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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345498/the-effects-of-payments-for-pharmaceuticals-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
Katarzyna Kolasa, Marta Kowalczyk
The existence of different forms of out-of-pocket payments (OOPs) for pharmaceuticals across the globe provokes the question whether they can achieve more negative or positive consequences. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the association between drug cost sharing and health care services utilization, health care costs as well as health outcomes. Studies published in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase were searched with such keywords as: drug, pharmaceutical, cost sharing, out of pocket, co-payments paired with the following: impact, health outcomes, health care costs and utilization...
March 27, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345444/budgetary-impact-of-cabazitaxel-use-after-docetaxel-treatment-for-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#2
Kyle Flannery, Ed Drea, Louis Hudspeth, Shelby Corman, Xin Gao, Mei Xue, Raymond Miao
BACKGROUND: With the approval of several new treatments for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), budgetary impact is a concern for health plan decision makers. Budget impact models (BIMs) are becoming a requirement in many countries as part of formulary approval or reimbursement decisions. Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane developed to overcome resistance to docetaxel and is approved for the treatment of patients with mCRPC previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341767/the-effect-of-excise-tax-increases-on-cigarette-prices-in-south-africa
#3
Daniel J Linegar, Corne van Walbeek
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of excise tax increases as a tool for reducing tobacco consumption depends largely on how the tax increases impact the retail price. We estimate this relationship in South Africa for 2001-2015. DATA: Statistics South Africa provided disaggregated cigarette price data, used in the calculation of the Consumers' Price Index. Data on the excise tax per cigarette were obtained from Budget Reviews prepared by the National Treasury of South Africa...
March 24, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330108/identification-of-novel-snps-in-differentially-expressed-genes-and-its-association-with-horn-cancer-of-bos-indicus-bullocks-by-next-generation-sequencing
#4
P G Koringa, S J Jakhesara, D N Rank, C G Joshi
The use of polymorphic markers like SNPs promises to provide comprehensive tool for analysing genome and identifying genomic regions that contribute to cancer phenotype. Horn cancer is the most common cancer among Bos indicus animals. Increased expression of some genes due to polymorphisms increases risk of HC incidence. We successfully amplified 91 SNPs located in 69 genes in 52 samples, each of HC and HN. Equimolar concentration of amplicons from 69 PCR products of each sample was pooled and subjected to sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329771/capacity-shortfalls-hinder-the-performance-of-marine-protected-areas-globally
#5
David A Gill, Michael B Mascia, Gabby N Ahmadia, Louise Glew, Sarah E Lester, Megan Barnes, Ian Craigie, Emily S Darling, Christopher M Free, Jonas Geldmann, Susie Holst, Olaf P Jensen, Alan T White, Xavier Basurto, Lauren Coad, Ruth D Gates, Greg Guannel, Peter J Mumby, Hannah Thomas, Sarah Whitmee, Stephen Woodley, Helen E Fox
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used globally to conserve marine resources. However, whether many MPAs are being effectively and equitably managed, and how MPA management influences substantive outcomes remain unknown. We developed a global database of management and fish population data (433 and 218 MPAs, respectively) to assess: MPA management processes; the effects of MPAs on fish populations; and relationships between management processes and ecological effects. Here we report that many MPAs failed to meet thresholds for effective and equitable management processes, with widespread shortfalls in staff and financial resources...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323753/budget-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-french-clinic-cohort-anrs-gota
#6
Emmanuelle Papot, Roland Landman, Françoise Louni, Charlotte Charpentier, Gilles Peytavin, Agnès Certain, Clémence Fradet, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marie Preau, Cécile Goujard, Patrick Yeni, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we first assessed costs associated with the use of ART in an infectious diseases University Hospital Clinic, we secondly evaluated characteristics associated with these costs, and finally simulated the impact on the overall ART budget of switching 1- and 2-line regimens to less costly regimens (as effective and well-tolerated). DESIGN: Cohort analysis including PLHIV ≥ 18 years on ART to estimate ART costs during 2014. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital Clinic in Paris, France, where 4,501 PLHIV consulted in 2014...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322881/the-cost-of-implementing-two-small-media-interventions-to-promote-hpv-vaccination
#7
Siddharth S Karanth, David R Lairson, Danmeng Huang, Lara S Savas, Sally W Vernon, María E Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of implementing lay health worker delivered print-based photonovella intervention and iPad-based tailored interactive multimedia intervention (TIMI) to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake and completion among Hispanic parents of daughters 9-17years old. METHODS: We recruited 301 participants in control, 422 in photonovella, and 239 in TIMI clinics. Intervention costs were estimated using micro-costing from the societal perspective...
