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Xian Qi, Xiaofei An, Yongjun Jiao, Huiyan Yu, Ke Xu, Lunbiao Cui, Shenjiao Wang, Fei Deng, Xiang Huo, Haodi Huang, Qigang Dai, Changjun Bao
Five epidemic waves of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China since spring 2013. We previously described the epidemiological characterization of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. In this study, 41 H7N9 viruses from patients and live-poultry markets were isolated and sequenced to further elucidate the genetic features of viruses of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substantial genetic diversity in the internal genes, and 18 genotypes were identified from the 41 H7N9 virus strains...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Virology
Haili Luo, Shaohong Wang, Tongmei Yuan, Jingtao Liu, Ling Yao, Xianguo Pan, Xuemei Long, Juncheng Wu, Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: More and more cases of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported since it was first mentioned in 2013 in China, but concurrence of influenza A H7N9 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, however, has never been described. Here, we reported the case of a woman co-infected by influenza A H7N9 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, whose treatment process was a little bit longer and a little bit complicated as well. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was an 80-year-old Chinese woman who presented with fever, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Zuiyuan Guo, Dan Xiao, Dongli Li, Yayu Wang, Tiecheng Yan, Botao Dai, Xiuhong Wang
In this study, estimates of the growth rate of new infections, based on the growth rate of new laboratory-confirmed cases, were used to provide a statistical basis for in-depth research into the epidemiological patterns of H7N9 epidemics. The incubation period, interval from onset to laboratory confirmation, and confirmation time for all laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 avian influenza in Mainland China, occurring between January 2013 and June 2017, were used as the statistical data. Stochastic processes theory and maximum likelihood were used to calculate the growth rate of new infections...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rita Czakó, Leatrice Vogel, Troy Sutton, Yumiko Matsuoka, Florian Krammer, Zhongying Chen, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao
The continued detection of zoonotic influenza infections, most notably due to the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, underscores the need for pandemic preparedness. Decades of experience with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) for the control of seasonal influenza support the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine platform. All LAIV candidates are derived from one of two licensed master donor viruses (MDVs), cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca A/Leningrad/134/17/57. A number of LAIV candidates targeting avian H5 influenza viruses derived with each MDV have been evaluated in humans, but have differed in their infectivity and immunogenicity...
March 1, 2018: Vaccine
Haixin Ai, Xuewei Wu, Mengyuan Qi, Li Zhang, Huan Hu, Qi Zhao, Jian Zhao, Hongsheng Liu
In recent years, new strains of influenza virus such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N6 and H5N8 had continued to emerge. There was an urgent need for discovery of new anti-influenza virus drugs as well as accurate and efficient large-scale inhibitor screening methods. In this study, we focused on six influenza virus proteins that could be anti-influenza drug targets, including neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA), matrix protein 1 (M1), M2 proton channel (M2), nucleoprotein (NP) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Structure-based molecular docking was utilized to identify potential inhibitors for these drug targets from 13144 compounds in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform...
