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Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu
In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility have showed an increasing trend as year goes by, posing serious threat to poultry industry. In addition, H9N2 has demonstrated significance to public health as it could not only directly infect mankind, but also donate partial or even whole cassette of internal genes to generate novel human-lethal reassortants like H5N1, H7N9, H10N8 and H5N6 viruses...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Research
Yang Wang, Yun Zhang, Jialing Wu, Ying Lin, Zhihui Wu, Ying Wei, Xiaona Wei, Jianru Qin, Chunyi Xue, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao
Since February 2013, H7N9 influenza virus, causing human infections with high mortality in China, has been a potential pandemic threat. The H7N9 viruses are found to diverge into distinct genotypes as other influenza viruses; thus a vaccine that can provide sufficient cross-protection against different genotypes of H7N9 viruses is urgently needed. Our previous studies demonstrated that the HA-based structural design approach by introducing a CFLLC minidomain into transmembrane domain (TM) of H1, H5 or H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by replacing with H3 subtype HA TM could enhance their cross-protection...
September 12, 2017: Virus Research
B Vidaña, R Dolz, N Busquets, A Ramis, R Sánchez, R Rivas, R Valle, I Cordón, D Solanes, J Martínez, N Majó
H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3 SA receptors. Muscovy ducks, European quails and SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 10(5) embryo infectious dose (EID)50 of the human H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza isolate...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Yan Guo, Lei He, Nianping Song, Pei Li, Shihui Sun, Guangyu Zhao, Wanbo Tai, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Highly pathogenic influenza viruses continue to cause serious threat to public health due to their pandemic potential, calling for an urgent need to develop effective, safe, convenient, and universal vaccines against influenza virus infection. In this study, we constructed two recombinant protein vaccines, 2H5M2e-2H7M2e-H5FP-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-1) and 2H5M2e-H5FP-2H7M2e-H7FP (hereinafter M2e-FP-2), by respectively linking highly conserved sequences of two molecules of ectodomain of M2 (M2e) and one molecule of fusion peptide (FP) epitope of hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses in different orders...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Chun-Yi Lu, Ya-Hui Chi, Wan-Ling Li, Luan-Yin Chang, Mei-Ju Lai, Jin-Shing Chen, Wen-Ming Hsu, Li-Min Huang
Influenza A (H7N9) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with pandemic potential. To understand its adaptation capability, we examined the genetic changes and cellular responses following serial infections of A (H7N9) in primary human airway epithelial cells (hAECs). After 35 serial passages, six amino acid mutations were found, i.e. HA (R54G, T160A, Q226L, H3 numbering), NA (K289R, or K292R for N2 numbering), NP (V363V/I) and PB2 (L/R332R). The mutations in HA enabled A(H7N9) virus to bind with higher affinity (from 39...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Haiyan Chang, Jie Duan, Peng Zhou, Ling Su, Dan Zheng, Fenghua Zhang, Fang Fang, Xiaoman Li, Ze Chen
H7N9 influenza infection in humans would result in severe respiratory illness. Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza virus. In this paper, we investigated the effect of early protection provided by inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine in a mouse model. Mice were immunized intramuscularly once with different doses of inactivated whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine alone or in combination with MF59 adjuvant. Specific IgM and IgG antibody titers in sera of mice were detected by ELISA 3, 5 and 7days after immunization...
September 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
Jason R Wilson, Jessica A Belser, Juliana DaSilva, Zhu Guo, Xiangjie Sun, Shane Gansebom, Yaohui Bai, Thomas J Stark, Jessie Chang, Paul Carney, Min Z Levine, John Barnes, James Stevens, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Ian A York
The emergence of A(H7N9) virus strains with resistance to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors highlights a critical need to discover new countermeasures for treatment of A(H7N9) virus-infected patients. We previously described an anti-NA mAb (3c10-3) that has prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in mice lethally challenged with A(H7N9) virus when delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.). Here we show that intrananasal (i.n.) administration of 3c10-3 protects 100% of mice from mortality when treated 24h post-challenge and further characterize the protective efficacy of 3c10-3 using a nonlethal A(H7N9) challenge model...
September 6, 2017: Virology
Sehee Park, Jin Il Kim, Ilseob Lee, Joon-Yong Bae, Kirim Yoo, Misun Nam, Juwon Kim, Mee Sook Park, Ki-Joon Song, Jin-Won Song, Sun-Ho Kee, Man-Seong Park
It has been noticed that neuraminidase (NA) stalk truncation has arisen from evolutionary adaptation of avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry. We identified this molecular alteration after the adaptation of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) in BALB/c mice. The mouse-adapted pH1N1 lost its eight consecutive amino acids including one potential N-linked glycosite from the NA stalk region. To explore the relationship of NA stalk truncation or deglycosylation with viral pathogenicity changes, we generated NA stalk mutant viruses on the pH1N1 backbone by reverse genetics...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
James C Kile, Ruiqi Ren, Liqi Liu, Carolyn M Greene, Katherine Roguski, A Danielle Iuliano, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Sharmi Thor, Ying Song, Suizan Zhou, Susan C Trock, Vivien Dugan, David E Wentworth, Min Z Levine, Timothy M Uyeki, Jacqueline M Katz, Daniel B Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Alicia M Fry, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, C Todd Davis
Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1)...
