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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797887/grassland-productivity-and-carbon-sequestration-in-mongolian-grasslands-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-nomadic-implications
#1
Changliang Shao, Jiquan Chen, Housen Chu, Raffaele Lafortezza, Gang Dong, Michael Abraha, Ochirbat Batkhishig, Ranjeet John, Zutao Ouyang, Yaoqi Zhang, Jiaguo Qi
BACKGROUND: Quantifying carbon (C) dioxide exchanges between ecosystems and the atmosphere and the underlying mechanism of biophysical regulations under similar environmental conditions is critical for an accurate understanding of C budgets and ecosystem functions. METHODS: For the first time, a cluster of four eddy covariance towers were set up to answer how C fluxes shift among four dominant ecosystems in Mongolia - meadow steppe (MDW), typical steppe (TPL), dry typical steppe (DRT) and shrubland (SHB) during two growing seasons (2014 and 2015)...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797706/prioritisation-of-specialist-health-care-services-not-nice-not-easy-but-it-can-be-done
#2
Pippa Anderson, Philip Webb, Sam Groves
The challenges of delivering healthcare within budget constraints are ever present. Highly specialised technologies (HSTs) have high costs of provision inevitably contributing to NHS cost pressures. Between 2012-2015 the Welsh Health Specialised Services Committee (WHSSC) developed prioritisation methods to make recommendations for HST funding in Wales. Methods adapted as the process continued but was always evidence based and supported by a prioritisation panel of stakeholders. Methods changed from discreet choice to the Portsmouth Score Card, a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method...
June 24, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797189/impact-of-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-admission-on-family-financial-status-and-productivity-a-pilot-study
#3
Maureen E Clark, Brian M Cummings, Karen Kuhlthau, Natalie Frassica, Natan Noviski
OBJECTIVE: A child's pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission may have wide-ranging family implications. We assessed nonmedical out-of-pocket expenses (NMOOPEs) and disruptions in work and normal life for parents with a child admitted to the PICU for at least 2 days with acute, new onset, or exacerbation of a critical condition. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, single-center study; administered a daily verbal response survey on NMOOPEs; stratified families by annual income (<$50 999, $51-99 000, >$100 000); and calculated daily expenditures (DEs), estimated daily budgets (DBs), and percentage of NMOOPEs (%DE/DB)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793916/a-manual-based-vocational-rehabilitation-program-for-patients-with-an-acquired-brain-injury-study-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial-rct
#4
Louise K Hoeffding, Maria Haahr Nielsen, Morten A Rasmussen, Anne Norup, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Ulrikka K Kjær, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Trine Schow
BACKGROUND: An acquired brain injury (ABI) is a complex injury often followed by a broad range of cognitive, physical, emotional, and behavioral disabilities. Because of these disabilities, vocational rehabilitation (VR) is a challenging task, however, of great importance, since approximately 75% of the patients with ABI are of working age. Thus, standardized clinically effective and cost-effective methodologies regarding VR for patients with ABI are highly needed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an individually targeted manual-based VR for patient with ABI compared to conventional VR (usual care)...
August 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793068/incorporation-of-new-medicines-by-the-national-commission-for-incorporation-of-technologies-2012-to-june-2016
#5
Rosângela Caetano, Rondineli Mendes da Silva, Érica Militão Pedro, Ione Ayala Gualandi de Oliveira, Aline Navega Biz, Pamela Santana
The National Commission for incorporation of Health Technologies (CONITEC), established in 2011, advises the Ministry of Health in decisions related to the incorporation, exclusion or change of medicines, products and procedures in the Unified Health System (SUS).The study investigated the decision-making process, profile of demands and incorporation of new medicines in the SUS from January/2012 to June/2016, based on data available on the CONITEC website. All submissions were evaluated and characterized by technology and applicant type...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790930/it-takes-time-to-be-cool-on-the-relationship-between-hyperthermia-and-body-cooling-in-a-migrating-seaduck
#6
Magella Guillemette, Elias T Polymeropoulos, Steven J Portugal, David Pelletier
The large amount of energy expended during flapping flight is associated with heat generated through the increased work of the flight muscles. This increased muscle work rate can manifest itself in core body temperature (Tb) increase of 1-2°C in birds during flight. Therefore, episodic body cooling may be mandatory in migratory birds. To elucidate the thermoregulatory strategy of a short-distance migrant, common eiders (Somateria mollissima), we implanted data loggers in the body cavity of wild birds for 1 year, and report information on Tb during their entire migration for 19 individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780240/doing-more-for-less-identifying-opportunities-to-expand-public-sector-access-to-safe-abortion-in-south-africa-through-budget-impact-analysis
#7
N Lince-Deroche, J Harries, D Constant, C Morroni, M Pleaner, T Fetters, D Grossman, K Blanchard, E Sinanovic
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over ten years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: 1) holding service provision constant, 2) expanding public sector provision, 3) changing the abortion technologies used (i...
