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Li Song, Dan Xiong, Hongqin Song, Lili Wu, Meihua Zhang, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Yong Ping Lin, Zi Feng Yang, Ying Liang, Zheng Tu Li, Helen S Bond, Huiying Chua, Ya Sha Luo, Yuan Chen, Ting Ting Chen, Wen Da Guan, Jimmy Chun Cheong Lai, Yu Lam Siu, Si Hua Pan, J S Malik Peiris, Benjamin J Cowling, Chris Ka Pun Mok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yu-Lin Xu, Hai-Lin Tang, Hao-Ran Peng, Ping Zhao, Zhong-Tian Qi, Wen Wang
Influenza H7N9 virus infection causes an acute, highly contagious respiratory illness that triggers cell death of infected cells and airway epithelial destruction. RIP3 is a key regulator of cell death responses to a growing number of viral and microbial agents. This study aimed to investigate the role of RIP3 in inflammation of influenza H7N9 virus infection. Here, RIP3 knock out (RIP3-/-) mice and littermate wild type mice were infected intranasally with influenza H7N9 virus (A/Fujian/S03/2015) to determine the contribution of RIP3 to the inflammatory response of influenza H7N9 virus infection...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Chengcai Lai, Keyu Wang, Zhongpeng Zhao, Liangyan Zhang, Hongjing Gu, Penghui Yang, Xiliang Wang
An avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus was a cause for concern in China in the spring of 2013. Most H7N9 infections resulted in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) that contributes to morbidity and mortality. In this study, we induced viral ALI by infecting wild-type and CCL2-deficient mice with influenza H7N9 virus. The results suggested a close association between C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expressions and ALI induced by a lethal H7N9 virus strain (A/Hebei/01/2013)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
Ji-Rong Yang, Hwa-Jen Teng, Ming-Tsan Liu, Shu-Ying Li
Taiwan's National Laboratory System is one of the action packages of the Global Health Security Agenda, which was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) to promote health security as an international priority and to encourage progress toward full implementation of the WHO International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005. The mission of each national laboratory system is to conduct real-time biosurveillance and effective laboratory-based diagnostics, as measured by a nationwide laboratory system able to reliably conduct diagnoses on specimens transported properly to designated laboratories from at least 80% of the regions in the country...
March 2017: Health Security
Cheng Chen, Wei Sun, Jun Chen, Jian-An Huang
H7N9 influenza is a recently emerging infection with a high mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate dynamic fluctuations of peripheral blood immune cell subgroups in patients with critical H7N9 infection. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cells in whole blood samples from 9 cases. With regard to the innate immune system, in the majority of patients, the natural killer (NK) cell counts were similar to those of monocytes, which demonstrated a gradual increase in the progression period and an early increase followed by a reduction during recovery...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Francesco Berlanda Scorza
With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), PATH is working with governments and vaccine manufacturers to strengthen their influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity and improve their ability to respond to emerging pandemic influenza viruses. Vaccines directed against influenza A/H5N1 and A/H7N9 strains are a particular focus, given the potential for these viruses to acquire properties that may lead to a pandemic. This paper will review influenza vaccine development from a developing country perspective and PATH's support of this effort...
April 11, 2017: Vaccine
Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Lei Yang, Changjun Bao, Jiabing Wu, Dayan Wang, Chao Li, Nijuan Xiang, Yali Wang, Dan Li, Haitian Sui, Yuelong Shu, Zijian Feng, Qun Li, Daxin Ni
Since the first outbreak of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans was identified in 2013, there have been five seasonal epidemics observed in China. An earlier start and a steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 virus was observed between September and December 2016, raising great public concern in domestic and international societies. The epidemiological characteristics of the recently reported confirmed H7N9 cases were analysed. The results suggested that although more cases were reported recently, most cases in the fifth epidemic were still highly sporadically distributed without any epidemiology links; the main characteristics remained unchanged and the genetic characteristics of virus strains that were isolated in this epidemic remained similar to earlier epidemics...
January 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Yang Wang, Jialing Wu, Chunyi Xue, Zhihui Wu, Ying Lin, Ying Wei, Xiaona Wei, Jianru Qin, Yun Zhang, Zhifen Wen, Li Chen, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao
Influenza A H7N9 virus is the latest emerging pandemic threat, and has rapidly diverged into three clades, demanding a H7N9 virus vaccine with broadened protection against unmatched strains. Hemagglutinin (HA)-based structural design approaches for stabilizing HA proteins have provided excitingly promising results. However, none of the HA-based structural design approaches has been applied to a recombinant replicative influenza virus. Here we report that our HA-based structural design approach is a first in the field to generate a recombinant replicative H7N9 virus (H7N9-53TM) showing broadened protection...
April 10, 2017: Antiviral Research
Hui Jiang, Peng Wu, Timothy M Uyeki, Jianfeng He, Zhihong Deng, Wen Xu, Qiang Lv, Jin Zhang, Yang Wu, Tim K Tsang, Min Kang, Jiandong Zheng, Lili Wang, Bingyi Yang, Ying Qin, Luzhao Feng, Vicky J Fang, George F Gao, Gabriel M Leung, Hongjie Yu, Benjamin J Cowling
Background: Since 2014, 17 human cases of infection with the newly emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus have been identified in China to date. The epidemiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed A(H5N6) cases were compared to A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) cases in mainland China. Methods: Data on laboratory-confirmed H5N6, H5N1, and H7N9 cases identified in mainland China were analysed to compare epidemiologic characteristics and clinical severity of the cases...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Netanel Tzarum, Ryan McBride, Corwin M Nycholat, James C Paulson, Ian A Wilson
Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare, and until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
Xiang Huo, Liling Chen, Xian Qi, Haodi Huang, Qigang Dai, Huiyan Yu, Yu Xia, Wendong Liu, Ke Xu, Wang Ma, Jun Zhang, Changjun Bao
Since first identified in 2013, the H7N9 virus has caused several waves of human infections in China, with a current wave including a number of patients with very severe disease. Jiangsu is one of the most impacted provinces, whereby as of 31 January 2017, the number of human infections (n = 109) in the ongoing fifth H7N9 wave has exceeded the sum of those in the four preceding ones. Ten of 13 cities in Jiangsu have been affected, and clustered infections as well as one co-infection with seasonal influenza have been observed...
