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Anatomy of femur and knee

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427385/differences-between-native-and-prosthetic-knees-in-terms-of-cross-sectional-morphology-of-the-femoral-trochlea-a-study-based-on-three-dimensional-models-and-virtual-total-knee-arthroplasty
#1
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, You Wang
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional morphology of the prosthetic knee is crucial to understanding patellar motion and quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. However, few comparative evaluations of the cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea have been performed in the native knee and currently available femoral implants, and the relationship between the trochlear anatomy of prosthetic components and post-operative patellofemoral complications remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea between native knees and prosthetic femoral components...
April 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426251/current-concepts-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-biomechanics-and-reconstruction
#2
Matthew J Kraeutler, K Linnea Welton, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade, Eric C McCarty
In 1879, Paul Segond described an avulsion fracture (now known as a Segond fracture) at the anterolateral proximal tibia with the presence of a fibrous band at the location of this fracture. Although references to this ligament were occasionally made in the anatomy literature after Segond's discovery, it was not until 2012 that Vincent et al named this ligament what we know it as today, the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. The ALL originates near the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur and inserts on the proximal tibia near Gerdy's tubercle...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373945/technique-for-arthroscopic-assisted-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-using-doubled-tibialis-anterior-tendon
#3
Michael Rose, Dennis Crawford
Advances in surgical technique and our knowledge of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy have resulted in a marked increase in options for ACL reconstruction. Currently, patient age and activity level, surgeon preference and experience, and cost are factors influencing the type of reconstruction recommended to address knee instability. We present a simplified transtibial method of ACL reconstruction using a single-bundle, doubled tibialis anterior allograft. This method uses fixation with a suspensory device on the femur and a bio-composite interference screw on the tibia...
February 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320209/anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-function-imaging-and-treatment
#4
Ronak M Patel, Robert H Brophy
The anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee has gained attention recently for its potential role in rotational stability of the knee, especially in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Anatomic studies have characterized the ALL as it runs in an anteroinferior and oblique direction from the lateral distal femur to the anterolateral proximal tibia, although the prevalence and variance of this ligament are not well understood. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have identified the ligament and linked it with the classically described Segond fracture...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188083/ct-based-morphological-analysis-of-the-posterior-femoral-condyle-in-patients-with-trochlear-dysplasia
#5
Xiaohui Liu, Gang Ji, Xinmin Wang, Huijun Kang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: The anterior part of the distal femur in trochlear dysplasia has been well investigated; however, to date, posterior morphological characteristics have not been well studied. This study aimed to evaluate whether the posterior femoral condyle in patients with trochlear dysplasia differs from those without trochlear dysplasia. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 75 knees with trochlear dysplasia and 55 knees with normal anatomy of the patellofemoral joint were analyzed retrospectively...
February 7, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078394/kinematics-of-a-bicruciate-retaining-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Thomas J Heyse, Joshua Slane, Geert Peersman, Margo Dirckx, Arne van de Vyver, Philipp Dworschak, Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann, Lennart Scheys
PURPOSE: The recently reintroduced bicruciate-retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty (BCR TKA) is an interesting approach in the quest for close replication of knee joint biomechanics and kinematics closer to the native knee. Therefore, this study aimed at providing a detailed biomechanical view on the functional resemblance of BCR TKA to the native knee joint. METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen full leg cadaver specimens (76 ± 10 year) were mounted in a 6 degrees-of-freedom kinematic rig that applied a dynamic squatting motion knee flexion...
January 11, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051829/apophyseal-and-epiphyseal-knee-injuries-in-the-adolescent-athlete
#7
P Persiani, F M Ranaldi, A Formica, M Mariani, O Mazza, M Crostelli, C Villani
OBJECTIVES: In the context of pediatric sports injuries, the epiphyseal and apophyseal knee fractures represent rather peculiar lesions. The most frequently involved anatomical area is the knee. The peculiar function of the physis and the need to preserve their integrity, makes choosing what treatment methods to employ very important. Objective of this study is to assess the kind and the effectiveness of the most suitable treatment in the apophyseal and epiphyseal knee lesions occurring in the adolescents...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990614/anatomical-variation-in-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-and-a-new-dissection-technique-for-embalmed-cadaveric-specimens
#8
Matthew Parker, Heather F Smith
Claes et al. recently documented and described the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee, demonstrating its existence in 97% of their samples. Here, we further examined the anatomy of this ligament, documented its morphological variation, and assessed the feasibility of its dissection in preserved cadaveric specimens. To achieve this, we dissected 53 preserved cadaveric knees and documented their morphological variation in the anterolateral ligament. The originally described dissection technique for identifying and following the ALL requires flexion of the knee, a state which is often not possible in stiff, preserved cadavers...
