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A Nagy, T C Mettenleiter, E M Abdelwhab
H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco...
November 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Hongquan Wan, Li Qi, Jin Gao, Laura K Couzens, Lianlian Jiang, Yamei Gao, Zong-Mei Sheng, Sharon Fong, Megan Hahn, Surender Khurana, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Maryna C Eichelberger
The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be an important contributor to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
Lei Zhou, Enfu Chen, Changjun Bao, Nijuan Xiang, Jiabing Wu, Shengen Wu, Jian Shi, Xianjun Wang, Yaxu Zheng, Yi Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Carolyn M Greene, Fiona Havers, A Danielle Iuliano, Ying Song, Chao Li, Tao Chen, Yali Wang, Dan Li, Daxin Ni, Yanping Zhang, Zijian Feng, Timothy M Uyeki, Qun Li
To detect changes in human-to-human transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus, we analyzed characteristics of 40 clusters of case-patients during 5 epidemics in China in 2013-2017. Similarities in number and size of clusters and proportion of clusters with probable human-to-human transmission across all epidemics suggest no change in human-to-human transmission risk.
February 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin, Shibo Jiang, David S Hui, John H Beigel, Elena A Govorkova, Nelson Lee
The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 5th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) Conference in Shanghai, China, in conjunction with the Shanghai Public Health Center and Fudan University from 14-16 June, 2017. The three-day programme encompassed presentations on some of the clinical features, management, immune responses and virology of respiratory infections, including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, adenovirus Type 80, enterovirus D68, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
November 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
Anupama Vasudevan, Amy Woerner, Falko Schmeisser, Swati Verma, Ollie Williams, Jerry P Weir
BACKGROUND: The single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, the accepted method for determining potency of inactivated influenza vaccines, measures an immunogenic form of the influenza hemagglutinin. Nevertheless, alternative methods for measuring vaccine potency have been explored in order to address some of the weaknesses of the SRID assay, including limited sensitivity and the requirement for large amounts of standardized reagents. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based potency assays also have the ability to detect and measure relevant immunogenic forms of HA...
November 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jianzhong Shi, Guohua Deng, Huihui Kong, Chunyang Gu, Shujie Ma, Xin Yin, Xianying Zeng, Pengfei Cui, Yan Chen, Huanliang Yang, Xiaopeng Wan, Xiurong Wang, Liling Liu, Pucheng Chen, Yongping Jiang, Jinxiong Liu, Yuntao Guan, Yasuo Suzuki, Mei Li, Zhiyuan Qu, Lizheng Guan, Jinkai Zang, Wenli Gu, Shuyu Han, Yangming Song, Yuzhen Hu, Zeng Wang, Linlin Gu, Wenyu Yang, Libin Liang, Hongmei Bao, Guobin Tian, Yanbing Li, Chuanling Qiao, Li Jiang, Chengjun Li, Zhigao Bu, Hualan Chen
Certain low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate to highly pathogenic viruses when they circulate in domestic poultry, at which point they can cause devastating poultry diseases and severe economic damage. The H7N9 influenza viruses that emerged in 2013 in China had caused severe human infections and deaths. However, these viruses were nonlethal in poultry. It is unknown whether the H7N9 viruses can acquire additional mutations during their circulation in nature and become lethal to poultry and more dangerous for humans...
