues Miranda, Tassia Cavalcante Pires, Eliete da Silva Bispo, Elisa Yoko Hirooka
Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes "witch's broom disease", research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease, however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, Aspergillus for example, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but which can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins...
November 1, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084273/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-cacao-wrky-transcription-factors-and-analysis-of-their-expression-in-response-to-witches-broom-disease
#14
Dayanne Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Daniel Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Luiz-Eduardo Del-Bem, Emily Bronze Dos Santos, Raner José Santana Silva, Karina Peres Gramacho, Michel Vincentz, Fabienne Micheli
Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048566/deciphering-the-theobroma-cacao-self-incompatibility-system-from-genomics-to-diagnostic-markers-for-self-compatibility
#15
Claire Lanaud, Olivier Fouet, Thierry Legavre, Uilson Lopes, Olivier Sounigo, Marie Claire Eyango, Benoit Mermaz, Marcos Ramos Da Silva, Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano, Xavier Argout, Gabor Gyapay, Herman Ebai Ebaiarrey, Kelly Colonges, Christine Sanier, Ronan Rivallan, Géraldine Mastin, Nicholas Cryer, Michel Boccara, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni, Karina Peres Gramacho, Didier Clément, Zoe Wilson
Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023007/optimization-of-culture-medium-for-the-growth-of-candida-sp-and-blastobotrys-sp-as-starter-culture-in-fermentation-of-cocoa-beans-theobroma-cacao-using-response-surface-methodology-rsm
#16
N H Mahazar, Z Zakuan, H Norhayati, A S MeorHussin, Y Rukayadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985014/cacao-biotechnology-current-status-and-future-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Anushka M Wickramasuriya, Jim M Dunwell
Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region...
October 6, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955758/doxorubicin-induced-neuro-and-cardiotoxicities-in-experimental-rats-protection-against-oxidative-damage-by-theobroma-cacao-stem-bark
#18
A M Kosoko, O J Olurinde, O A Akinloye
80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group): baseline, normal saline (2 mL), α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight), 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE). All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX) intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days' oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946303/substantial-equivalence-analysis-in-fruits-from-three-theobroma-species-through-chemical-composition-and-protein-profiling
#19
Walter Pérez-Mora, Jesús V Jorrin-Novo, Luz Marina Melgarejo
Substantial equivalence studies were performed in three Theobroma spp., cacao, bicolor and grandiflorum through chemical composition analysis and protein profiling of fruit (pulp juice and seeds). Principal component analysis of sugar, organic acid, and phenol content in pulp juice revealed equivalence among the three species, with differences in some of the compounds that may result in different organoleptic properties. Proteins were extracted from seeds and pulp juice, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis and major spots subjected to mass spectrometry analysis and identification...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#20
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
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