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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206938/a-review-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-specimen-histopathology
#1
Luke A Kinsinger, James C Garber, Oliver Whipple
With the increasing popularity of sleeve gastrectomy, many stomach specimens are being evaluated. Understanding the significance and treatment for unexpected pathology is important. This study examines the incidence of relevant histopathology of sleeve gastrectomy specimens. It evaluates previous data for each histopathology and provides recommendations for treatment. In this study, a retrospective review was performed for 241 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2009 to 2014 at a single institution...
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#2
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174755/murine-models-of-gastric-corpus-preneoplasia
#3
REVIEW
Christine P Petersen, Jason C Mills, James R Goldenring
Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma evolves in a field of pre-existing metaplasia. Over the past 20 years, a number of murine models have been developed to address aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of metaplasia induction. Although none of these models has achieved true recapitulation of the induction of adenocarcinoma, they have led to important insights into the factors that influence the induction and progression of metaplasia. Here, we review the pathologic definitions relevant to alterations in gastric corpus lineages and classification of metaplasia by specific lineage markers...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135297/acetic-acid-enhanced-narrow-band-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia
#4
Jie Sha, Pin Wang, Bingliang Zhu, Minghui Zhu, Xueliang Li, Feng Gao
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a precancerous lesion of the stomach. The detection of GIM using conventional white-light endoscopy (WLE) is difficult. In this study, we determined whether acetic acid-enhanced narrow band imaging (AA-NBI) improves the detection of GIM. A consecutive cohort of 132 individuals aged 40 years or older was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using WLE, NBI and AA-NBI. The ability of the three methods to diagnose GIM in patients was compared. Histological assessment (per-patient and per-biopsy) was used for the accuracy assessment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124157/impact-of-the-microbiota-and-gastric-disease-development-by-helicobacter-pylori
#5
Teresa Alarcón, Laura Llorca, Guillermo Perez-Perez
Microorganisms in humans form complex communities with important functions and differences in each part of the body. The stomach was considered to be a sterile organ until the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, but nowadays, it is possible to demonstrate that other microorganisms beyond H. pylori can colonize the gastric mucosa and that the diverse microbiota ecosystem of the stomach is different from the mouth and the esophagus, and also from the small intestine and large intestine. H. pylori seems to be the most important member of the gastric microbiota with the highest relative abundance when present, but when it is absent, the stomach has a diverse microbiota...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053963/expression-of-leucine-rich-repeat-containing-g-protein-coupled-receptor-5-and-cd44-potential-implications-for-gastric-cancer-stem-cell-marker
#6
Yoon Jin Choi, Nayoung Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Seon Mee Park, Ji Hyun Park, Hyuk Yoon, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Dong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: The human leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor (LGR) 5 and CD44 are one of the candidates for the marker of gastric cancer stem cells. We compared the expressions of two genes among control, dysplasia and cancer groups. METHODS: We compared the mRNA expression of LGR5, CD44 and CD44v8-10 and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of LGR5 and CD44 in gastric antral mucosa of 45 controls, 36 patients with gastric dysplasia, and 39 patients with early gastric cancer...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003849/conifer-green-needle-complex-in-patients-with-precancerous-gastric-lesions-an-observational-pilot-study
#7
Vladimir Bespalov, Alexander Sherbakov, Viktor Novik, Valentin Kalinovsky, Kamran Shamsi, Vagif Soultanov
Objectives. Helicobacter pylori infection is common and can lead to precancerous gastric lesions. Standard antibiotic therapy has a failure rate of more than 25% from antibiotic resistance. The primary aim of this observational pilot study was to test the feasibility of a large-scale clinical trial of Conifer Green Needle Complex (CGNC) to treat precancerous gastric lesions. Secondary aims were to investigate H. pylori infection, stomach function, and histopathology of the gastric mucosa. Methods. A tablet form of CGNC (extracted from Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies (L) Karst) was prescribed to 26 patients with precancerous gastric lesions (two tablets, 100 mg CGNC/tablet, three times per day for six months)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771376/clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-invasive-gastric-helicobacter-pylori
#8
Jonathan Dudley, Tad Wieczorek, Martin Selig, Hoiwan Cheung, Jeanne Shen, Robert Odze, Vikram Deshpande, Lawrence Zukerberg
Helicobacter pylori organisms have been observed deep within the stomach mucosa with an "intracellular" appearance, though the clinicopathologic characteristics of such cases remain poorly understood. We analyzed eighteen cases of deep mucosal H. pylori and associated clinical (sex, age, history of H. pylori infection, or proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, medications, smoking, alcohol use, co-morbidities, treatment response treatment) and pathological (presence of lymphoid aggregates, intestinal metaplasia, PPI effect, active and/or chronic inflammation, quantity of invasive versus surface H...