December 18, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899355/the-anatomic-centers-of-the-femoral-and-tibial-insertions-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament
#9
Anagha P Parkar, Miraude E A P M Adriaensen, Søren Vindfeld, Eirik Solheim
BACKGROUND: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is regularly reconstructed if knee joint function is impaired. Anatomic graft tunnel placement, often assessed with varying measurement methods, in the femur and tibia is considered important for an optimal clinical outcome. A consensus on the exact location of the femoral and tibial footprint centers is lacking. PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature regarding anatomic centers of the femoral and tibial ACL footprints and assess the mean, median, and percentiles of normal centers...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704318/what-differences-in-morphologic-features-of-the-knee-exist-among-patients-of-various-races-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
T K Kim, Mark Phillips, Mohit Bhandari, John Watson, Rajesh Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Most TKA prostheses are designed based on the anatomy of white patients. Individual studies have identified key anthropometric differences between the knees of the white population and other major ethnic groups, yet there is limited understanding of what these findings may indicate if analyzed collectively. QUESTION/PURPOSE: What are the differences in morphologic features of the distal femur and proximal tibia among and within various ethnicities? METHODS: A systematic review of the PubMed database and a hand-search of article bibliographies identified 235 potentially eligible English-language studies...
January 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632062/on-the-use-of-knee-functional-calibration-to-determine-the-medio-lateral-axis-of-the-femur-in-gait-analysis-comparison-with-eos-biplanar-radiographs-as-reference
#11
Christophe Sauret, Hélène Pillet, Wafa Skalli, Morgan Sangeux
Accurate calibration of the medio-lateral axis of the femur is crucial for clinical decision making based on gait analysis. This study proposes a protocol utilizing biplanar radiographs to provide a reference medio-lateral axis based on the anatomy of the femur. The biplanar radiographs allowed 3D modelling of the bones of the lower limbs and the markers used for motion capture, in the standing posture. A comprehensive analysis was performed and results from biplanar radiographs were reliable for 3D marker localization (±0...
September 12, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598432/structural-diversity-of-the-vastus-intermedius-origin-revealed-by-analysis-of-isolated-muscle-specimens
#12
Shuntaro Yoshida, Koichiro Ichimura, Tatsuo Sakai
The quadriceps femoris (QF), a major extensor of the knee joint, plays an important role in human movement. However, descriptions of the three vastus muscles of the QF in anatomy textbooks remain confusing. We analyzed 33 QFs by a novel approach, using isolated muscle specimens to clarify the structures of the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI) origins. The origins of the VL and VM were quite constant in shape and location, but the VI was much more structurally diverse...
January 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448398/indications-and-anatomic-landmarks-for-the-application-of-lower-extremity-traction-a-review
#13
REVIEW
S F DeFroda, J A Gil, C T Born
PURPOSE: Fractures of the lower extremity, particularly of the femur and acetabulum, may be difficult to immobilize with splinting alone. These injuries may be best stabilized with the application of various types of skeletal traction. Often, traction is applied percutaneously in an emergent setting, making the knowledge of both superficial and deep anatomy crucial to successful placement. METHODS: Review was performed via PubMed search as well as referencing the Orthopaedic literature...
