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Anatomy of femur and knee

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100777/anisometry-of-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction-in-the-setting-of-increased-tibial-tubercle-trochlear-groove-distance-and-patella-alta
#1
Lauren H Redler, Kathleen N Meyers, Jacqueline M Brady, Elizabeth R Dennis, Joseph T Nguyen, Beth E Shubin Stein
PURPOSE: To assess the impact elevated tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance and patella height, as measured by the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI), have on the isometry of a reconstructed medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). METHODS: Nine fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were placed on a custom testing fixture, with a fixed femur and a mobile tibia. A suture fixed to the MPFL origin on the patella and free to move at the Schöttle point on the femur represented a reconstructed MPFL...
October 31, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098684/comparative-hindlimb-myology-of-foot-propelled-swimming-birds
#2
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038943/a-lower-limb-pelvis-finite-element-model-with-3d-active-muscles
#3
Fuhao Mo, Fan Li, Michel Behr, Zhi Xiao, Guanjun Zhang, Xianping Du
A lower limb-pelvis finite element (FE) model with active three-dimensional (3D) muscles was developed in this study for biomechanical analysis of human body. The model geometry was mainly reconstructed from a male volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile Chinese male. Tissue materials and structural features were established based on the literature and new implemented experimental tests. In particular, the muscle was modeled with a combination of truss and hexahedral elements to define its passive and active properties as well as to follow the detailed anatomy structure...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016187/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-the-medial-patellar-ligaments-an-anatomic-and-radiographic-study
#4
Bradley M Kruckeberg, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Mark E Cinque, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Jonathan A Godin, Taylor J Ridley, Alex W Brady, Elizabeth A Arendt, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the medial patellar stabilizers has been reported; however, a quantitative analysis of the anatomic and radiographic attachments of all 4 ligaments relative to anatomic and osseous landmarks, as well as to one another, has yet to be performed. PURPOSE: To perform a qualitative and quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL), medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL) attachment sites, with attention to their relationship to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939969/tibial-shaft-anatomy-differs-between-caucasians-and-east-asian-individuals
#5
Hongyi Shao, Chilung Chen, Daniel Scholl, Ahmad Faizan, Antonia F Chen
PURPOSE: The orientation and distance from the shaft of the femur and tibia to the articular surface centre is important for performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with cementless stems. It is important to understand anatomic differences between races to match the tibial and femoral shaft axis to the knee articular surface. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare knee morphology between Caucasian and East Asian individuals to determine the optimal placement of tibial and femoral stems...
September 22, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882491/anatomic-and-high-resolution-computed-tomographic-angiography-study-of-the-lateral-femoral-condyle-flap-implications-for-surgical-dissection
#6
Mohamed Morsy, Yoo Joon Sur, Osman Akdag, Amr Eisa, Tarek A El-Gammal, Nirusha Lachman, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: The lateral femoral condyle (LFC) flap is a vascularized bone flap based on the superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA). Harvest technique for this flap has not yet been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to better delineate the blood supply to the bone and skin of this flap to allow for a safe and effective harvest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three lower extremities were injected with latex or a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. The SLGA was identified and dissected, documenting the course, diameter, anatomical relations, length, and branches...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831554/the-impact-of-patient-specific-instrumentation-on-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-a-prospective-randomised-controlled-study
#7
Abtin Alvand, Tanvir Khan, Cathy Jenkins, Jonathan L Rees, William F Jackson, Christopher A F Dodd, David W Murray, Andrew J Price
PURPOSE: Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) has been proposed as a means of improving surgical accuracy and ease of implantation during technically challenging procedures such as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the accuracy of implantation and functional outcome of mobile-bearing medial UKAs implanted with and without PSI by experienced UKA surgeons. METHODS: Mobile-bearing medial UKAs were implanted in 43 patients using either PSI guides or conventional instrumentation...