October 24, 2017: Cell Research
Nianchen Wang, Minhua Sun, Wenqing Wang, Guowen Ouyang, Zuxian Chen, You Zhang, Bingbing Zhao, Siyu Wu, Jianni Huang, Hailiang Sun, Ming Liao, Peirong Jiao
In April 2017, three avian influenza (H7N9) viruses were isolated from chickens in southern China. Each virus had different insertion points in the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein compared to the first identified H7N9 virus. We determined that these viruses were double or triple reassortant viruses.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
S S Wu, P Yang, Q Y Wang, H Y Zhang, Y H Chu, H J Li, W Y Hua, Y Q Tang, C Li
Objective: To investigate human exposure to live poultry (poultry feeding and purchasing) in the residents in Beijing and related factors during the second wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) epidemic during 2013-2014, and provide scientific evidence for avian influenza prevention and control. Methods: A total of 7 366 adults aged ≥18 years were selected through multi-stage stratified sampling in Beijing for a questionnaire survey. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence factors of human exposure to live poultry...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Li Zhang, Hai-Xin Ai, Shi-Meng Li, Meng-Yuan Qi, Jian Zhao, Qi Zhao, Hong-Sheng Liu
In recent years, an epidemic of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus has persisted in China, with a high mortality rate. To develop novel anti-influenza therapies, we have constructed a machine-learning-based scoring function (RF-NA-Score) for the effective virtual screening of lead compounds targeting the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein. RF-NA-Score is more accurate than RF-Score, with a root-mean-square error of 1.46, Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.707, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Yuwei Yang, Haojie Zhong, Tie Song, Jianfeng He, Lan Guo, Xiaohua Tan, Guofeng Huang, Min Kang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with A (H7N9) infection, to test the differences in the distribution of demographics and clinical characteristics by clinical severity, and to explore potential factors associated with clinical severity. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted to collect epidemiological and clinical information regarding the confirmed cases in Guangdong through field investigation and review of medical records...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kuanglei Wang, Fei Yang, Lihui Wang, Kemin Liu, Lu Sun, Bin Lin, Yaping Hu, Boyu Wang, Maosheng Cheng, Yongshou Tian
Neuraminidase inhibitors can deter nascent viruses from infecting intact cells by preventing their release from host cells. Herein, a neuraminidase inhibitor 11b absent of basic moieties was discovered in the process of searching for inhibitors targeting 150 cavity. It exhibited potent inhibitions against wild-type neuraminidases from group 1 (H5N1 and H1N1) and group 2 (H7N9) subtypes with IC50 values similar to those of oseltamivir carboxylate. Moreover, 11b showed moderate inhibitions against mutant neuraminidases from H5N1-H274Y and H1N1-H274Y with IC50 values of 2075 nM and 1382 nM, which were inferior to those of oseltamivir carboxylate (6095 nM and 4071 nM)...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Seiya Yamayoshi, Chiharu Kawakami, Mai Q Le, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito, Chairul A Nidom, Ira Humaira, Kathy Toohey-Kurth, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Ming-Tsan Liu, Yuelong Shu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Seasonal influenza virus routinely causes epidemic infections throughout the world. Sporadic infections by H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 viruses are also reported. To treat patients suffering from such viral infections, broadly reactive and highly sensitive influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) are required. Here, we examined the reactivity and sensitivity of 25 IRDTs available in Japan for the detection of seasonal H1N1pdm09, H3N2, and type B viruses, as well as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses. All of the IRDTs tested detected the seasonal viruses and H5 and H7 viruses albeit with different sensitivities...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jing Jin, Shuo Chen, Dechuan Wang, Yuanjin Chen, Yuxu Wang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Because it is highly contagious, the influenza A virus (IAV) has the potential to cause pandemics in humans. The emergence of drug-resistant strains requires the development of new chemical therapeutics. Oroxylin A (OA) is a flavonoid which has been shown to have antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, intensive studies in which OA fights against different influenza virus strains and the underlying antiviral mechanisms have not been reported. In our study, the antiviral activities in cells and in mice, the preliminary mechanisms of OA were investigated...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shufa Zheng, Yiyin Wang, Fei Yu, Dawei Cui, Guoliang Xie, Xianzhi Yang, Wen Zhang, Xianfei Ye, Zike Zhang, Xi Wang, Yu Liang, Yiming Zhang, Hainv Gao, Shigui Yang, Lingling Tang, Weifeng Liang, Lanjuan Li, Chen Yu