March 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322248/quantification-of-the-impact-of-aerosol-on-broadband-solar-radiation-in-north-china
#8
Bo Hu, Xiujuan Zhao, Hui Liu, Zirui Liu, Tao Song, Yuesi Wang, Liqin Tang, Xiangao Xia, Guiqian Tang, Dongsheng Ji, Tianxue Wen, Lili Wang, Yang Sun, Jinyuan Xin
PM2.5 plays a key role in the solar radiation budget and air quality assessments, but observations and historical data are relatively rare for Beijing. Based on the synchronous monitoring of PM2.5 and broadband solar radiation (Rs), a logarithmic function was developed to describe the quantitative relationship between these parameters. This empirical parameterization was employed to calculate Rsn from PM2.5 with normalized mean bias (NMB) -0.09 and calculate PM2.5 concentration from Rsn with NMB -0.12. Our results indicate that this parameterization provides an efficient and straightforward method for estimating PM2...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321829/prosthetic-joint-infections-and-cost-analysis
#9
F S Haddad, A Ngu, J J Negus
Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery that can lead to debilitating morbidity for the patient and significant expense for the healthcare system. With the continual rise of arthroplasty cases worldwide every year, the revision load for infection is becoming a greater financial burden on healthcare budgets. Prevention of infection has to be the key to reducing this burden. For treatment, it is critical for us to collect quality data that can guide future management strategies to minimise healthcare costs and morbidity / mortality for patients...
March 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318504/-economic-evaluation-of-medical-devices-not-included-in-the-french-list-of-products-and-services-qualifying-for-reimbursement-example-of-biologic-meshes
#10
A Sainfort, I Denis-Hallouard, G Aulagner, O Nuiry, X Armoiry
OBJECTIVES: To present a method aimed to evaluate the economic impact associated with the use of medical devices (DM) not reimbursed in addition to diagnosis related groups (DRGs) tariffs using the example of biological meshes for parietal reinforcement. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we included all patients who received a biological mesh between January 2010-April 2014 (University hospitals of Saint-Étienne, France) or between January 2010-March 2015 (Lyon University hospitals, France)...
March 16, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316000/investigating-the-financial-impact-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-on-smallholder-pig-farmers-in-cambodia
#11
A Zhang, J R Young, S Suon, K Ashley, P A Windsor, R D Bush
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was first identified in Cambodia in 2010, causing serious problems on affected farms, although the costs of the disease have not been well defined. The household financial impact of a PRRS outbreak in Cambodia was investigated using partial budget analysis, examining the economic benefit of three proposed interventions: (i) quarterly PRRS vaccine use, (ii) biosecurity implementation, and (iii) implementation of vaccination and biosecurity. The analyses were applied to three farm models: (i) a two-sow breeder; (ii) a five-pig fattener; and (iii) a single-sow, three-pig farrow-to-finish/breeder...
March 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302918/the-heterogeneous-impact-of-a-successful-tobacco-control-campaign-a-case-study-of-mauritius
#12
Hana Ross, Leelmanee Moussa, Tom Harris, Rajive Ajodhea
BACKGROUND: Mauritius has one of the highest smoking prevalences in Africa, contributing to its high burden of non-communicable diseases. Mauritius implemented a series of tobacco control measures from 2009 to 2012, including tobacco tax increases. There is evidence that these policies reduced tobacco consumption, but it is not clear what impact they had across different socioeconomic groups. METHOD: The impact of tobacco control measures on different income groups was analysed by contrasting household tobacco expenditures reported in 2006-2007 and 2012 household expenditure surveys...
