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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087663/evolution-and-structural-diversification-of-nictaba-like-lectin-genes-in-food-crops-with-a-focus-on-soybean-glycine-max
#1
Sofie Van Holle, Pierre Rougé, Els J M Van Damme
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba-like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039812/fast-non-aqueous-reversed-phase-liquid-chromatography-separation-of-triacylglycerol-regioisomers-with-isocratic-mobile-phase-application-to-different-oils-and-fats
#2
Arnaud W G Tamba Sompila, Sylvie Héron, Dorra Hmida, Alain Tchapla
The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028594/major-phytopathogens-and-strains-from-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l-are-differentiated-by-maldi-ms-lipid-and-or-peptide-protein-profiles
#3
Fábio Neves Dos Santos, Alessandra Tata, Kátia Roberta Anacleto Belaz, Dilze Maria Argôlo Magalhães, Edna Dora Martins Newman Luz, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin
Phytopathogens are the main disease agents that promote attack of cocoa plantations in all tropical countries. The similarity of the symptoms caused by different phytopathogens makes the reliable identification of the diverse species a challenge. Correct identification is important in the monitoring and management of these pests. Here we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is able to rapidly and reliably differentiate cocoa phytopathogens, namely Moniliophthora perniciosa, Phytophthora palmivora, P...
December 27, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011721/genome-analysis-of-hibiscus-syriacus-provides-insights-of-polyploidization-and-indeterminate-flowering-in-woody-plants
#4
Yong-Min Kim, Seungill Kim, Namjin Koo, Ah-Young Shin, Seon-In Yeom, Eunyoung Seo, Seong-Jin Park, Won-Hee Kang, Myung-Shin Kim, Jieun Park, Insu Jang, Pan-Gyu Kim, Iksu Byeon, Min-Seo Kim, JinHyuk Choi, Gunhwan Ko, JiHye Hwang, Tae-Jin Yang, Sang-Bong Choi, Je Min Lee, Ki-Byung Lim, Jungho Lee, Ik-Young Choi, Beom-Seok Park, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Doil Choi, Ryan W Kim
Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H...
December 22, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914320/biochemical-precursor-effects-on-the-fatty-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#5
O Parra, A M Gallego, A Urrea, L F Rojas, C Correa, L Atehortúa
Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871234/a-genome-wide-bac-end-sequence-survey-provides-first-insights-into-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-genome-composition
#6
Zengzhi Si, Bing Du, Jinxi Huo, Shaozhen He, Qingchang Liu, Hong Zhai
BACKGROUND: Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833051/theobromine-up-regulates-cerebral-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-facilitates-motor-learning-in-mice
#7
Mitsugu Yoneda, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Masanori Katakura, Kentaro Matsuzaki, Hayate Tanigami, Akihiro Yachie, Takako Ohno-Shosaku, Osamu Shido
Theobromine, which is a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. Theobromine works as a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP activates the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), which is involved in a large variety of brain processes, including the induction of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF supports cell survival and neuronal functions, including learning and memory. Thus, cAMP/CREB/BDNF pathways play an important role in learning and memory...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790069/endophytic-association-of-trichoderma-asperellum-within-theobroma-cacao-suppresses-vascular-streak-dieback-incidence-and-promotes-side-graft-growth
#8
Ade Rosmana, Nasaruddin Nasaruddin, Hendarto Hendarto, Andi Akbar Hakkar, Nursalim Agriansyah
Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769412/prediction-of-fermentation-index-of-cocoa-beans-theobroma-cacao-l-based-on-color-measurement-and-artificial-neural-networks
#9
Noemí León-Roque, Mohamed Abderrahim, Luis Nuñez-Alejos, Silvia M Arribas, Luis Condezo-Hoyos
Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625772/evaluation-of-different-fermentation-processes-for-use-by-small-cocoa-growers-in-mexico
#10
C Hernández-Hernández, Procopio Alejandro López-Andrade, Miguel A Ramírez-Guillermo, Diana Guerra Ramírez, Juan F Caballero Pérez
The aim of this research was to evaluate four different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentation conditions and their effect on fermented bean quality, in order to be able to recommend the most suitable condition to producers in the municipality of Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Fermentations were carried out in square wooden boxes with capacity for 1000, 300, and 100 kg of fresh beans, as well as a rotary drum with capacity for 500 kg thereof. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days, and the response variables measured were mass temperature, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, and acidity...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617028/shade-tree-diversity-and-aboveground-carbon-stocks-in-theobroma-cacao-agroforestry-systems-implications-for-redd-%C3%A2-implementation-in-a-west-african-cacao-landscape