August 22, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831525/large-correction-in-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-with-resultant-joint-line-obliquity-induces-excessive-shear-stress-on-the-articular-cartilage
#8
Hiroshi Nakayama, Steffen Schröter, Chie Yamamoto, Tomoya Iseki, Ryo Kanto, Kenji Kurosaka, Shunichiro Kambara, Shinichi Yoshiya, Masaru Higa
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyse the resultant stress induced by joint-line obliquity after HTO for varus knee deformity using a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model analysis. METHODS: The geometrical bone data used in this study were derived from commercially available human bone digital anatomy media. The 3D knee models were developed using 3D computer-aided design software. The articular surface was overlaid with a 2-mm-thick cartilage layer for both femoral and tibial condyles...
August 22, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828058/arthroscopic-knee-anatomy-in-young-achondroplasia-patients
#9
M Del Pilar Duque Orozco, N C Record, K J Rogers, M B Bober, W G Mackenzie, A Atanda
PURPOSE: Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. METHODS: Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733774/a-study-of-anatomy-of-distal-femur-pertaining-to-total-knee-replacement-an-analysis-conclusions-and-recommendations
#10
K Kumar, D Sharma
BACKGROUND: Multiple landmarks including the transepicondylar axis (TEA), posterior condylar axis (PCA) and anterior trochlear line (TL) have been used to set up the femoral component rotation, but each is faced with its own practical obstacle that limits its usage. Also a common practice is to set the femoral component rotation at 3° external rotation to PCA and valgus resection angle at 5°-7° to anatomical axis of femur. For the reason that the anatomy of each knee is different, it may not be justified to practice such a set protocol in all cases...
July 21, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677057/forensic-age-estimation-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-knee-the-definite-relevance-in-bony-fusion-of-the-distal-femoral-and-the-proximal-tibial-epiphyses-using-closest-to-bone-t1-tse-sequence
#11
Christian Ottow, Ronald Schulz, Heidi Pfeiffer, Walter Heindel, Andreas Schmeling, Volker Vieth
OBJECTIVES: To clarify the relevance of the bony fusion of the distal femoral and the proximal tibial epiphyses by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a prospective cross-sectional cohort study was performed with a special focus on a reliable determination of the 14th, 16th and 18th years of life. METHODS: We scanned 658 German volunteers in the age bracket 12-24 years using a 3.0 T MR-scanner and utilising a T1 turbo spin-echo sequence representing true bone anatomy...
December 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657560/understanding-the-human-knee-and-its-relationship-to-total-knee-replacement
#12
Enrico Vaienti, Giacomo Scita, Francesco Ceccarelli, Francesco Pogliacomi
The knee is the intermediate joint of the lower limb and it allows the movement between the femur, tibia and patella. Under normal conditions there is a normal distribution of the load forces on these three articular components in both the static load and during ambulation. The understanding of anatomy and knee biomechanics is important for the gait analysis, the diagnosis of joint diseases and the design and development of prosthetic implants. In the last decades comprehension of knee physiology and kinematics has led to the introduction of a wide range of enhanced prosthetic implant designs for a variety of indications...
June 7, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612204/three-dimensional-isotropic-magnetic-resonance-imaging-can-provide-a-reliable-estimate-of-the-native-anterior-cruciate-ligament-insertion-site-anatomy
#13
Daisuke Araki, Eric Thorhauer, Scott Tashman
PURPOSE: This study quantified the error in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site location and area estimated from three-dimensional (3D) isotropic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by comparing to native insertion sites determined via 3D laser scanning. METHODS: Isotropic 3D DESS MRI was acquired from twelve fresh-frozen, ACL-intact cadaver knees. ACL insertion sites were manually outlined in each MRI slice, and the resulting contours combined to determine the 3D insertion site shape...