August 3, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772041/budget-impact-of-intravenous-iron-therapy-with-ferric-carboxymaltose-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-and-iron-deficiency-in-germany
#8
Ulrike Theidel, Saku Väätäinen, Janne Martikainen, Erkki Soini, Thomas Hardt, Wolfram Doehner
AIMS: Treatment of iron deficiency (ID) in patients with heart failure (HF) with intravenous iron substitution [ferric carboxymaltose (FCM)] has previously shown significant improvements in exercise capacity, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, quality of life, and reduction of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to estimate the budget impact of FCM treatment for patients with HF and ID. METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual patient data from four double-blind randomized controlled trials were pooled for this analysis...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768746/oxygen-and-capacity-limited-thermal-tolerance-bridging-ecology-and-physiology
#9
REVIEW
Hans-O Pörtner, Christian Bock, Felix C Mark
Observations of climate impacts on ecosystems highlight the need for an understanding of organismal thermal ranges and their implications at the ecosystem level. Where changes in aquatic animal populations have been observed, the integrative concept of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has successfully characterised the onset of thermal limits to performance and field abundance. The OCLTT concept addresses the molecular to whole-animal mechanisms that define thermal constraints on the capacity for oxygen supply to the organism in relation to oxygen demand...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767722/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-population-based-tobacco-control-strategies-in-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-tanzania
#10
Frida Ngalesoni, George Ruhago, Mary Mayige, Tiago Cravo Oliveira, Bjarne Robberstad, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Hideki Higashi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. The prevalence of smoking is estimated to be increasing in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, especially among women and youth. Even so, the implementation of tobacco control measures has been discouraging in the country. Efforts to foster investment in tobacco control are hindered by lack of evidence on what works and at what cost. AIMS: We aim to estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of population-based tobacco control strategies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767719/task-shifting-impact-of-introducing-a-pilot-community-health-worker-cadre-into-zambia-s-public-sector-health-workforce
#11
Brett Keller, Elizabeth McCarthy, Kathryn Bradford Vosburg, Mutinta Musonda, Jere Mwila, Jan Willem van den Broek, Fiona J Walsh
BACKGROUND: The Zambia Ministry of Health (MOH) recruited and trained a new cadre of Community Health Assistants (CHAs) as part of its National Community Health Strategy. The inaugural class of 307 CHAs completed one year of training in July 2012 and deployed to their communities. METHODS: The impact of the CHA program on the volume and type of health services provided at health posts and their respective referral health centers was measured with a non-randomized difference-in-differences design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765126/cost-utility-and-budget-impact-analyses-of-the-use-of-nepa-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-prophylaxis-in-italy
#12
Umberto Restelli, Gabriella Saibene, Patrizia Nardulli, Roberta Di Turi, Erminio Bonizzoni, Francesca Scolari, Tania Perrone, Davide Croce, Luigi Celio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of resources allocation and sustainability of the use of netupitant+palonosetron (NEPA) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis assuming the Italian National Health Service (NHS) perspective. A published Markov model was adapted to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio of NEPA compared with aprepitant (APR) + palonosetron (PALO), fosaprepitant (fAPR) + PALO, APR + ondansetron (ONDA), fAPR + ONDA in patients receiving a highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and with APR + PALO and fAPR + PALO in patients receiving a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC)...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761363/the-cost-utility-and-budget-impact-of-adjuvant-racecadotril-for-acute-diarrhea-in-children-in-thailand
#13
Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg, Ute Zerwes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. METHODS: A cost utility model has been adapted to the context of Thailand to evaluate racecadotril plus oral rehydration solution (R+ORS) versus oral rehydration solution (ORS) alone for acute diarrhea in children <5 years old. The decision tree Excel model evaluates the costs and effects (quality-adjusted life years) over a 6-day time horizon from a public health care payer's perspective in Thailand...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760968/impact-of-glacial-interglacial-sea-level-change-on-the-ocean-nitrogen-cycle
#14
