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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786966/controlled-selectivity-of-co-2-reduction-on-copper-by-pulsing-the-electrochemical-potential
#1
Kevin W Kimura, Kevin E Fritz, Jiyoon Kim, Jin Suntivich, Héctor D Abruña, Tobias Hanrath
We demonstrate a simple strategy to enhance the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR) selectivity by applying a pulsed electrochemical potential to a polycrystalline copper electrode. By controlling the pulse duration, we show that the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly suppressed to a fraction of the original value (<5 % faradaic efficiency) and selectivity for the CO2 RR dramatically improves (>75 % CH4 and >50 % CO faradaic efficiency). We attribute the improved CO2 RR selectivity to a dynamically rearranging surface coverage of hydrogen and intermediate species during the pulsing...
May 22, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786947/does-general-experience-affect-self-assessment
#2
Parisa Rezaiefar, Kelly Forse, Joseph K Burns, Sharon Johnston, Elizabeth Muggah, Claire Kendall, Douglas Archibald
BACKGROUND: The assessment of clinical competence is critical in medical education. Understanding the effect of general experience on a physician's self-assessment would help design more effective curricula and evaluations of procedural skills in postgraduate training and continuing professional development (CPD). In this observational study, we assessed the effect of general experience on the correlation between confidence and competence amongst experienced clinicians (ECs) and postgraduate trainees (PGTs) when learning an office-based procedure in pessary care...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786632/influences-of-playing-position-and-quality-of-opposition-on-standardized-relative-distance-covered-in-domestic-women-s-field-hockey-implications-for-coaches
#3
Don Vinson, Nicola Gerrett, David V B James
Vinson, D, Gerrett, N, and James, DVB. Influences of playing position and quality of opposition on standardized relative distance covered in domestic women's field hockey: Implications for coaches. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1770-1777, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the standardized relative distance covered by the various playing positions (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) against different quality of opponents in domestic women's field hockey. Data were collected from 13 individuals competing for 1 team in the English Premier League across an 18-game season...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786625/differences-in-glenohumeral-joint-rotation-and-peak-power-output-between-super-league-and-championship-rugby-league-players
#4
Matthew R Haines
Haines, MR. Differences in glenohumeral joint rotation and peak power output between Super League and Championship Rugby League players. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1685-1691, 2018-Rugby league is a high-intensity sport with large impact forces sustained during play, resulting in high prevalence of shoulder injury. Consequently, shoulder strength and player power are important considerations for injury prevention and performance. Additionally, professional teams regularly compete against semiprofessional teams, where differences in physical conditioning could be marked...
June 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786567/how-to-incorporate-academic-writing-pedagogy-in-undergraduate-and-postgraduate-medical-education
#5
Viktoriia G Kostenko, Iryna M Solohor
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Medical researchers, who are non-native English speakers, are facing now the growing need to publish their research results in international journals switching to an English-only policy, to apply for grants and scholarship, but at the same time this puts many authors whose native language is not English at a disadvantage compared to their English-speaking counterparts. The aim: This paper aims at analysing the existing parameters of academic writing proficiency of medical undergraduate and postgraduate students; elucidating current approaches to develop academic writing competency and to promote academic multi-literacy of junior researchers, and outlining the general recommendations to improve the quality and sophistication of their writing by incorporating the principles and achievements of academic writing pedagogy into the system of medical training...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786524/veterinary-herd-health-management-experience-among-farmers-and-farm-managers-in-swedish-dairy-production
#6
C Svensson, K Alvåsen, A C Eldh, J Frössling, H Lomander
A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786076/c-myc-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-and-promotes-myoblast-proliferation-and-muscle-fibre-hypertrophy-by-regulating-the-expression-of-its-target-genes-mirnas-and-lincrnas
#7
Wen Luo, Jiahui Chen, Limin Li, Xueyi Ren, Tian Cheng, Shiyi Lu, Raman Akinyanju Lawal, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang, Olivier Hanotte
The transcription factor c-Myc is an important regulator of cellular proliferation, differentiation and embryogenesis. While c-Myc can inhibit myoblast differentiation, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that c-Myc does not only inhibits myoblast differentiation but also promotes myoblast proliferation and muscle fibre hypertrophy. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified the genome-wide binding profile of c-Myc in skeletal muscle cells...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786074/constitutive-interferon-signaling-maintains-critical-threshold-of-mlkl-expression-to-license-necroptosis
