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Z Chen, L Cheng, G Feng
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a sporadic condition of inflammatory bone pain that occurs as recurrent flares because of osteomyelitis, which presents in the form of multiple aseptic foci. The estimated prevalence of CRMO is 1-2 per million, affecting mostly children, in the age group of 2 to 17. Main symptoms of CRMO are bone inflammation and pain, which are generally worse at night. Other symptoms seen on radiographs indicate osteolytic lesions surrounded by sclerosis, at later stages of the disease...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Andy Extance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z Liu, Stephen F Cauley, Bruce R Rosen, Matthew S Rosen
Image reconstruction is essential for imaging applications across the physical and life sciences, including optical and radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound imaging and radio astronomy. During image acquisition, the sensor encodes an intermediate representation of an object in the sensor domain, which is subsequently reconstructed into an image by an inversion of the encoding function. Image reconstruction is challenging because analytic knowledge of the exact inverse transform may not exist a priori, especially in the presence of sensor non-idealities and noise...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Mingyang Shang, Bing Han, Chibiao Ding, Jili Sun, Tao Zhang, Lijia Huang, Dadi Meng
Spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a proven technique, which can provide high-resolution images as compared to those produced by traditional stripmap SAR. This paper addresses a high-resolution SAR focusing experiment based on Gaofen-3 satellite (GF-3) staring data with about 55 cm azimuth resolution and 240 MHz range bandwidth. In staring spotlight (ST) mode, the antenna always illuminates the same scene on the ground, which can extend the synthetic aperture. Based on a two-step processing algorithm, some special aspects such as curved-orbit model error correction, stop-and-go correction, and antenna pattern demodulation must be considered in image focusing...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Yiting Yu, Wenli Li, Haoyong Li, Muyuan Li, Weizheng Yuan
Planar super-oscillation lenses (SOLs) can fulfill super-resolution focusing and nanoscopic imaging in the far field without the contribution of evanescent waves. Nevertheless, the existing deviations between the design and experimental results have been seldomly investigated, leaving the practical applications of SOLs unpredictable and uncontrollable. In this paper, some application-oriented issues are taken into consideration, such as the inevitable fabrication errors and the size effect of the designed SOLs, with the aim of providing an engineering reference to elaborately customize the demanded focusing light field...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Seokho Kim, Do Hyoung Kim, Jinho Choi, Hojin Lee, Sun-Young Kim, Jung Woon Park, Dong Hyuk Park
We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq₃) with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq₃ nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq₃ were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq₃ NPs were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Chao-Ching Ho, Dung-Sheng Wu
Spark-assisted chemical engraving (SACE) is a non-traditional machining technology that is used to machine electrically non-conducting materials including glass, ceramics, and quartz. The processing accuracy, machining efficiency, and reproducibility are the key factors in the SACE process. In the present study, a machine vision method is applied to monitor and estimate the status of a SACE-drilled hole in quartz glass. During the machining of quartz glass, the spring-fed tool electrode was pre-pressured on the quartz glass surface to feed the electrode that was in contact with the machining surface of the quartz glass...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Hong Gun Kim, Yong Sun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac, Su-Hyeong Chae, Hye Kyoung Shin
Carbon foams were prepared by carbonization of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/waste artificial marble powder (WAMP) composites obtained via electron beam irradiation (EBI); these composites were prepared by mixing eco-friendly CMC with WAMP as the fillers for improved their poor mechanical strength. Gel fractions of the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at various EBI doses were investigated, and it was found that the CMC/WAMP composites obtained at an EBI dose of 80 kGy showed the highest gel fraction (95%); hence, the composite prepared at this dose was selected for preparing the carbon foam...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Ireneusz Sowa, Magdalena Wójciak-Kosior, Maciej Strzemski, Jan Sawicki, Michał Staniak, Sławomir Dresler, Wojciech Szwerc, Jarosław Mołdoch, Michał Latalski
Polyaniline (PANI) is one of the best known conductive polymers with multiple applications. Recently, it was also used in separation techniques, mostly as a component of composites for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the present paper, sorbent obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline directly on silica gel particles (Si-PANI) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) and matrix solid-phase extraction (MSPD). The efficiency of both techniques was evaluated with the use of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) quantitative analysis...
March 22, 2018: Materials
Peter A Muller, Jennifer L Mueller, Michelle Mellenthin, Rashmi Murthy, Michael Capps, Brandie Wagner, Melody Alsaker, Robin Deterding, Scott D Sagel, Jordana Hoppe
Lung function monitoring by spiromety plays a critical role in the clinical care of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, but many young children are unable to perform spirometry, and the outputs are often normal even in the presence of lung disease. Measures derived from electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images were studied for their utility as potential surrogates for spirometry in CF patients and to assess response to intravenous antibiotic treatment for acute pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in a subset of patients...
March 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Melissa Preissner, Rhiannon P Murrie, Isaac Pinar, Freda Werdiger, Richard P Carnibella, Graeme R Zosky, Andreas Fouras, Stephen Dubsky
We have developed an X-ray imaging system for <i>in vivo</i> four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) of small animals for pre-clinical lung investigations. Our customized laboratory facility is capable of high resolution <i>in vivo</i> imaging at high frame rates. Characterization using phantoms demonstrate a spatial resolution of slightly below 50 μm at imaging rates of 30 Hz, and the ability to quantify material density differences of at least 3%...