#11
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604351/erratum-to-theobroma-cacao-l-pathogenesis-related-gene-tandem-array-members-show-diverse-expression-dynamics-in-response-to-pathogen-colonization
#12
Andrew S Fister, Luis C Mejia, Yufan Zhang, Edward Allen Herre, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596387/theobroma-cacao-extract-attenuates-the-development-of-dermatophagoides-farinae-induced-atopic-dermatitis-like-symptoms-in-nc-nga-mice
#13
Heerim Kang, Chang Hyung Lee, Jong Rhan Kim, Jung Yeon Kwon, Myoung-Jin Son, Jong-Eun Kim, Ki Won Lee
Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554321/cocoa-theobroma-cacao-polyphenol-rich-extract-increases-the-chronological-lifespan-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
I Baiges, L Arola
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534964/association-mapping-of-seed-and-disease-resistance-traits-in-theobroma-cacao-l
#15
Lambert A Motilal, Dapeng Zhang, Sue Mischke, Lyndel W Meinhardt, Michel Boccara, Olivier Fouet, Claire Lanaud, Pathmanathan Umaharan
Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT)...
December 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514442/modified-pectin-from-theobroma-cacao-induces-potent-pro-inflammatory-activity-in-murine-peritoneal-macrophage
#16
Juliana C Amorim, Lucia Cristina Vriesmann, Carmen L O Petkowicz, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Guilhermina R Noleto
In vitro effects of acetylated pectin (OP) isolated from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.), its partially deacetylated and de-esterified form (MOP), and a commercial homogalacturonan (PG) were investigated on murine peritoneal macrophages. MOP stood out among the studied pectins. After 48h of incubation, compared with the control group, it was able to promote significant macrophage morphological differentiation from resident to activated stage and also stimulated nitric oxide production, which reached a level of 85% of that of LPS stimulus...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504627/diallel-analysis-and-growth-parameters-as-selection-tools-for-drought-tolerance-in-young-theobroma-cacao-plants
#17
Emerson Alves Dos Santos, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Dario Ahnert, Marcia Christina da Silva Branco, Raúl René Valle, Virupax C Baligar
This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470560/procyanidin-rich-extract-of-natural-cocoa-powder-causes-ros-mediated-caspase-3-dependent-apoptosis-and-reduction-of-pro-mmp-2-in-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma-cell-lines
#18
Shruti Sanjay Taparia, Aparna Khanna
Over the last four centuries, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value. As of today, Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) and its products are consumed worldwide. They are of great research interest because of the concentration dependent antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties of some of their polyphenolic constituents, specially procyanidins and flavan-3-ols such as catechin. This study was aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular changes associated with cytotoxicity, caused due pro-oxidant activity of cocoa catechins and procyanidins, in ovarian cancer cell lines...
October 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454588/expression-of-the-theobroma-cacao-bax-inhibitor-1-gene-in-tomato-reduces-infection-by-the-hemibiotrophic-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#19
Danielle Camargo Scotton, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Ivan Sestari, Jamille Santos da Silva, Lucas Anjos Souza, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Gildemberg Amorim Leal, Antonio Figueira
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role in plant responses to pathogens, determining the success of infection depending on the pathogen lifestyle and on which participant of the interaction triggers cell death. The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao L (cacao), a serious constraint for production in South America and Caribbean. It has been hypothesized that M. perniciosa pathogenesis involves PCD, initially as a plant defense mechanism, which is diverted by the fungus to induce necrosis during the dikaryotic phase of the mycelia...
July 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403857/effect-of-cryopreservation-and-post-cryopreservation-somatic-embryogenesis-on-the-epigenetic-fidelity-of-cocoa-theobroma-cacao-l
#20
Raphael Adu-Gyamfi, Andy Wetten, Carlos Marcelino Rodríguez López
UNLABELLED: While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation...
2016: PloS One
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