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Budget impact

Pablo Orellano, Darío Vezzani, Nancy Quaranta, Julieta Reynoso, Oscar Daniel Salomón
BACKGROUND: Current recommendations about dengue vaccination by the World Health Organization depend on seroprevalence levels and serological status in populations and individuals. However, seroprevalence estimation may be difficult due to a diversity of factors. Thus, estimation through models using data from epidemiological surveillance systems could be an alternative procedure to achieve this goal. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the expected dengue seroprevalence in children of selected areas in Argentina, using a simple model based on data from passive epidemiological surveillance systems...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
Caroline G Watts, Sally Wortley, Sarah Norris, Scott W Menzies, Pascale Guitera, Lisa Askie, Graham J Mann, Rachael L Morton, Anne E Cust
BACKGROUND: Specialised surveillance using total body photography and digital dermoscopy to monitor people at very high risk of developing a second or subsequent melanoma has been reported as cost effective. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the 5-year healthcare budget impact of providing specialised surveillance for people at very high risk of subsequent melanoma from the perspective of the Australian healthcare system. METHODS: A budget impact model was constructed to assess the costs of monitoring and potential savings compared with current routine care based on identification of patients at the time of a melanoma diagnosis...
January 5, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Pim Wetzelaer, Joran Lokkerbo, Arnoud Arntz, Thea van Aselt, Filip Smit, Silvia Evers
BACKGROUND: Specialized outpatient psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is expected to reduce their use of other health care resources. It is currently unknown to what extent the costs of providing these interventions can be expected to be offset by a reduction in other health care costs in the Netherlands. To establish the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of specialized outpatient psychotherapy, the estimated incremental costs are synthesized with the estimated incremental effects...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
David Brain, Laith Yakob, Adrian Barnett, Thomas Riley, Archie Clements, Kate Halton, Nicholas Graves
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly expected to balance increasing demand for health services with a finite budget. The role of economic evaluation in healthcare is increasing and this research provides decision-makers with new information about the management of Clostridium difficile infection, from an economic perspective. METHODS: A model-based economic evaluation was undertaken to identify the most cost-effective healthcare intervention relating to the reduction of Clostridium difficile transmission...
2018: PloS One
Alpesh N Amin, Jesse D Ortendahl, Amanda L Harmon, Siddhesh A Kamat, Robert A Stellhorn, Sandra L Chase, Shirin V Sundar
OBJECTIVE: Assess characteristics of patients with heart failure (HF) and hyponatremia (HN) using tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for sodium correction, and estimate the budget impact of tolvaptan use in a hospital. METHODS: The Premier Hospital Database was analyzed to assess the utilization of tolvaptan, characteristics of users and non-users, and hospitalization costs among patients with HF and HN. Using these findings, a model was developed to estimate tolvaptan costs in proportion to total medical costs of managing patients with HF and HN, and the budget impact of tolvaptan use...
January 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
G Mathias Kondolf, Rafael J P Schmitt, Paul Carling, Steve Darby, Mauricio Arias, Simone Bizzi, Andrea Castelletti, Thomas A Cochrane, Stanford Gibson, Matti Kummu, Chantha Oeurng, Zan Rubin, Thomas Wild
Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it is becoming evident that anthropic changes are significantly affecting the natural functioning of the river and its floodplains. We now ask if these changes are risking major adverse impacts for the 70 million people living in the Mekong Basin...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Françoise Bringel, Ivan Couée
Ecological, signaling, metabolic, and chemical processes in plant-microorganism systems and in plant-derived material may link the use of chlorinated pesticides in the environment with plant chloromethane emission. This neglected factor should be taken into account to assess global planetary budgets of chloromethane and impacts on atmospheric ozone depletion.
December 26, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Daniel J Arenas, Lanair A Lett, Heather Klusaritz, Anne M Teitelman
BACKGROUND: Student Run Clinics (SRCs) are a common aspect of medical education, present at more than half of US medical schools, and noted for providing care to communities that might otherwise lack access, including the uninsured and underinsured. To date, few studies have rigorously quantified the health and economic benefits of SRCs, and the present study remedies that. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the health impact of common preventive health interventions applied to individuals in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)...
2017: PloS One
Damas Macaia, Luís Velez Lapão
BACKGROUND: Angola is among sub-Saharan African countries dealing with a crisis of Human Resources for Health (HRH). The province of Cabinda, besides the efforts, still suffers from both HRH shortage and a badly distributed health workforce. In Cabinda, one can find urban concentration and rural shortages of healthcare professionals, many rural areas' healthcare facilities often secured only by basic or medium level HRH; and difficulties in developing HRH retention strategies in rural areas where most services are covered by foreign HRH...
