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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161406/evaluation-of-the-bacterioscan-216dx-for-standalone-preculture-screen-of-preserved-urine-specimens-in-a-clinical-setting
#1
Amity L Roberts, Upasana Joneja, Tatiana Villatoro, Eileen Andris, Judith A Boyle, James Bondi
Background: The BacterioScan 216Dx laser microbial growth monitoring system was evaluated as an option for preurine culture screening of preserved urine specimens at an acute care medical center. Methods: The BacterioScan 216Dx system performance characteristics and the economic impact (cost effectiveness) for the laboratory were assessed. Urinalysis performance compared to urine culture was assessed if urinalysis was ordered as part of the patient care set. Results: When compared to urine culture, the BacterioScan had an overall performance with corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 76% (68-83) sensitivity, 84% (80-87) specificity, 55% (48-63) positive predictive value, and 93% (90-95) negative predictive value for 610 randomly selected preserved urine specimens...
November 17, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161317/evaluating-architecture-impact-on-system-energy-efficiency
#2
Shijie Yu, Hailong Yang, Rui Wang, Zhongzhi Luan, Depei Qian
As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157400/advanced-symptom-management-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman
Meaningful symptom management can have a profound impact on quality of life. It can challenge time parameters during clinic, and therefore thought should be given to strategies that can improve efficiency and thereby make the undertaking more tenable. For any given symptom, the building blocks of care, such as vitamin D status, exercise/physical therapy, nutrition, and stress management, and ensuring disease-modifying therapy coverage, should be maximized. For each symptom, there are pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157256/identifying-competitive-strategies-to-improve-the-performance-of-hospitals-in-a-competitive-environment
#4
Chuan-Hui Chang, Yu-Ching Chiao, Yafang Tsai
BACKGROUND: This study is based on competitive dynamics theory, and discusses competitive actions (including their implementation requirements, strategic orientation, and action complexity) that influence hospitals' performance, while also meeting the requirements of Taiwan's "global budget" insurance payment policy. METHODS: In order to investigate the possible actions of hospitals, the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage investigated the actions of hospitals from March 1 to May 31, 2009...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157097/the-role-of-school-nurses-challenges-and-reactions-to-delegation-legislation-a-qualitative-approach
#5
Michelle Lineberry, Elizabeth Whitney, Melody Noland
Passage of new laws, national standards regarding delegation, and the recommendation for at least one full-time nurse in every school have provided more visibility to the role of school nurses. Recent legislative amendments in Kentucky presented an opportunity to examine how the role of the school nurse is changing. Aims were to describe the (1) role of school nurses in Kentucky, (2) impact of school nurses, (3) challenges faced by school nurses, and (4) impact of budget cuts and legislation. Three focus groups were conducted...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156281/dry-hot-stress-significantly-reduced-the-nitrogenase-activity-of-epiphytic-cyanolichen
#6
Shuai Liu, Wenyao Liu, Xianmeng Shi, Su Li, Tao Hu, Liang Song, Chuansheng Wu
Nitrogen (N) fixed by epiphytic cyanolichens (i.e. lichens that contain cyanobacterial symbionts) is thought to be the most important resource of this nutrient in some natural forest ecosystems. Although a great deal of work has been carried out to evaluate the biomass of this group as well as its contribution to ecosystem N budgets, empirical studies are needed to confirm the N input responses by cyanolichens under climate change conditions (dry-hot stress) as well as to determine the factors that control this process...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154476/valuing-our-communities-ethical-considerations-for-economic-evaluation-of-community-based-prevention
#7
Max Crowley, Damon Jones
Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154182/impact-of-ill-health-on-household-consumption-in-sri-lanka-evidence-from-household-survey-data
#8
Ajantha Sisira Kumara, Ramanie Samaratunge
With significant increases in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in recent years, Sri Lanka has witnessed a growing trend of increased out-of-pocket payments for healthcare, imposing a severe burden on household budgets. This is exacerbated by limited government health funding and inadequate financial security from formal social security. We examine the association of NCD-prevalence and healthcare utilization with household consumption, using the most recent Sri Lanka Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2012/2013...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149903/improving-access-to-school-health-services-as-perceived-by-school-professionals
#9
Janine Bezem, Debbie Heinen, Ria Reis, Simone E Buitendijk, Mattijs E Numans, Paul L Kocken
BACKGROUND: The organisation of health assessments by preventive health services focusing on children's health and educational performance needs to be improved due to evolving health priorities such as mental health problems, reduced budgets and shortages of physicians and nurses. We studied the impact on the school professionals' perception of access to school health services (SHS) when a triage approach was used for population-based health assessments in primary schools. The triage approach involves pre-assessments by SHS assistants, with only those children in need of follow-up being assessed by a physician or nurse...