March 30, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Xiaoai Wu, Xiuli Wu, Qizheng Sun, Chunhui Zhang, Shengyong Yang, Lin Li, Zhiyun Jia
The influenza pandemic is a major threat to human health, and highly aggressive strains such as H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 have emphasized the need for therapeutic strategies to combat these pathogens. Influenza anti-viral agents, especially active small molecular inhibitors play important roles in controlling pandemics while vaccines are developed. Currently, only a few drugs, which function as influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors, are approved in clinical. However, the acquired resistance against current anti-influenza drugs and the emerging mutations of influenza virus itself remain the major challenging unmet medical needs for influenza treatment...
2017: Theranostics
Lu Liu, Raffael Nachbagauer, Lingyan Zhu, Yang Huang, Xinci Xie, Shan Jin, Anli Zhang, Yanmin Wan, Ariana Hirsh, Di Tian, Xiaolin Shi, Zhaoguang Dong, Songhua Yuan, Yunwen Hu, Florian Krammer, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jianqing Xu
Background.: The outbreak of novel avian H7N9 influenza virus infections in China in 2013 has demonstrated the continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens. Deciphering the immune response during natural infection will guide future vaccine development. Methods.: We assessed the induction of heterosubtypic cross-reactive antibodies induced by H7N9 infection against a large panel of recombinant hemagglutinins and neuraminidases by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and novel chimeric hemagglutinin constructs were used to dissect the anti-stalk or -head humoral immune response...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chau Minh Bui, Lauren Gardner, Raina MacIntyre, Sahotra Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic avian influenza poses a major risk to China, and other parts of the world. H5N1 has remained endemic in China and globally for nearly two decades, and in 2013, a novel zoonotic influenza A subtype H7N9 emerged in China. This study aimed to improve upon our current understanding of the spreading mechanisms of H7N9 and H5N1 by generating spatial risk profiles for each of the two virus subtypes across mainland China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we (i) developed a refined data set of H5N1 and H7N9 locations with consideration of animal/animal environment case data, as well as spatial accuracy and precision; (ii) used this data set along with environmental variables to build species distribution models (SDMs) for each virus subtype in high resolution spatial units of 1km2 cells using Maxent; (iii) developed a risk modelling framework which integrated the results from the SDMs with human and chicken population variables, which was done to quantify the risk of zoonotic transmission; and (iv) identified areas at high risk of H5N1 and H7N9 transmission...
2017: PloS One
Thomas Gerlach, Luca Hensen, Tatyana Matrosovich, Janina Bergmann, Michael Winkler, Christin Peteranderl, Hans-Dieter Klenk, Friedemann Weber, Susanne Herold, Stefan Pöhlmann, Mikhail Matrosovich
Replication and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) critically depend on their ability to tolerate the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. To determine a potential role of the IAV hemagglutinin (HA) in viral sensitivity to IFN, we studied restriction of IAV infection in IFN-β-treated human epithelial cells using 2:6 recombinant IAVs which shared 6 gene segments of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus (PR8) and contained HAs and neuraminidases of representative avian, human, and zoonotic H5N1 and H7N9 viruses...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
Donald J Benton, Stephen A Wharton, Stephen R Martin, John W McCauley
Influenza A(H7N9) viruses have caused a large number of zoonotic infections since their emergence in 2013. They remain a public health concern due to their repeated high levels of infection and perceived pandemic potential. A major factor that determines influenza A virus fitness and therefore transmissibility is the interaction of the surface glycoproteins haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) with the cell surface receptor sialic acid. Typically, the HA is responsible for binding to the sialic acid to allow virus internalisation and the NA is a sialidase, responsible for cleaving sialic acid to aid virus spread and release...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Dillon Charles Adam, C Raina MacIntyre
In recent years multiple novel influenza A strains have emerged in humans. We reviewed publically available data to summarise epidemiological characteristics of distinct avian influenza viruses known to cause human infection and describe changes over time. Most recently identified zoonotic strains have emerged in China (H7N9, H5N6, H10N8) - these strains have occurred mostly in association with visiting a live bird market. Most zoonotic AIVs and swine influenza variants typically cause mild infections in humans however severe illness and fatalities are associated with zoonotic H5N6, H10N8, H7N9 and H5N1 serotypes, and the H1N1 1918 Spanish Influenza...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Min-Suk Song, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Byung-Min Song, Youn-Jeong Lee, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim, Young Ki Choi
Due to increasing concerns of human infection by various H7 viruses, including recent H7N9 viruses, we evaluated the genetic relationships and the cross-protective efficacies of three different Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses. Phylogenic and molecular analysis revealed that recent Eurasian H7 viruses can be separated into two different lineages with relatively high amino acid identity within groups (94.8 to 98.8%), and low amino acid identity (90.3 to 92.6 %) between the groups. In vivo immunization with representatives of each group revealed that while group-specific cross-reactivity was induced, cross-reactive HI titers were approximately fourfold lower against heterologous group viruses compared to homologous group viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
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