June 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609131/a-comprehensive-reanalysis-of-the-distal-iliotibial-band-quantitative-anatomy-radiographic-markers-and-biomechanical-properties
#14
Jonathan A Godin, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Bradley M Kruckeberg, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Alexander R Vap, Andrew G Geeslin, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative anatomy of the distal iliotibial band (ITB) has previously been described. However, a comprehensive characterization of the quantitative anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical properties of the Kaplan fibers of the deep distal ITB has not yet been established. It is paramount to delineate these characteristics to fully understand the distal ITB's contribution to rotational knee stability. Purpose/Hypothesis: There were 2 distinct purposes for this study: (1) to perform a quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the distal ITB's attachment sites and their relationships to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks, and (2) to quantify the biomechanical properties of the deep (Kaplan) fibers of the distal ITB...
September 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579262/contact-forces-in-the-tibiofemoral-joint-from-soft-tissue-tensions-implications-to-soft-tissue-balancing-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#15
Matthias A Verstraete, Patrick A Meere, Gaia Salvadore, Jan Victor, Peter S Walker
Proper tension of the knee's soft tissue envelope is important during total knee arthroplasty; incorrect tensioning potentially leads to joint stiffness or instability. The latter remains an important trigger for revision surgery. The use of sensors quantifying the intra-articular loads, allows surgeons to assess the ligament tension at the time of surgery. However, realistic target values are missing. In the framework of this paper, eight non-arthritic cadaveric specimens were tested and the intra-articular loads transferred by the medial and lateral compartment were measured using custom sensor modules...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466554/motion-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-during-internal-and-external-rotation-at-the-knee-a-cadaveric-study
#16
J Peeler, J Anderson, S Piotrowski, G Stranges
Despite advances in our understanding of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy and function, the change in position of the ACL during tibial rotation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the movements of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the ACL during 15° of medial and lateral rotation (with & without a shear force). Cadaveric knees (12 male/12 female) were dissected and mounted at 90° of knee flexion. Anthropometric features of the ACL and distal femur were recorded, and each bundle was marked at: femoral attachment (FA), midpoint of ligament (MP), and tibial attachment (TA)...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427385/differences-between-native-and-prosthetic-knees-in-terms-of-cross-sectional-morphology-of-the-femoral-trochlea-a-study-based-on-three-dimensional-models-and-virtual-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, You Wang
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional morphology of the prosthetic knee is crucial to understanding patellar motion and quadriceps strength after total knee arthroplasty. However, few comparative evaluations of the cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea have been performed in the native knee and currently available femoral implants, and the relationship between the trochlear anatomy of prosthetic components and post-operative patellofemoral complications remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the differences in cross-sectional morphology of the femoral trochlea between native knees and prosthetic femoral components...
April 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426251/current-concepts-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-biomechanics-and-reconstruction
#18
Matthew J Kraeutler, K Linnea Welton, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade, Eric C McCarty
In 1879, Paul Segond described an avulsion fracture (now known as a Segond fracture) at the anterolateral proximal tibia with the presence of a fibrous band at the location of this fracture. Although references to this ligament were occasionally made in the anatomy literature after Segond's discovery, it was not until 2012 that Vincent et al named this ligament what we know it as today, the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. The ALL originates near the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur and inserts on the proximal tibia near Gerdy's tubercle...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373945/technique-for-arthroscopic-assisted-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-using-doubled-tibialis-anterior-tendon
#19
Michael Rose, Dennis Crawford
Advances in surgical technique and our knowledge of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy have resulted in a marked increase in options for ACL reconstruction. Currently, patient age and activity level, surgeon preference and experience, and cost are factors influencing the type of reconstruction recommended to address knee instability. We present a simplified transtibial method of ACL reconstruction using a single-bundle, doubled tibialis anterior allograft. This method uses fixation with a suspensory device on the femur and a bio-composite interference screw on the tibia...
February 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320209/anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-anatomy-function-imaging-and-treatment
#20
Ronak M Patel, Robert H Brophy
The anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee has gained attention recently for its potential role in rotational stability of the knee, especially in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Anatomic studies have characterized the ALL as it runs in an anteroinferior and oblique direction from the lateral distal femur to the anterolateral proximal tibia, although the prevalence and variance of this ligament are not well understood. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have identified the ligament and linked it with the classically described Segond fracture...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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