March 2, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Wenti Xu, Liru Guo, Xiaochun Dong, Xiaoxia Li, Penghui Zhou, Qiang Ni, Xinying Zhou, Abram L Wagner, Lin Li
Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) occupies a huge disease and economic burden in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of different infectious etiologies among hospitalized patients with SARI in Tianjin, China, from 2015-2016. SARI patients' basic information was collected, along with a throat or serum sample. Nine viruses were detected by RT-PCR, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by the serodia Myco II gelatin particle agglutination test. 585 specimens from 2290 SARI cases were collected...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Zhongfang Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Thi H O Nguyen, Yanmin Wan, Sneha Sant, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Jeremy Chase Crawford, Auda A Eltahla, Simone Rizzetto, Rowena A Bull, Chenli Qiu, Marios Koutsakos, E Bridie Clemens, Liyen Loh, Tianyue Chen, Lu Liu, Pengxing Cao, Yanqin Ren, Lukasz Kedzierski, Tom Kotsimbos, James M McCaw, Nicole L La Gruta, Stephen J Turner, Allen C Cheng, Fabio Luciani, Xiaoyan Zhang, Peter C Doherty, Paul G Thomas, Jianqing Xu, Katherine Kedzierska
Severe influenza A virus (IAV) infection is associated with immune dysfunction. Here, we show circulating CD8+ T-cell profiles from patients hospitalized with avian H7N9, seasonal IAV, and influenza vaccinees. Patient survival reflects an early, transient prevalence of highly activated CD38+ HLA-DR+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells, whereas the prolonged persistence of this set is found in ultimately fatal cases. Single-cell T cell receptor (TCR)-αβ analyses of activated CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells show similar TCRαβ diversity but differential clonal expansion kinetics in surviving and fatal H7N9 patients...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Enfu Chen, Maggie H Wang, Fan He, Riyang Sun, Wei Cheng, Benny C Y Zee, Steven Y F Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ka Chun Chong
BACKGROUND: Although investigations have shown that closing live poultry markets (LPMs) is highly effective in controlling human influenza A (H7N9) infections, many of the urban LPMs were shut down, but rural LPMs remained open. This study aimed to compare the proportional changes between urban and rural infections in the Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2017 by analyzing the exposure histories of human cases. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 from 2013 (the first wave) to 2017 (the fifth wave) in the Zhejiang province of China were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Dan Xiang, Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
Background: Avian influenza A virus (AIV) H7N9 has caused five epidemic waves of human infections in China since 2013. AIVs may face strong selection to adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in humans. In this study, we sought to determine whether adaptive evolution had occurred in human-isolated H7N9 viruses. Methods: We evaluated all available genomes of H7N9 AIVs. Maximum likelihood trees were separately reconstructed for all eight genes. Signals of positive selection and convergent evolution were then detected on branches that lead to changes in host tropism (from avian to human)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mai-Juan Ma, Cheng Liu, Meng-Na Wu, Teng Zhao, Guo-Lin Wang, Yang Yang, Hong-Jing Gu, Peng-Wei Cui, Yuan-Yuan Pang, Ya-Yun Tan, Hui Hang, Bao Lin, Jiang-Chun Qin, Li-Qun Fang, Wu-Chun Cao, Li-Ling Cheng
Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused 5 epidemic waves in China since its emergence in 2013. We investigated the dynamic changes of antibody response to this virus over 1 year postinfection in 25 patients in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China, who had laboratory-confirmed infections during the fifth epidemic wave, Oct 1, 2016-February 14, 2017. Most survivors had relatively robust antibody responses that decreased but remained detectable at 1 year. Antibody response was variable; several survivors had low or undetectable antibody titers...
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Jiafa Liu, Junqiang Xu, Linlin Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Yi Song, Bin Fang, Xiao Yu, Xiang Li, Guojun Ye, Yingying Du, Mingyue Chen, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui
There have been five waves of H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in humans since its initial emergence in China in 2013, posing a significant threat to public health. Hubei province was free local transmission during the first four waves of H7N9 AIV. However, multiple cases of human H7N9 infection were reported in Hubei during January 2017. To understand the molecular epidemiology that underlies this sudden emergence, we collected samples from 14 human cases of H7N9 influenza virus from Hubei province, along with environmental samples from different locations in Hubei...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yue Teng, Dehua Bi, Xiaocan Guo, Dingwen Hu, Dan Feng, Yigang Tong
An early steep increase in the number of humans infected with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was observed in China, raising great public concern domestically and internationally. Little is known about the dynamics of the transmission contacts between poultry and human populations, although such understanding is essential for developing effective strategies to control this zoonosis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of contact reductions from live poultry markets (LPMs) closures on the transmission of H7N9 virus during epidemics in Guangdong Province, China...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Infection
Zefeng Dong, Yu Xia, Xuerong Ya, Liling Chen, Cheng Liu, Ruyan Wang, Qiang Shen
Human infections with H7N9 viruses can cause severe pneumonia and even death. To characterize the epidemiology and genetics of the H7N9 viruses circulating during from October 2016 to April 2017 in Suzhou, China, all pharyngeal swab samples were collected from severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) cases during this fifth wave of infection, and we amplified the H7N9 H7 and N9 genes using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were subjected to virus isolation and gene sequencing to analyze the evolution and variation of the H7N9 strains...
