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E Matyja, W Grajkowska, K Stępień, E Naganska
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most frequent primary astroglial tumours affecting children and adolescents. They occur sporadically or in association with a genetically determined syndrome - neurofibromatosis type 1. Classic PA usually manifests as a well-circumscribed, often cystic, slowly growing tumour, which corresponds to WHO grade I. The majority of pilocytic tumours arise along the neuraxis, predominantly in the cerebellum. They are associated with favourable long-term outcome or spontaneous regression, even after incomplete resection...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
A Muruganathan, Mangesh Tiwaskar
While the incidence and prevalence of stroke is gradually decreasing in the western world, a parallel increase is seen in the developing world. It is a matter of special concern to us as approximately 20-30% of stroke occur in people younger than 45 years in India. Indians are prone to higher stroke risk because of urbanization, diabetes, cigarette smoking and high incidence of hypertension. Unfortunately, there is an inadequate awareness about the risk of stroke with hypertension among general public. Hypertension is considered to be the most important risk factor for stroke, and all forms of hypertension are associated with an increased risk of both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Linling Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yifeng Liu, Runjv Zhang, Yiqing Wu, Yun Huang, Feng Liu, Meigen Li, Saijun Sun, Lanfeng Xing, Yimin Zhu, Yiyi Chen, Li Xu, Liangbi Zhou, Hefeng Huang, Dan Zhang
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006-2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jacques Sedat, Yves Chau, Jean Gaudart, Marina Sachet, Stephanie Beuil, Michel Lonjon
BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic complications are the main problem in stent-assisted coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The combination of aspirin and clopidogrel is generally used to decrease these complications, but some patients do not respond to clopidogrel and have a higher risk of stent thrombosis. In cardiology, clinical trials have shown that prasugrel reduced the incidence of ischaemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome compared with clopidogrel but, according to several authors, prasugrel would produce an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhagic complications...
October 19, 2016: Interventional Neuroradiology
Yi Mu, Nolan McDonnell, Zhuoyang Li, Juan Liang, Yanping Wang, Jun Zhu, Elizabeth Sullivan
BACKGROUND: To analyse the maternal mortality ratio, demographic and pregnancy related details in women who suffered a fatal amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) in China. METHODS: A retrospective population based study using data collected as part of the National Maternal Mortality Surveillance System between 1996 and 2013. Data were collected onto a standardised form from women whose cause of death was listed as being secondary to AFE. RESULTS: Records were available for 640 deaths...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Hasan Turan, Atay Vural, Ozden Caliskan Kamisli, Nedim Tokgozoglu, Veysel Sal, Ilker Kahramanoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
K Gayathri, P K Ramalingam, Rpsp Santhakumar, B V Manjunath, N Karuppuswamy, B Vetriveran, S Selvamani, P Vishnuram, Kumar Natarajan
We present the case of a 23 year old with acute onset left hemiparesis and meningeal irritation, associated with recent history of chickenpox 15 days prior. Varicella-IgG and IgM was positive in the CSF and blood along with reduced serum/CSF ratios of VZV immunoglobulins. MRV showed thrombosis (CVT) of superior sagittal, transverse, right sigmoid sinuses with haemorrhagic infarct in right frontoparietal region. Patient responded well to intravenous heparin, Acyclovir and oral anticoagulant therapy.
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
S L Chen, R C Liu, F M Chen, X X Zhang, J Zhao, T M Chen
Outbreaks of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) - a rapidly progressing and highly contagious infection - often occur in schools during summer and autumn. We used dynamic modelling to evaluate the efficacy of interventions to control AHC outbreaks in schools. A susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model was built to simulate AHC outbreaks in Chinese schools, with isolation or school closure added into the model. We used outbreak data from the period 2004-2015 in our models to estimate the effective reproduction number and assess the efficacy of interventions...