March 15, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300096/biofuel-blending-reduces-particle-emissions-from-aircraft-engines-at-cruise-conditions
#13
Richard H Moore, Kenneth L Thornhill, Bernadett Weinzierl, Daniel Sauer, Eugenio D'Ascoli, Jin Kim, Michael Lichtenstern, Monika Scheibe, Brian Beaton, Andreas J Beyersdorf, John Barrick, Dan Bulzan, Chelsea A Corr, Ewan Crosbie, Tina Jurkat, Robert Martin, Dean Riddick, Michael Shook, Gregory Slover, Christiane Voigt, Robert White, Edward Winstead, Richard Yasky, Luke D Ziemba, Anthony Brown, Hans Schlager, Bruce E Anderson
Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296899/the-effects-of-marine-traffic-on-the-behaviour-of-black-sea-harbour-porpoises-phocoena-phocoena-relicta-within-the-istanbul-strait-turkey
#14
Aylin Akkaya Bas, Fredrik Christiansen, Ayaka Amaha Öztürk, Bayram Öztürk, Caley McIntosh
Marine traffic is threatening cetaceans on a local and global scale. The Istanbul Strait is one of the busiest waterways, with up to 2,500 vessels present daily. This is the first study to assess the magnitude of short- and long-term behavioural changes of the endangered Black Sea harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) in the presence of marine vessels within the Istanbul Strait. Markov chains were used to investigate the effect of vessel presence on the transition probability between behavioural states (diving, surface-feeding and travelling), and to quantify the effect on the behavioural budget and bout length (duration of time spent in a given state) of porpoises...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296667/economical-burden-of-burn-injuries-in-a-developing-country
#15
Noor-Ahmad Latifi, Hamid Karimi, Seyed Abbas Motevalian, Mahnoush Momeni
Burn injuries have economical impacts on patients in several ways. Understanding the charges of burn treatment is very important for patients, families, governmental authorities, and insurance companies. During the protocol of their treatment, they may be admitted several times for treatment of acute burn and then for reconstructive treatments of burn's complications. Calculating the hospital burn charges can serve as an objective criteria for authorities to plan for a sufficient budget for acute burn treatment, for additional management for chronic complications, and as a guide for planning preventive and public educational programs...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288637/exploring-implementation-practices-in-results-based-financing-the-case-of-the-verification-in-benin
#16
Matthieu Antony, Maria Paola Bertone, Olivier Barthes
BACKGROUND: Results-based financing (RBF) has been introduced in many countries across Africa and a growing literature is building around the assessment of their impact. These studies are usually quantitative and often silent on the paths and processes through which results are achieved and on the wider health system effects of RBF. To address this gap, our study aims at exploring the implementation of an RBF pilot in Benin, focusing on the verification of results. METHODS: The study is based on action research carried out by authors involved in the pilot as part of the agency supporting the RBF implementation in Benin...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281070/taking-climate-land-use-and-social-economy-into-estimation-of-carbon-budget-in-the-guanzhong-tianshui-economic-region-of-china
#17
Ting Li, Jing Li, Zixiang Zhou, Yanze Wang, Xiaonan Yang, Keyu Qin, Jingya Liu
Carbon sequestration is an indispensable ecosystem service provided by soil and vegetation, so mapping and valuing the carbon budget by considering both ecological and social factors is an important trend in evaluating ecosystem services. In this work, we established multiple scenarios to evaluate the impacts of land use change, population growth, carbon emission per capita, and carbon markets on carbon budget. We quantified carbon sinks (aboveground and belowground) under different scenarios, using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model and an improved carbon cycle process model, and studied carbon sources caused by human activities by analyzing the spatial distribution of human population and carbon emission per capita...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280375/budget-impact-analysis-of-the-simplification-to-atazanavir-ritonavir-lamivudine-dual-therapy-of-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-atazanavir-based-triple-therapies-in-italy-starting-from-data-of-the-atlas-m-trial
#18
Umberto Restelli, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Carmela Nappi, Davide Croce
BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed at evaluating the impact of a therapeutic strategy of treatment simplification of atazanavir (ATV)+ ritonavir (r) + lamivudine (3TC) in virologically suppressed patients receiving ATV+r+2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) on the budget of the Italian National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: A budget impact model with a 5-year time horizon was developed based on the clinical data of Atlas-M trial at 48 weeks (in terms of percentage of patients experiencing virologic failure and adverse events), from the Italian NHS perspective...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277868/crizotinib-treatment-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-budget-impact-analysis-based-in-thailand
#19
Sumitra Thongprasert, Unchalee Permsuwan
OBJECTIVE: With the advent of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with ALK positive has become more effective while drug cost are still a major concern. This study aimed to estimate the budget impact of crizotinib versus other standard therapies in Thai advanced NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangement. METHODS: The budget impact model was developed to estimate the net budget impact of world with crizotinib compared with world without crizotinib considering payer's perspective over a three-year period...
February 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277855/using-lower-cost-statins-improves-outcomes-for-normal-cholesterol-non-diabetic-patients
#20
Ronen Arbel, Dan Greenberg
BACKGROUND The American College of Cardiology recommends considering initiation of cholesterol-lowering therapy in normal cholesterol adults aged 45-70, who are either diabetic or have a 10 year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease higher than 7.5%. Although this policy was shown to be cost-effective, the multi-billion dollar budget impact may limit the adoption, diffusion and overall clinical impact of this therapy. OBJECTIVES We examined whether using a substantially lower cost statin (Simvastatin) in a much wider population, while accepting almost-as-good per-patient outcomes can provide better outcomes for the entire intended use population (IUP) under a pre-specified budget constraint...
February 21, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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