Haojia Ren, Daniel M Sigman, Alfredo Martínez-García, Robert F Anderson, Min-Te Chen, Ana Christina Ravelo, Marietta Straub, George T F Wong, Gerald H Haug
The continental shelves are the most biologically dynamic regions of the ocean, and they are extensive worldwide, especially in the western North Pacific. Their area has varied dramatically over the glacial/interglacial cycles of the last million years, but the effects of this variation on ocean biological and chemical processes remain poorly understood. Conversion of nitrate to N2 by denitrification in sediments accounts for half or more of the removal of biologically available nitrogen ("fixed N") from the ocean...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757906/lumbosacral-dorsal-rhizotomy-for-spastic-cerebral-palsy-a-health-technology-assessment
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy, a spectrum of neuromuscular conditions caused by abnormal brain development or early damage to the brain, is the most common cause of childhood physical disability. Lumbosacral dorsal rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure that permanently decreases spasticity and is always followed by physical therapy. The objectives of this health technology assessment were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost effectiveness, and family perspectives of dorsal rhizotomy...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746892/the-impact-of-two-large-floods-1993-1994-on-sediment-deposition-in-the-rh%C3%A3-ne-delta-implications-for-sustainable-management
#16
Didier Pont, John W Day, Carles Ibáñez
In October 1993 and January 1994, two large floods with peak discharge of 9800 and 10,980m(3)/s and total suspended solid transport of 10.7×10(6) and 9.7×10(6) tons, respectively, occurred on the Rhône River. Both floods led to multiple levee breeches in the Northern part of the delta resulting in the introduction of 131×10(6) and 54.9×10(6)m(3) of river water, respectively. In both cases, the flood water drained to the southern lagoons and was partly pumped directly back to the Rhône or to the sea. Most of the 390,000 tons of sediment introduced remained in the Northern inundated area with accretion ranging from 70mm near the breaches to 4mm 6-8km away...
July 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746291/state-of-the-plastic-surgery-workforce-and-the-impact-of-graduate-medical-education-reform-on-training-of-plastic-surgeons
#17
Lindsay Janes, Steven T Lanier, Gregory R D Evans, Steven J Kasten, Keith M Hume, Arun K Gosain
BACKGROUND: Although recent estimates predict a large impending shortage of plastic surgeons, graduate medical education funding through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services remains capped by the 1997 Balanced Budget Act. The authors' aim was to develop a plan to stimulate legislative action. METHODS: The authors reviewed responses of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, American College of Surgeons, and American Medical Association from January of 2015 to a House Energy & Commerce Committee request for input on graduate medical education funding...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745609/budget-impact-of-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-who-experience-severe-recurrent-hypoglycemic-episodes-in-spain
#18
Marga Giménez, Isabel Elías, María Álvarez, Carmen Quirós, Ignacio Conget
OBJECTIVE: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective...
August 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741752/what-does-it-cost-to-feed-aged-care-residents-in-australia
#19
Cherie Hugo, Elisabeth Isenring, David Sinclair, Ekta Agarwal
AIM: Funding cuts to the aged care industry impact catering budgets and aged care staffing levels, which may in turn affect the nutritional status of aged care residents. This paper reports average food expenditure and trends in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs). METHODS: This is a retrospective study collecting RACFs' economic outlay data through a quarterly online survey conducted over the 2015 and 2016 financial years. RESULTS: Data were compiled from 817 RACFs, representing 64 256 residential beds and 23 million bed-days Australia-wide...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740620/use-and-cost-comparison-of-clobazam-to-other-antiepileptic-drugs-for-treatment-of-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#20
Clément François, John M Stern, Augustina Ogbonnaya, Tasneem Lokhandwala, Pamela Landsman-Blumberg, Amy Duhig, Vivienne Shen, Robin Tan
Background: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe form of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with serious injuries due to frequent and severe seizures. Of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) approved for LGS, clobazam is a more recent market entrant, having been approved in October 2011. Recent AED budget impact and cost-effectiveness analyses for LGS suggest that adding clobazam to a health plan formulary may result in decreased medical costs; however, research on clinical and economic outcomes and treatment patterns with these AED treatments in LGS is limited...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
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