November 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146638/preventing-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-of-studies-of-cost-effectiveness-of-lifestyle-programmes-and-metformin-with-and-without-screening-for-pre-diabetes
#10
Samantha Roberts, Eleanor Barry, Dawn Craig, Mara Airoldi, Gwyn Bevan, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVE: Explore the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions and metformin in reducing subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes, both alone and in combination with a screening programme to identify high-risk individuals. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Database searches (Embase, Medline, PreMedline, NHS EED) and citation tracking identified economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions or metformin alone or in combination with screening programmes in people at high risk of developing diabetes...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143622/lives-saved-tool-list-costing-a-module-to-examine-costs-and-prioritize-interventions
#11
Lori A Bollinger, Rachel Sanders, William Winfrey, Adebiyi Adesina
BACKGROUND: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135343/effects-of-influenza-immunization-on-pneumonia-in-the-elderly
#12
Jung Yeon Heo, Joon Young Song, Ji Yun Noh, Min Joo Choi, Jin Gu Yoon, Saem Na Lee, Hee Jin Cheong, Woo Joo Kim
Influenza virus is a common pathogen implicated in respiratory tract infections, annually affecting up to 20% of the general population, and pneumonia is a leading cause of death after influenza infection. Post-influenza pneumonia is especially common in the elderly and chronically ill patients. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities. Vaccination is the primary measure used to abate influenza epidemics and associated complications...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134114/a-single-center-analysis-of-factors-influencing-study-start-up-timeline-in-clinical-trials
#13
Brianna M Krafcik, Gheorghe Doros, Marina A Malikova
Aim: Efficient start-up phase in clinical trials is crucial to execution. The goal was to determine factors contributing to delays. Materials & methods: The start-up milestones were assessed for 38 studies and analyzed. Results: Total start-up time was shorter for following studies: device trials, no outsourcing, fewer ancillary services used and in interventional versus observational designs. The use of a centralized Institutional Review Board (IRB) versus a local IRB reduced time to approval...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132211/aggregation-behavior-of-dissolved-black-carbon-implications-for-vertical-mass-flux-and-fractionation-in-aquatic-systems
#14
Fanchao Xu, Chenhui Wei, Qingqing Zeng, Xuening Li, Pedro J J Alvarez, Qilin Li, Xiaolei Qu, Dongqiang Zhu
The fluvial export of dissolved black carbon (DBC) is a major land-ocean flux in the global black carbon cycle, affecting the size of refractory carbon pool in the oceans. The aggregation behavior of DBC is a significant determinant of its transport and vertical mass flux. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and interaction energy of DBC leached from biochar were investigated. DBC was mainly stabilized by hydration force and underwent structural compacting in divalent cation solutions. Na+ and Mg2+ had limited impact on the colloidal stability of DBC due to the strong hydration of these cations...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128582/budget-impact-analysis-of-gene-expression-tests-to-aid-therapy-decisions-for-breast-cancer-patients-in-germany
#15
M P Lux, N Nabieva, T Hildebrandt, H Rebscher, S Kümmel, J-U Blohmer, M G Schrauder
OBJECTIVES: Many women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer may not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression tests can reduce chemotherapy over- and undertreatment by providing prognostic information on the likelihood of recurrence and, with Oncotype DX, predictive information on chemotherapy benefit. These tests are currently not reimbursed by German healthcare payers. An analysis was conducted to evaluate the budget impact of gene expression tests in Germany...
November 9, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127626/impact-of-infliximab-and-etanercept-biosimilars-on-biological-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-utilisation-and-nhs-budget-in-the-uk
#16
Mohammed I Aladul, Raymond W Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Chapman
OBJECTIVE: Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are effective but expensive options for treating rheumatoid arthritis. The introduction of infliximab and etanercept biosimilars presents a significant potential cost saving in a financially constrained health system such as the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. This study examines the impact of the introduction of infliximab and etanercept biosimilars on the utilisation of bDMARDs and subsequent budget impact...
November 10, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125341/evaluation-of-the-economic-impact-of-a-national-lymphoedema-service-in-wales
#17
Ioan Humphreys, Melanie J Thomas
Lymphoedema Network Wales has focused on maximising the impact of its service through the effective use of available resources to ensure high-quality and consistent care for people with lymphoedema across Wales. The aim of this evaluation was to estimate the economic impact of a national lymphoedema service on the NHS Wales budget. Work was undertaken to determine the care pathway within Lymphoedema Network Wales and develop a hypothetical 'world without' the service as a comparator. The four groups of patients that made up the pathways were group 0: 'at risk', group 1-2: 'uncomplicated lymphoedema', group 3: 'complicated/complex' and group 4: 'palliative care'...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124407/educational-system-based-on-the-tapp-checklist-improves-the-performance-of-novices-a-multicenter-randomized-trial
#18
Saseem Poudel, Yo Kurashima, Kimitaka Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawase, Yoichi M Ito, Fumitaka Nakamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
BACKGROUND: Despite recent developments in surgical education, obstacles including inadequate budget, limited human resources, and a scarcity of time have limited its widespread adoption. To provide systematic training for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, we had previously developed and validated a checklist to evaluate the recorded performance of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair. We had also developed an educational system that included didactic materials based on the TAPP checklist and incorporated remote evaluation and feedback system...
November 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123090/global-patterns-of-nitrate-storage-in-the-vadose-zone
#19
M J Ascott, D C Gooddy, L Wang, M E Stuart, M A Lewis, R S Ward, A M Binley
Global-scale nitrogen budgets developed to quantify anthropogenic impacts on the nitrogen cycle do not explicitly consider nitrate stored in the vadose zone. Here we show that the vadose zone is an important store of nitrate that should be considered in future budgets for effective policymaking. Using estimates of groundwater depth and nitrate leaching for 1900-2000, we quantify the peak global storage of nitrate in the vadose zone as 605-1814 Teragrams (Tg). Estimates of nitrate storage are validated using basin-scale and national-scale estimates and observed groundwater nitrate data...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114846/savings-from-reducing-low-value-general-surgical-interventions
#20
REVIEW
H T Malik, J Marti, A Darzi, E Mossialos
BACKGROUND: Finding opportunities for improving efficiency is important, given the pressure on national health budgets. Identifying and reducing low-value interventions that deliver little benefit is key. A systematic literature evaluation was done to identify low-value interventions in general surgery, with further assessment of their cost. METHODS: A multiplatform method of identifying low value interventions was undertaken, including a broad literature search, a targeted database search, and opportunistic sampling...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
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