March 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Soo Young Yun, Young Jin Heo, Hae Woong Jeong, Jin Wook Baek, Hye Jung Choo, Jung Hwa Seo, Sung Tae Kim, Ji Young Lee, Sung Chul Jin
Background Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) more frequently develops in patients with intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) than extracranial VAD, and is associated with possible poor clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to compare high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) findings and clinical features of VAD with and without AIS. Methods Twenty-nine lesions from 27 patients (15 male and 12 female patients; age range = 28-73 years) who underwent diffusion MRI and 3T HR-MRI within seven days were included...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Francesco Agnello, Angelo Gambino, Martina Sciortino, Massimo Midiri
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of the 'central vein' sign in white matter lesions on susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance images in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Materials and methods T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images of 19 MS patients and 19 patients affected by CSVD were analysed for the presence and localisation of focal hyperintense white matter lesions. Lesions were subdivided into periventricular or non-periventricular (juxtacortical, subcortical, deep white matter and cerebellar) distributed...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Jeannine Steinmeyer, Heidi-Kristin Walter, Mathilde A Bichelberger, Violetta Schneider, Tomáš Kubař, Franziska Rönicke, Bettina Olshausen, Karin Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich Nienhaus, Ute Schepers, Marcus Elstner, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
Two fluorescent dyes covalently attached in diagonal interstrand orientation to siRNA undergo energy transfer and thereby enable a dual color fluorescence readout (red/green) for hybridization. Three different structural variations were carried out and compared by their optical properties, including (i) the base surrogate approach with an acyclic linker as a substitute of the 2-deoxyriboside between the phosphodiester bridges, (ii) the 2'-modification of conventional ribofuranosides and (iii) the arabino-configured 2'-modification...
March 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Gema Rebolleda, Victoria de Juan, Francisco J Muñoz-Negrete, Laura Díez-Álvarez
PURPOSE: To assess the changes in peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness, and in the lamina cribrosa position following deep sclerectomy. METHODS: Prospective study, including 39 eyes with open-angle glaucoma following deep sclerectomy. Choroidal thickness was automatically measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography at four peripapillary locations (superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal) and at the macular area in nine fields plotted with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Paolo Fogagnolo, Maurizio Digiuni, Giovanni Montesano, Chiara Rui, Marco Morales, Luca Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Compass (CenterVue, Padova, Italy) is a fundus automated perimeter which has been introduced in the clinical practice for glaucoma management in 2014. The aim of the article is to review Compass literature, comparing its performances against Humphrey Field Analyzer (Zeiss Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA, USA). RESULTS: Analyses on both normal and glaucoma subjects agree on the fact that Humphrey Field Analyzer and Compass are interchangeable, as the difference of their global indices is largely inferior than test -retest variability for Humphrey Field Analyzer...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Junjian Chen, Meng Gao, Lin Wang, Shiwu Li, Jingcai He, Anjun Qin, Li Ren, Yingjun Wang, Ben Zhong Tang
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infection has become one of the most serious threats to human health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as potential alternatives to antibiotics owing to their excellent bactericidal activity. However, the complicated bactericidal mechanism of AMPs is still poorly understood. Fluorescence imaging has many advantages in terms of dynamic monitoring, easy operation, and high sensitivity. In this study, we developed an aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active probe AMP-2HBT by decorating of the antimicrobial peptide HHC36 (KRWWKWWRR) with an AIEgen of 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT)...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoyan Yang, Dongya Wang, Yunhao Shi, Jianhua Zou, Qisen Zhao, Qi Zhang, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Xiaoji Xie, Xiaochen Dong
In preclinical and clinical research, to destroy cancers, particularly those located in deep tissues is still a great challenge. Photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy are promising alternative approaches for tissue cancer curing. Black phosphorus (BP) based nanomaterials, with broad UV-vis near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and excellent photothermal effect, have shown great potential in biomedical applications. Herein, a biocompatible therapeutic platform, Chlorin e6 (Ce6) decorated BP nanosheets (NSs), has been developed for fluorescence and thermal imaging guided photothermal and photodynamic synergistic cancer treatment...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kfir Kuchuk, Uri Sivan
Hydration interaction shapes biomolecules and is a dominant inter-molecular force. Mapping the hydration patterns of biomolecules is therefore essential for understanding molecular processes in biology. Numerous studies have been devoted to this challenge but current methods cannot map the hydration of single biomolecules, let alone under physiological conditions. Here, we show that FM-AFM can fill this gap and generate 3D hydration maps of single DNA molecules under near-physiological conditions. Additionally, we present real space images of DNA in which the double helix is resolved with unprecedented resolution, clearly revealing individual phosphate groups along the DNA backbone...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Zhilan Ye, Tao Zhang, Wenshan He, Honglin Jin, Cuiwei Liu, Zhe Yang, Jinghua Ren
Despite promising in-vitro evidence for effective glioblastoma treatment, most drugs are hindered from entering the central nervous system due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, successful modification of drug delivery and novel therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome this obstacle. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived membrane-encapsulated structures with diameters ranging from 50-1000 nm, have been explored as drug delivery system to deliver their cargo to the brain tissue...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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