#8
Joseph Sarhan, Beiyun C Liu, Hayley I Muendlein, Chi G Weindel, Irina Smirnova, Amy Y Tang, Vladimir Ilyukha, Maxim Sorokin, Anton Buzdin, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Alexander Poltorak
Interferons (IFNs) are critical determinants in immune-competence and autoimmunity, and are endogenously regulated by a low-level constitutive feedback loop. However, little is known about the functions and origins of constitutive IFN. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IFN was implicated as a driver of necroptosis, a necrotic form of cell death downstream of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase activation and executed by mixed lineage kinase like-domain (MLKL) protein. We found that the pre-established IFN status of the cell, instead of LPS-induced IFN, is critical for the early initiation of necroptosis in macrophages...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785972/a-methodology-to-objectively-assess-the-performance-of-sound-field-amplification-systems-demonstrated-using-50-physical-simulations-of-classroom-conditions
#9
Stephen Dance, Bradford Backus, Lorenzo Morales
Introduction: The effect of a sound reinforcement system, in terms of speech intelligibility, has been systematically determined under realistic conditions. Different combinations of ambient and reverberant conditions representative of a classroom environment have been investigated. Materials and Methods: By comparing the measured speech transmission index metric with and without the system in the same space under different room acoustics conditions, it was possible to determine when the system was most effective...
May 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785894/developmental-and-molecular-responses-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-cumulus-oocyte-complex-matured-in-vitro-under-heat-shock-conditions
#10
Ashraf El-Sayed, Rehab Nagy, Amal K El-Asheeri, Liala N Eid
SummaryTo investigate the effects of physiologically relevant heat shock during oocyte maturation, buffalo cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured at 38.5°C (control) or were exposed to 39.5°C (T1) or 40.5°C (T2) for the first 6 h of in vitro maturation (IVM), followed by 38.5°C through the next 18 h/IVM and early embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage. Gene expression analysis was performed on selected target genes (HSF-1, HSF-2, HSP-70, HSP-90, BAX, p53, SOD1, COX1, MAPK14) in denuded oocytes and their isolated cumulus cells resulting from control COCs as well as from COCs exposed to a temperature of 39...
May 22, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785884/morphological-changes-and-myocardial-function-assessed-by-traditional-and-novel-echocardiographic-methods-in-preadolescent-athlete-s-heart
#11
Anders W Bjerring, Hege Ew Landgraff, Svein Leirstein, Anette Aaeng, Hamza Z Ansari, Jørg Saberniak, Klaus Murbræch, Henrik Bruun, Thomas M Stokke, Kristina H Haugaa, Jostein Hallén, Thor Edvardsen, Sebastian I Sarvari
Background Athlete's heart is a term used to describe the morphological and functional changes in the hearts of athletes. Recent studies suggest that these changes may occur even in preadolescent athletes. This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes occurring in the preadolescent athlete's heart. Design and methods Cardiac morphology and function in 76 preadolescent cross-country skiers (aged 12.1 ± 0.2 years) were compared with 25 age-matched non-competing preadolescents. Echocardiography was performed in all subjects, including 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and 3D echocardiography...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785851/a-red-emitting-fluorescent-probe-for-detection-of-%C3%AE-glutamyltranspeptidase-and-its-application-of-real-time-imaging-under-oxidative-stress-in-cells-and-in-vivo
#12
Feiyan Liu, Zhen Wang, Wenli Wang, Jian-Guang Luo, Lingyi Kong
γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) plays critical roles in regulating various physiological/pathophysiological processes including the intracellular redox homeostasis. However, an effective fluorescent probe for dissecting the relationships between GGT and oxidative stress in vivo remains largely unexplored. Herein, we present a light-up fluorescent probe (DCDHF-Glu) with long wavelength emission (613 nm) for the highly sensitive and selective detection of GGT using dicyanomethylenedihydrofuran derivative as the fluorescent reporter and γ-glutamyl group as the enzyme-active trigger...
May 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785772/getting-the-picture-visual-interpretation-in-ophthalmology-residency-training
#13
Adam D Baim
OBJECTIVES: Visual interpretation is essential in many fields of health care. Although diagnostic competency can be measured as an educational outcome, few accounts have addressed tacit aspects of visual interpretation in clinical training; these include the disciplining of the trainee's attentions and the trainee's acculturation into expected styles of communicating visual interpretations to others. This paper describes values and dispositions that are taught to ophthalmology trainees as they learn to reason through visual information, and explores how these qualities are evaluated during residency training...