December 28, 2017: Human Resources for Health
Ci Liang, Mohamed Ghazel
Level crossing (LX) safety continues to be one of the most critical issues for railways despite an ever increasing focus on improving design and practices. In the present paper, a framework of probabilistic risk assessment and improvement decision based on Bayesian belief networks (PRAID-BBN) is proposed. The developed framework aims to analyse various impacting factors which may cause LX accidents, and quantify the contribution of these factors so as to identify the crucial factors which contribute most to the LX accidents...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Aaron Cortes, Angela Castillo, Alicia Sciaraffia
BACKGROUND: Allergies affect children's health as well as their quality of life, stress levels, and family budget. The available literature suggests that family, social and psychological factors are affected by allergic pathologies such as rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, few studies have focused on quantifying such association in child food allergy. This study aims to enhance the understanding of the associations between caregiver variables and children's Food Allergy (FA)...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: BMJ Open
David Cutler, Michael Ciarametaro, Genia Long, Noam Kirson, Robert Dubois
OBJECTIVES: Many therapies have immediate costs but delayed benefits. Recent and anticipated transformative therapies may exacerbate these challenges. This study explored whether disconnects between short-term budget impacts and long-term costs and benefits, and among impacts on initial payers, downstream payers, and society, are expected for a range of such therapies and whether they are likely consistent or variable, with implications for potential policy responses. STUDY DESIGN: Modeling...
December 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
Claudio Natali, Gianluca Bianchini
The Sacca di Goro and Sacca di Scardovari are two coastal lagoons of the Po River delta facing the northern Adriatic Sea. They are sensitive ecosystems both from the naturalistic and socio-economic point of view, since they are included in a natural park and are high productivity shellfish sites. Bottom sediments from the two lagoons have been analysed for their textural and geochemical (major and trace elements by XRF) composition in order to identify natural backgrounds and anthropogenic inputs. OC, N and δ13COC data have been also carried out by EA-IRMS to highlight the association of heavy metals with inorganic or organic sedimentary components...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ursula Buck, Kirsten Buße, Lorenzo Campana, Christian Schyma
Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Michelle A Rodrigues
Most primates live in habitats with some level of anthropogenic disturbance, and such disturbances have a larger impact on frugivorous primates that are more sensitive to ecological disruptions than folivores. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provide insight into how the external environment affects internal physiological state, and thus provide information on how anthropogenic pressures become embodied. Here, I examine how subgroup size and glucocorticoids vary with high and low fruit abundance, and how fruit abundance, subgroup size, and activity budget affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) living in an anthropogenically disturbed habitat...
October 2017: International Journal of Primatology
Halimic Aida, Gage Heather, Raats Monique, Williams Peter
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of price manipulation and healthy eating information on intended food choices. DESIGN: Health information was provided to a random half of subjects (vs. information on Saudi agriculture). Each subject chose from the same lunch menu, containing two healthy and two unhealthy entrees, deserts and beverages, on five occasions. Reference case prices were 5, 3 and 2 Saudi Arabian Reals (SARs). Prices of healthy and unhealthy items were manipulated up (taxed) and down (subsidised) by 1 SAR in four menu variations (random order); subjects were given a budget enabling full choice within any menu...
December 13, 2017: Appetite
Salah Ghabri, Erwan Autin, Anne-Isabelle Poullié, Jean Michel Josselin
BACKGROUND: Budget impact analysis (BIA) provides short- and medium-term estimates on changes in budgets and health outcomes resulting from the adoption of new health interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present the newly developed French National Authority for Health (HAS) guidelines on budget impact analysis as follows: process, literature review, recommendations and comparisons with other guidelines. METHODS: The development process of the HAS guidelines included a literature review (search dates: January 2000 to June 2016), a retrospective investigation of BIA previously submitted to HAS, a public consultation, international expert reviews and approval from the HAS Board and the Economic and Public Health Evaluation Committee of HAS...
December 15, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
Jonathan Y S Leung, Sean D Connell, Bayden D Russell
Extreme climatic events, such as heatwaves, are predicted to be more prevalent in future due to global climate change. The devastating impacts of heatwaves on the survival of marine organisms may be further intensified by ocean acidification. Here, we tested the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to heatwave temperatures (24 °C, +3 °C summer seawater temperature) would diminish energy budget, body condition and ultimately survival of a subtidal gastropod (Thalotia conica) by pushing close to its critical thermal maximum (CTmax)...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Harrell W Chesson, Jennifer A Ludovic, Andrés A Berruti, Thomas L Gift
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article was to describe methods that sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs can use to estimate the potential effects of changes in their budgets in terms of disease burden and direct medical costs. METHODS: We proposed 2 distinct approaches to estimate the potential effect of changes in funding on subsequent STD burden, one based on an analysis of state-level STD prevention funding and gonorrhea case rates and one based on analyses of the effect of Disease Intervention Specialist (DIS) activities on gonorrhea case rates...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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