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surgical engineering

Ji Eun Kim, Da-Hyun Song, Soo Hyun Kim, Youngmee Jung, Sang Jun Kim
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage, subchondral bone sclerosis and synovial inflammation and is the most common chronic condition worldwide today. However, most treatments have focused on pain relief and OA symptoms. For these reasons, many ongoing studies are currently trying to develop efficient and successful therapies based on its pathology. Animal models that mimic the histopathology and symptoms of OA have a critical role in OA research and make it possible to investigate both secondary osteoarthritic changes due to a precedent event such as traumatic injury and naturally occurring changes for the development of therapeutics which can be tested in preclinical and clinical OA trials...
2018: PloS One
Hui Qu, Bao-Dong Xie, Jian Wu, Bo Lv, Jun-Bo Chuai, Jian-Zhong Li, Jun Cai, Hua Wu, Shu-Lin Jiang, Xiao-Ping Leng, Kai Kang
Background: Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) present a promising alternative to current materials for surgical ventricular restoration (SVR); however, the clinical application remains limited by inadequate vascularization postimplantation. Moreover, a suitable and economic animal model for primary screening is another important issue. Methods: Recently, we used 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride chemistry (EDC) to initiate a strengthened, cytokine-conjugated collagenous platform with a controlled degradation speed...
2018: Stem Cells International
Won-Sang Cho, Jeong Eun Kim, Sukh Que Park, Jun Kyeung Ko, Dae-Won Kim, Jung Cheol Park, Je Young Yeon, Seung Young Chung, Joonho Chung, Sung-Pil Joo, Gyojun Hwang, Deog Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang, Kyu-Sun Choi, Sung Ho Lee, Seung Hun Sheen, Hyun-Seung Kang, Byung Moon Kim, Hee-Joon Bae, Chang Wan Oh, Hyeon Seon Park
Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Charlotte Prevoteau, Stephanie Y Chen, Anil K Lalwani
Since the advent of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the 1960s, there have been remarkable technological and surgical advances enabling excellent speech perception in quiet with many CI users able to use the telephone. However, many CI users struggle with music perception, particularly with the pitch-based and melodic elements of music. Yet remarkably, despite poor music perception, many CI users enjoy listening to music based on self-report questionnaires, and prospective studies have suggested a disassociation between music perception and enjoyment...
March 5, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Reza Khorramirouz, Jason L Go, Christopher Noble, Soumen Jana, Eva Maxson, Amir Lerman, Melissa D Young
OBJECTIVES: Subcutaneous implantations in small animal models are currently required for preclinical studies of acellular tissue to evaluate biocompatibility, including host recellularization and immunogenic reactivity. METHODS: Three rat subcutaneous implantation methods were evaluated in six Sprague Dawley rats. An acellular xenograft made from porcine pericardium was used as the tissue-scaffold. Three implantation methods were performed; 1) Suture method is where a tissue-scaffold was implanted by suturing its border to the external oblique muscle, 2) Control method is where a tissue-scaffold was implanted without any suturing or support, 3) Frame method is where a tissue-scaffold was attached to a circular frame composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) biomaterial and placed subcutaneously...
March 5, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Fangjie Shao, Chong Liu
High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Xiongbao Luo, Kensaku Mori, Terry M Peters
Interventional endoscopy (e.g., bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, laparoscopy, cystoscopy) is a widely performed procedure that involves either diagnosis of suspicious lesions or guidance for minimally invasive surgery in a variety of organs within the body cavity. Endoscopy may also be used to guide the introduction of certain items (e.g., stents) into the body. Endoscopic navigation systems seek to integrate big data with multimodal information (e.g., computed tomography, magnetic resonance images, endoscopic video sequences, ultrasound images, external trackers) relative to the patient's anatomy, control the movement of medical endoscopes and surgical tools, and guide the surgeon's actions during endoscopic interventions...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Woojin Cho, Alan Varkey Job, Jing Chen, Jung Hwan Baek
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a transformative technology with a potentially wide range of applications in the field of orthopaedic spine surgery. This article aims to review the current applications, limitations, and future developments of 3D printing technology in orthopaedic spine surgery. Current preoperative applications of 3D printing include construction of complex 3D anatomic models for improved visual understanding, preoperative surgical planning, and surgical simulations for resident education...
February 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Alison C Levy, Alex J Vanni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urethral strictures that are refractory to initial management present unique challenges to the reconstructive surgeon. Treatment trends have shifted as new tissue resources are becoming available. There is renewed interest in old methods as skill and technique have improved. We describe the scope of the surgical armamentarium available to develop creative approaches and successful outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss techniques to maximize the availability of oral mucosa, harvest and use of rectal mucosa, and developments in tissue engineering...
February 26, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Ken Catchpole, Ann Bisantz, M Susan Hallbeck, Matthias Weigl, Rebecca Randell, Merrick Kossack, Jennifer T Anger
This article reviews studies conducted "in the wild" that explore the "ironies of automation" in Robotic Assisted Surgery (RAS). Workload may be reduced for the surgeon, but increased for other team members, with postural stress relocated rather than reduced, and the introduction of a range of new challenges, for example, in the need to control multiple arms, with multiple instruments; and the increased demands of being physically separated from the team. Workflow disruptions were not compared with other surgeries; however, the prevalence of equipment and training disruptions differs from other types of surgeries...