May 21, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785749/cardiac-vagal-regulation-in-infancy-predicts-executive-function-and-social-competence-in-preschool-indirect-effects-through-language
#14
Margaret Whedon, Nicole B Perry, Susan D Calkins, Martha A Bell
Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785698/specific-parasites-indirectly-influence-niche-occupation-of-non-hosts-community-members
#15
João Custódio Fernandes Cardoso, Radek Michalko, Marcelo Oliveira Gonzaga
The coexistence of phylogenetically related species is an attractive topic because of the potentially intense interspecific competition. The most often investigated mechanisms mediating coexistence of these species are environmental filtering and niche partitioning. However, the role of other factors, such as species-specific parasites, is still poorly understood. Along the riparian understory of a tropical forest, we explored niche occupation and coexistence between Chrysso intervales and Helvibis longicauda, two related syntopic web-building spiders...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785521/spatial-stochastic-intracellular-kinetics-a-review-of-modelling-approaches
#16
Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Models of chemical kinetics that incorporate both stochasticity and diffusion are an increasingly common tool for studying biology. The variety of competing models is vast, but two stand out by virtue of their popularity: the reaction-diffusion master equation and Brownian dynamics. In this review, we critically address a number of open questions surrounding these models: How can they be justified physically? How do they relate to each other? How do they fit into the wider landscape of chemical models, ranging from the rate equations to molecular dynamics? This review assumes no prior knowledge of modelling chemical kinetics and should be accessible to a wide range of readers...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785468/competition-for-electrons-between-mono-oxygenations-of-pyridine-and-2-hydroxypyridine
#17
Chao Yang, Yingxia Tang, Hua Xu, Ning Yan, Naiyu Li, Yongming Zhang, Bruce E Rittmann
Pyridine and its heterocyclic derivatives are widely encountered in industrial wastewaters, and they are relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation. Pyridine biodegradation is initiated by two mono-oxygenation reactions that compete for intracellular electron donor (2H). In our experiments, UV photolysis of pyridine generated succinate, whose oxidation augmented the intracellular electron donor and accelerated pyridine biodegradation and mineralization. The first mono-oxygenation reaction always was faster than the second one, because electrons provided by intracellular electron donors were preferentially utilized by the first mono-oxygenase; this was true even when the concentration of 2HP was greater than the concentration of pyridine...
May 21, 2018: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785405/prevalence-and-consequences-of-injuries-in-powerlifting-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Edit Strömbäck, Ulrika Aasa, Kajsa Gilenstam, Lars Berglund
Background: Powerlifting consists of the squat, bench press, and dead lift, and extreme loads are lifted during training and competitions. Previous studies, which have defined an injury as an event that causes an interruption in training or competitions, have reported a relatively low frequency of powerlifting injuries (1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training). No previous study has investigated the prevalence of injuries, defined as a condition of pain or impairment of bodily function that affects powerlifters' training, in a balanced sample of men and women, and no studies have established possible risk factors for an injury...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785289/what-is-the-role-of-wedge-resection-for-t1a-lung-cancer
#19
Sebron Harrison, Brendon Stiles, Nasser Altorki
Since 1995, lobar resection became the standard of care for medically fit patients with early stage lung cancer. This was based on the results of a single randomized trial comparing lobectomy and sublobar resection (SLR) in stage I lung cancer conducted by the lung cancer study group between 1982 and 1988. The conclusions of the study included a statistically significant tripling in loco-regional recurrence (LR) after limited resection but no difference between the two arms of the trial in systemic recurrence...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785262/evaluation-of-the-relevance-of-dili-predictive-hypotheses-in-early-drug-development-review-of-in-vitro-methodologies-vs-bddcs-classification
#20
Rosa Chan, Leslie Z Benet
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern; it occurs frequently; it is idiosyncratic; it cannot be adequately predicted; and a multitude of underlying mechanisms has been postulated. A number of experimental approaches to predict human DILI have been proposed utilizing in vitro screening such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, hepatobiliary transporter inhibition, reactive metabolite formation with and without covalent binding, and cellular health, but they have achieved only minimal success...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Research
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