October 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
H Humphreys, P Jenks, J Wilson, V Weston, R Bayston, C Waterhouse, A Moore
BACKGROUND: The insertion of external ventricular drains (EVDs) is necessary in some neurosurgical patients, but increases the risk of meningitis/ventriculitis. While there are well-recognized risk factors, the proportion of patients who develop meningitis/ventriculitis varies partly due to differences in definitions. A multi-disciplinary working group was established to agree definitions for EVD-associated meningitis/ventriculitis, and a surveillance system was piloted in four centres in the UK and Ireland...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Susmita Chatterjee, Anupam Sarkar, Krishna D Rao
BACKGROUND: Postpartum heammorrhage (PPH), defined as blood loss greater than or equal to 500 ml within 24 hours after birth, is the leading cause of maternal deaths globally and in India. Misoprostol is an important option for PPH management in setting where oxytocin (the gold standard for PPH prevention and treatment) in not available or not feasible to use. For the substantial number of deliveries which take place at home or at lower level heatlh facilities in India, misoprostol pills can be adminstered to prevent PPH...
2016: PloS One
Henna Wong, Nicola Curry, Simon J Stanworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from uncontrolled haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of trauma-related mortality and is potentially preventable. Advances in understanding the mechanisms of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) have focused attention on the role of blood products and procoagulants in mitigating the sequelae of TIC and how these therapies can be improved. RECENT FINDINGS: A host of preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated blood product availability and efficacy in trauma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Albertino Damasceno
Hypertension is the main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension, previously almost unknown, is now a major risk factor. A paper recently published showed that mean systolic blood pressure is higher in all regions of Africa compared with other parts of the world, and, most important and contrary to what is happening in the rest of the world, it is increasing in the last years. Another important issue that characterises hypertension in Africa is its extremely low level of awareness and consequently low level of control...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Corinne Hubinont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
T Chen, Z-P Guo, L-X Fu, N Cao, S Qin
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various types of cutaneous vasculitis (CV). AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of an anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a mouse model of cutaneous reverse passive Arthus (RPA) reaction. METHODS: Cutaneous RPA reaction was induced in BALB/c mice by intradermal injection of anti-ovalbumin IgG into the left ear followed immediately by intravenous injection of chicken ovalbumin...
October 18, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Lourdes A Blanco Esquivel, Jorge Macia Urbina, Hugo Mendieta Zerón
BACKGROUND: Severe obstetric morbidity constitutes a serious problem worldwide; however, an effective obstetrical prognosis scale is still missing. OBJECTIVE: To propose a modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) score based on time before reaching specialized medical attention. METHOD: This was an ambispective, descriptive study, including all women treated at the Obstetrical Intensive Care Unit (OICU) of the "Mónica Pretelini Sáenz" Maternal-Perinatal Hospital (HMPMPS), Toluca, Mexico, from June 2009 to June 2013...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Glenwood Goss, Chun-Ming Tsai, Frances A Shepherd, Lyudmila Bazhenova, Jong Seok Lee, Gee-Chen Chang, Lucio Crino, Miyako Satouchi, Quincy Chu, Toyoaki Hida, Ji-Youn Han, Oscar Juan, Frank Dunphy, Makoto Nishio, Jin-Hyoung Kang, Margarita Majem, Helen Mann, Mireille Cantarini, Serban Ghiorghiu, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase 2, open-label, single-arm study (AURA2), patients aged at least 18 years with centrally confirmed EGFR Thr790Met-positive mutations, locally advanced or metastatic (stage IIIB/IV) NSCLC who progressed on previous EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily; treatment could continue beyond progression if the investigator observed a clinical benefit...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Daniel F Hanley, Richard E Thompson, John Muschelli, Michael Rosenblum, Nichol McBee, Karen Lane, Amanda J Bistran-Hall, Steven W Mayo, Penelope Keyl, Dheeraj Gandhi, Tim C Morgan, Natalie Ullman, W Andrew Mould, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Carlos Kase, Wendy Ziai, Carol B Thompson, Gayane Yenokyan, Emily Huang, William C Broaddus, R Scott Graham, E Francois Aldrich, Robert Dodd, Cristanne Wijman, Jean-Louis Caron, Judy Huang, Paul Camarata, A David Mendelow, Barbara Gregson, Scott Janis, Paul Vespa, Neil Martin, Issam Awad, Mario Zuccarello
BACKGROUND: Craniotomy, according to the results from trials, does not improve functional outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Whether minimally invasive catheter evacuation followed by thrombolysis for clot removal is safe and can achieve a good functional outcome is not known. We investigated the safety and efficacy of alteplase, a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, in combination with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. METHODS: MISTIE was an open-label, phase 2 trial that was done in 26 hospitals in the USA, Canada, the UK, and Germany...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
David J Werring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Edward M Schaeffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Urology
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