February 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Shanshan Zhou, Tianyu Ren, Hongjing Gu, Cheng Wang, Min Li, Zhongpeng Zhao, Li Xing, Liangyan Zhang, Yi Sun, Penghui Yang, Xiliang Wang
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing the spread of the influenza virus. However, the traditional intramuscular (IM) immunization causes fear, pain, and cross infection. In contrast, needle-free (NF) immunization is quick and easy for medical personnel and painless and safe for patients. In this study, we assessed the safety and protective efficacy of NF intradermal (ID) immunization with the influenza H7N9 split vaccine (AnhuiH7N9/PR8). A preliminary safety evaluation showed that ID immunization with 15 μg of the H7N9 influenza vaccine was not toxic in rats...
February 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Je Hyoung Kim, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
Attenuated Salmonella strains constitute a promising technology for the development of efficient protein-based influenza vaccines. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is a major public health concern and currently there are no effective vaccines against this subtype. Herein, we constructed a novel attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain for the delivery and expression of H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e). We demonstrated that the constructed Salmonella strains exhibited efficient HA, NA and M2e expressions, respectively, and the constructs were safe and immunogenic in chickens...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Research
D D Han, C X Han, L Y Li, M Wang, J H Yang, M Li
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 virus. Methods: The published incidence data of human infection with H7N9 virus in China from March 2013 to April 2017 were collected. Excel 2007 software was used to perform the analysis. The characteristics of distribution of the disease, exposure history, cluster of the disease were described. Results: By the end of April 2017, a total of 1 416 cases of human infection with H7N9 virus were confirmed in China, including 559 deaths, the case fatality rate was 39...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Rui Zhu, Xueqin Yang, Jianjun Zhang, Danwen Xu, Jiawen Fan, Huoying Shi, Shifeng Wang, Xiufan Liu
H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus is a great threat to the Chinese poultry industry, even with annual vaccination. Waterfowl can be asymptomatically infected with the H9N2 virus. In this study, three strains of the H9N2 avian influenza virus, designated A/Goose/Jiangsu/YZ527/2011 (H9N2, Gs/JS/YZ527/11), A/Goose/Jiangsu/SQ119/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/SQ119/12), and A/Goose/Jiangsu/JD564/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/JD564/12), were isolated from domestic geese. Molecular characterization of the three isolates showed that the Gs/JS/YZ527/11 virus is a double-reassortant virus, combining the genes of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2, G1/97) - like and A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 (H9N2, F/98) - like; the Gs/JS/SQ119/12 virus is a triple-reassortant virus derived from G1/97 - like, F/98 - like, and A/Duck/Shantou/163/2004 (H9N2, ST/163/04) - like...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Yingying Cao, Ruiyuan Cao, Yaowei Huang, Hongxia Zhou, Yuanhua Liu, Xuan Li, Wu Zhong, Pei Hao
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is an important mechanism that expands the diversity and complexity of genetic codes. The conversions of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) and cytosine (C) to uridine (U) are two prominent types of RNA editing in animals. The roles of RNA editing events have been implicated in important biological pathways. Cellular RNA editing activity in response to influenza A virus infection has not been fully characterized in human and avian hosts. This study was designed as a big data analysis to investigate the role and response of RNA editing in epithelial cells during the course of infection with various subtypes of influenza A viruses...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Jacob Lee, Heung Jeong Woo, Jin Soo Lee, Seong Heon Wie, Young Keun Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Shin Woo Kim, Sun Hee Lee, Kyung Hwa Park, Seong Hui Kang, Sae Yoon Kee, Tae Hyong Kim, Eun Ju Choo, Han Sol Lee, Won Suk Choi, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Since 2013, the Hospital-based Influenza Morbidity and Mortality (HIMM) surveillance system began a H7N9 influenza surveillance scheme for returning travelers in addition to pre-existing emergency room (ER)-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance. Although limited to eastern China, avian A/H7N9 influenza virus is considered to have the highest pandemic potential among currently circulating influenza viruses. During the study period between October 1st, 2013 and April 30th, 2016, 11 cases presented with ILI within seven days of travel return...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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