September 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Yohannes Berhane, David E Swayne
In March 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) was detected at 2 poultry farms in Tennessee, USA. Surveillance data and genetic analyses indicated multiple introductions of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus before mutation to high pathogenicity and interfarm transmission. Poultry surveillance should continue because low pathogenicity viruses circulate and spill over into commercial poultry.
November 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Lyle Fearnley, Xuan Tung Dinh, Thi Tram Anh Tran, Trong Tung Tran, Van Trong Nguyen, Damian Tago, Pawin Padungtod, Scott H Newman, Astrid Tripodi
Extensive research in Vietnam and elsewhere has shown that live bird markets (LBMs) play a significant role in the ecology and zoonotic transmission of avian influenzas (AIs) including H5N1 and H7N9. Vietnam has a large number of LBMs reflecting the consumer preferences for live poultry. Under pressure to mitigate risks for H7N9 and other zoonotic AIs, Vietnam is considering, among other mitigation measures, temporary closures of LBMs as a policy to reduce risk of AI outbreaks. However, the efficacy of market closure is debated, particularly because little is known about how poultry traders may react, and whether trading may emerge outside formal marketplaces...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Junyi Hu, Xinyi Xu, Chenxi Wang, Guoxia Bing, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Jinhua Liu, Yipeng Sun
The novel H7N9 influenza virus, which has caused severe disease in humans in China, is a reassortant with surface genes derived from influenza viruses in wild birds. This highlights the importance of monitoring influenza viruses in these hosts. However, surveillance of influenza virus in wild birds remains very limited in China. In this study, we isolated four H4N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) from mallard ducks in Beijing Wetland Park, which is located on the East Asia-Australasia migratory flyway. The gene segments of these Chinese H4N6 viruses were closest to AIVs in wild birds from Mongolia or the Republic of Georgia, indicating the interregional AIV gene flow among these countries...
2017: PloS One
Paul E Leon, Teddy John Wohlbold, Wenqian He, Mark J Bailey, Carole J Henry, Patrick C Wilson, Florian Krammer, Gene S Tan
Influenza viruses exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt and evade the host immune response. One way is through antigenic changes that occur on the surface glycoproteins of the virus. The generation of escape variants is a powerful method in elucidating how viruses escape immune detection and in identifying critical residues required for antibody binding. Here, we describe a protocol on how to generate influenza A virus escape variants by utilizing human or murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jidang Chen, Jipei Zhang, Wanjun Zhu, Yishan Zhang, Hualong Tan, Minfang Liu, Mingsheng Cai, Jiaren Shen, Hinh Ly, Jianhong Chen
We report the full-length sequence of two chicken source influenza A (H7N9) viruses found in Guangdong live poultry market (LPM) during the most recent wave of human infections (from October 2016 to the present time). These viruses carry insertion of poly-basic amino acids (KGKRTAR/G) at the protease cleavage site of the HA protein, which were previously found in the highly pathogenic (HP) human influenza A (H7N9) [IAV(H7N9)] strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these two novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) suggested that their genomes reassorted between the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Pearl River Delta (PRD) clades...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wei Zhang, Lidan Hou, Jie Song, Shuang Zhang, Yun Li, Jing Li, Lei Sun, Wenhui Fan, Wenjun Liu
H9 subtype avian influenza virus causes worldwide epidemic, resulting in enormous economic losses of poultry production. In the present study, an indirect ELISA method was established for more accurate and specific detection. The recombinant protein of the globular head domain of HA of H9 subtype avian influenza virus was used as antigen. Specific blocking buffers and dilution buffers were determined to increase the sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity of ELISA was higher than that of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test...
August 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Jessica A Belser, Adam Johnson, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Claudia Pappas, Melissa B Pearce, Wen-Pin Tzeng, M Jaber Hossain, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Li-Mei Chen, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline M Katz, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
The development of influenza candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) for pre-pandemic vaccine production represents a critical step in pandemic preparedness. The multiple subtypes and clades of avian or swine origin influenza viruses circulating world-wide at any one time necessitates the continuous generation of CVVs to provide an advanced starting point should a novel zoonotic virus cross the species barrier and cause a pandemic. Furthermore, the evolution and diversity of novel influenza viruses that cause zoonotic infections requires ongoing monitoring and surveillance, and, when a lack of antigenic match between circulating viruses and available CVVs is identified, the production of new CVVs...
August 25, 2017: Virology
Yan Jiang, Yi Zhang, Chunna Ma, Quanyi Wang, Chao Xu, Connor Donovan, Gholam Ali, Tan Xu, Wenjie Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to discuss the correlation between daily reported H7N9 cases and stock price indices in China. METHODS: Information on daily reported H7N9 cases and stock market sectors indices between February 19, 2013 and March 31, 2014 were collected. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to describe the variation trend for the stock indices. RESULTS: The daily reported number of H7N9 cases was associated with the closing price of the Avian Influenza Sector Index (P < 0...
2017: Adv Dis Control Prev
Changwen Ke, Jing Lu, Runyu Yuan, Lirong Zou, Jie Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Virus Evolution
Lifeng Li, Wenshan Hong, Lian Duan, Jia Wang, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Virus Evolution
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