Background: The significance of early neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy for treating influenza A(H7N9) is currently unknown. Methods: The duration of viral shedding was monitored by RT-PCR after patients with confirmed H7N9 infection were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University during April 2013 to April 2017. Indices such as the length of hospitalization and mortality were collected, and the correlation between the time of administration of NAI and the severity of disease was systematically analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Xiaoli Hao, Jiongjiong Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaolong Lu, Zhao Gao, Dong Liu, Juan Li, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Xiulong Xu, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) of genotype S frequently donate internal genes to facilitate the generation of novel reassortants such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N2 and H5N6 AIVs, posing an enormous threat to both human health and poultry industry. However, the pathogenicity and transmission of reassortant H5 viruses with internal gene cassette of genotype S H9N2-origin in chickens and mice remain unknown. In this study, four H5 reassortants carrying the HA and NA genes from different clades of H5 viruses and the remaining internal genes from an H9N2 virus of the predominant genotype S were generated by reverse genetics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wenbao Qi, Weixin Jia, Di Liu, Jing Li, Yuhai Bi, Shumin Xie, Bo Li, Tao Hu, Yingying Du, Li Xing, Jiahao Zhang, Fuchun Zhang, Xiaoman Wei, John-Sebastian Eden, Huanan Li, Huaiyu Tian, Wei Li, Guanming Su, Guangjie Lao, Chenggang Xu, Bing Xu, Wenjun Liu, Guihong Zhang, Tao Ren, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui, Weifeng Shi, George F Gao, Ming Liao
Since its emergence in 2013, the H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) has been circulating in domestic poultry in China, causing five waves of human infections. Recently, a novel H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) variant possessing multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein was firstly reported in two human infection cases in January 2017. More seriously, those novel HPAI H7N9 variants have transmitted and caused poultry farms outbreaks in eight provinces...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
Xi Liu, Zheng Yang, Jing Yuan, Jian Liao, Lian Duan, Wenfei Wang, Fuping Zhang, Xinchun Chen, Boping Zhou
A new type of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H7N9, has been a great threat to public health since its 2013 outbreak. The humoral immune response plays a critical role in protection from the influenza virus, but its role and kinetics in H7N9-infected patients remain to be determined. In this study, we performed a retrospective investigation of the antibody response in plasma samples from 37 cases of hospitalized patients and analysed the relationship between the antibody response and the clinical outcomes...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Wen Dong, Kun Yang, Quanli Xu, Lin Liu, Juan Chen
BACKGROUND: A large number (n = 460) of A(H7N9) human infections have been reported in China from March 2013 through December 2014, and H7N9 outbreaks in humans became an emerging issue for China health, which have caused numerous disease outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild bird populations, and threatened human health severely. The aims of this study were to investigate the directional trend of the epidemic and to identify the significant presence of spatial-temporal clustering of influenza A(H7N9) human cases between March 2013 and December 2014...
October 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Masaki Imai, Tokiko Watanabe, Maki Kiso, Noriko Nakajima, Seiya Yamayoshi, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Masato Hatta, Shinya Yamada, Mutsumi Ito, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Masayuki Shirakura, Emi Takashita, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Ryan McBride, Andrew J Thompson, Kenta Takahashi, Tadashi Maemura, Hiromichi Mitake, Shiho Chiba, Gongxun Zhong, Shufang Fan, Kohei Oishi, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Kosuke Takada, Tomomi Nakao, Satoshi Fukuyama, Makoto Yamashita, Tiago J S Lopes, Gabriele Neumann, Takato Odagiri, Shinji Watanabe, Yuelong Shu, James C Paulson, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Low pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses have recently evolved to become highly pathogenic, raising concerns of a pandemic, particularly if these viruses acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. We compared a low pathogenic H7N9 virus with a highly pathogenic isolate, and two of its variants that represent neuraminidase inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant subpopulations detected within the isolate. The highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses replicated efficiently in mice, ferrets, and/or nonhuman primates, and were more pathogenic in mice and ferrets than the low pathogenic H7N9 virus, with the exception of the neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant virus, which showed mild-to-moderate attenuation...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
The emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) (HPAI) viruses in China pose a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. Thus H7N9 vaccines are in an urgent need. In this study, we constructed a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored vaccine (rLXHAF) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 virus fused with the transmembrane/cytoplasmic tail domain of the NDV fusion protein. rLXHAF stably expressed the HA protein, exhibited similar growth kinetics and pathogenicity as the parental virus...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
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