February 22, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jamie Lynn White, Naomi J Walker, Jerry C Hu, Dori Borjesson, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Joint injury is a common cause of premature retirement for the human and equine athlete alike. Implantation of engineered cartilage offers the potential to increase the success rate of surgical intervention and hasten recovery times. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a particularly attractive cell source for cartilage engineering. While bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) have been most extensively characterized for musculoskeletal tissue engineering, studies suggest cord blood MSCs (CB-MSCs) may elicit a more robust chondrogenic phenotype...
February 25, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Kengo Nakajima, Ryo Kunimatsu, Kazuyo Ando, Toshinori Ando, Yoko Hayashi, Takuya Kihara, Tomoka Hiraki, Yuji Tsuka, Takaharu Abe, Masato Kaku, Hiroki Nikawa, Takashi Takata, Kazuo Tanne, Kotaro Tanimoto
Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital anomaly in the orofacial region. Autogenous iliac bone graft, in general, has been employed for closing the bone defect at the alveolar cleft. However, such iliac bone graft provides patients with substantial surgical and psychological invasions. Consequently, development of a less invasive method has been highly anticipated. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a major candidate for playing a significant role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Banu Akar, Alexandar M Tatara, Alok Sutradhar, Hui-Yi Hsiao, Michael John Miller, Ming-Huei Cheng, Antonios G Mikos, Eric M Brey
Reconstruction of large skeletal defects is challenging due to the requirement for large volumes of donor tissue and the often complex surgical procedures. Tissue engineering has the potential to serve as a new source of tissue for bone reconstruction, but current techniques are often limited in regards to the size and complexity of tissue that can be formed. Building tissue using an in vivo bioreactor approach may enable the production of appropriate amounts of specialized tissue while reducing issues of donor site morbidity, and infection...
February 22, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Max J H Witjes, Rutger H Schepers, Joep Kraeima
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the advances in 3D virtual planning for mandibular and maxillary reconstruction surgical defects with full prosthetic rehabilitation. The primary purpose is to provide an overview of various techniques that apply 3D technology safely in primary and secondary reconstructive cases of patients suffering from head and neck cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Methods have been developed to overcome the problem of control over the margin during surgery while the crucial decision with regard to resection margin and planning of osteotomies were predetermined by virtual planning...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Ian R Wisecarver, Gerhard S Mundinger, Michael S Tarakji, Hugo St Hilaire
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck affects a significant number of people around the world every year. Treatment generally entails surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or some combination of the three. Following resection, microsurgical reconstruction can provide definitive coverage, replace many tissue types simultaneously, and bring healthy tissue to irradiated wound beds. Microsurgical engineering, the manipulation and reorganization of native vascular tissue, can further augment the adaptability of free tissue transfer to complex, compromised wound beds...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Johnny I Efanov, Andrée-Anne Roy, Ke N Huang, Daniel E Borsuk
Objective: Over the past few years, virtual surgical planning (VSP) has evolved into a useful tool for the craniofacial surgeon. Virtual planning and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) may assist in orthognathic, cranio-orbital, traumatic, and microsurgery of the craniofacial skeleton. Despite its increasing popularity, little emphasis has been placed on the learning curve. Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive virtual surgeries was done from July 2012 to October 2016 at the University of Montreal Teaching Hospitals...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Corinna N Beale, Lara A Reyelt, Courtney A Bogins, Nathan Yl Chan, Scott E Perkins
Currently available animal models for delivery of drug capsules and pharmacokinetic testing are limited by either intersubject variability in gastric emptying time or the need to sedate animals when using targeted delivery methods of drug capsules. With the increasing development of large-molecule biologics, better in vivo models for testing the pharmacokinetics of capsule-delivered drugs are urgently needed. To this end, we made engineering modifications to an existing bovine surgical cannula device, successfully implanted this modified cannula into pigs, and delivered drug capsules directly to the proximal duodenum...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Zhan Wang, Sang Jin Lee, Heng-Jie Cheng, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
Bioengineering of a functional cardiac tissue composed of primary cardiomyocytes has great potential for myocardial regeneration and in vitro tissue modeling. However, its applications remain limited because the cardiac tissue is a highly organized structure with unique physiologic, biomechanical, and electrical properties. In this study, we undertook a proof-of-concept study to develop a contractile cardiac tissue with cellular organization, uniformity, and scalability by using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting strategy...
February 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Aysegul Gunduz, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique, which consists of continuous delivery of an electrical pulse through chronically implanted electrodes connected to a neurostimulator, programmable in amplitude, pulse width, frequency, and stimulation channel. DBS is a promising treatment option for addressing severe and drug-resistant movement disorders. The success of DBS therapy is a combination of surgical implantation techniques, device technology, and clinical programming strategies. Changes in device settings require highly trained and experienced clinicians to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit for each targeted symptom, and optimization of stimulation parameters can take many visits...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Eun-Jae Chung, Hyung Woo Ju, Yeung Kyu Yeon, Ji Seung Lee, Young Jin Lee, Ye Been Seo, Park Chan Hum
Current treatments of oesophageal diseases, such as carcinoma, congenital abnormality or trauma, require surgical intervention and oesophageal reconstruction with the stomach, jejunum or colon. However, serious side effects are possible with each treatment option. Despite tissue engineering promising to be an effective regenerative strategy, no functional solution currently exists for oesophageal reconstruction. Here, we developed an omentum-cultured oesophageal scaffold reinforced by a 3D-printed ring. The nano-structured scaffolds were wrapped into the omentum of rats and orthotopically transplanted for the repair of circumferential oesophageal defects two weeks later...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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