December 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412665/on-the-heterogeneity-of-the-femoral-enthesis-of-the-human-acl-microscopic-anatomy-and-clinical-implications
#14
Mélanie L Beaulieu, Grace E Carey, Stephen H Schlecht, Edward M Wojtys, James A Ashton-Miller
BACKGROUND: Most ruptures of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and ACL graft occur at, or near, the femoral enthesis, with the posterolateral fibers of the native ligament being especially vulnerable during pivot landings. Characterizing the anatomy of the ACL femoral enthesis may help us explain injury patterns which, in turn, could help guide injury prevention efforts. It may also lead to improved anatomic reconstruction techniques given that the goal of such techniques is to replicate the knee's normal anatomy...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389113/is-genicular-nerve-radiofrequency-ablation-safe-a-literature-review-and-anatomical-study
#15
REVIEW
Soo Yeon Kim, Phuong Uyen Le, Boleslav Kosharskyy, Alan D Kaye, Naum Shaparin, Sherry A Downie
Genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has recently gained popularity as an intervention for chronic knee pain in patients who have failed other conservative or surgical treatments. Long-term efficacy and adverse events are still largely unknown. Under fluoroscopic guidance, thermal RFA targets the lateral superior, medial superior, and medial inferior genicular nerves, which run in close proximity to the genicular arteries that play a crucial role in supplying the distal femur, knee joint, meniscus, and patella...
2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27369298/are-we-subluxating-knees-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-cadaveric-investigation
#16
Guenther Maderbacher, Armin Keshmiri, Hans R Springorum, Felix Greimel, Joachim Grifka, Clemens Baier
BACKGROUND: In comparison to coronal, sagittal, and rotational alignment, translational alignment parameters have been widely neglected in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) so far. As there is a certain variable range of possible component placement in mediolateral, ventrodorsal, and proximodistal direction, we hypothesized that relative positions between the femoral and tibial bones are changed after TKA, resulting in a subluxation of knees. METHODS: In 10 knees of Thiel-embalmed whole body cadavers, the relative position between the femur and the tibia during passive flexion was measured before and after TKA by means of a navigational device...
January 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299120/modified-ilizarov-in-difficult-fracture-of-the-patella-a-case-report
#17
Ranjit Kr Baruah
INTRODUCTION: Ilizarov technique yields satisfactory results in difficult situations. Widely displaced fracture of the patella after failed osteosynthesis is a difficult situation. We are reporting one such case in a 27 years old male treated by modified Ilizarov technique. CASE REPORT: A 27-years old male with transverse fracture of the patella was fixed with tension band wiring. He indulged in heavy manual work including bicycling after 15 days of operation contrary to advice that led to loosening of implants and failure of reduction...
January 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025870/-total-knee-arthroplasty-patient-specific-instruments-and-implants
#18
REVIEW
Andre F Steinert, Boris M Holzapfel, Lukas Sefrin, Jörg Arnholdt, Maik Hoberg, Maximilian Rudert
This article describes the concept and surgical technique of patient-specific total knee arthroplasty. Patient-specific implants and instruments are designed and fabricated based on computed tomography (CT) data of the leg. The disposable patient-specific drill guides and cutting-jigs are manufactured taking into consideration the anatomical and biomechanical axes of the knee joint and mediating the efficient pre-navigation of the osseous saw-cuts, without the need for additional navigation or balancing aids...
April 2016: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017498/intraoperative-application-of-hand-held-structured-light-scanning-a-feasibility-study
#19
Brandon Chan, Jason Auyeung, John F Rudan, Randy E Ellis, Manuela Kunz
PURPOSE: Structured light scanning is an emerging technology that shows potential in the field of medical imaging and image-guided surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying a hand-held structured light scanner in the operating theatre as an intraoperative image modality and registration tool. METHODS: We performed an in vitro study with three fresh frozen knee specimens and a clinical pilot study with three patients (one total knee arthroplasty and two hip replacements)...
June 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017201/lower-limb-anatomy-and-alignment-affect-natural-tibiofemoral-knee-kinematics-a-cadaveric-investigation
#20
Guenther Maderbacher, Clemens Baier, Hans R Springorum, Florian Zeman, Joachim Grifka, Armin Keshmiri
BACKGROUND: During flexion, normal knee kinematics consists of a complex combination of rolling, gliding, and rotation between femur and tibia. Although in vivo studies have shown wide interindividual variability, we hypothesized that knee kinematics is either correlated to the anatomy of the individual knee joint or to the anatomic alignment of the entire lower extremity. METHODS: The passive kinematics of 10 healthy knees was assessed in whole cadavers using a commercial computed tomography-free navigation device with intracortical pins...
September 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
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