October 19, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738541/metastatic-gastrointestinal-adenocarcinoma-with-osteoblastic-activity-a-case-report-of-esophageal-and-colonic-primaries
#9
Brett Matthew Lowenthal, Ahmed S Shabaik, Mark A Valasek
Adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases is classically seen in prostate, breast, and lung primaries. Less common primary sites include thyroid, kidney, and stomach. We present two cases of primary gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma with metastatic osteoblastic activity from two previously unreported sites. The first case represents an esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a background of intestinal metaplasia that metastasized with osteoblastic activity to the deltoid muscle. The second case demonstrates a Stage IV sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma with osteoblastic metastases to the liver and lymph nodes...
2016: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729732/impact-of-homeobox-genes-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#10
EDITORIAL
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
Homeobox genes, including HOX and non-HOX genes, have been identified to be expressed aberrantly in solid tumors. In gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, most studies have focused on the function of non-HOX genes including caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 1 (CDX1) and CDX2. CDX2 is a crucial factor in the development of pre-cancerous lesions such as Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and its tumor suppressive role has been investigated in colorectal cancers. Recently, several HOX genes were reported to have specific roles in GI cancers; for example, HOXA13 in esophageal squamous cell cancer and HOXB7 in stomach and colorectal cancers...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609464/loss-of-mesenchymal-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-leads-to-development-of-reactive-stroma-and-initiation-of-the-gastric-neoplastic-cascade
#11
Sébastien A B Roy, Joannie M Allaire, Camille Ouellet, Faiza Maloum-Rami, Véronique Pomerleau, Étienne Lemieux, Jean-Philippe Babeu, Jasmin Rousseau, Marilène Paquet, Perrine Garde-Granger, François Boudreau, Nathalie Perreault
Bmps are morphogens involved in various gastric cellular functions. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in gastric epithelial and stromal cell compartments leads to the development of tumorigenesis. Our studies have demonstrated that abrogation of gastric epithelial Bmp signaling alone was not sufficient to recapitulate the neoplastic features associated with total gastric loss of Bmp signaling. Thus, epithelial Bmp signaling does not appear to be a key player in gastric tumorigenesis initiation...
September 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604361/gastric-microbiota-and-carcinogenesis-the-role-of-non-helicobacter-pylori-bacteria-a-systematic-review
#12
Emanuel Dias-Jácome, Diogo Libânio, Marta Borges-Canha, Ana Galaghar, Pedro Pimentel-Nunes
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. However, recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have revealed a complex microbial community in the stomach that could also contribute to the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to present recent scientific evidence regarding the role of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS: A systematic review of original articles published in PubMed in the last ten years related to gastric microbiota and gastric cancer in humans was performed...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573783/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-cancer-timing-and-impact-of-preventive-measures
#13
REVIEW
Marino Venerito, Riccardo Vasapolli, Peter Malfertheiner
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573764/distal-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-and-gastric-adenocarcinoma-time-for-a-shared-research-agenda
#14
Marnix Jansen, Nicholas A Wright
The key insight that sparked Darwin's theory of descent with modification was that he compared and contrasted differences between living and extinct species across time and space. He likely arrived on this theory in large part through his culinary experiences, set against the background of the rugged Patagonian landscape of Southern Argentina. We feel that further integration of research into gastric and esophageal adenocarcinoma may benefit both fields and similarly lead to a coherent understanding of cancer progression in the upper gastrointestinal tract across time and space...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558191/case-of-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-in-an-old-patient-with-previous-gastric-surgery
#15
Firas Kadurei, Mohamed Alboraie
An 87-year-old woman with multiple medical disorders presented with dyspeptic symptoms of long duration. She has a history of peptic ulcer disease for which she has partial gastrectomy (Billroth I) in the past. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was performed which revealed erythematous mucosa in the lower part of the gastric remnant with areas of whitish mucosal patches in the distal stomach close to the gastroduodenal anastomosis. Biopsies were taken from the whitish mucosal patches and sent for histopathological examination...
August 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498859/sox2-suppresses-gastric-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#16
Abby Sarkar, Aaron J Huebner, Rita Sulahian, Anthony Anselmo, Xinsen Xu, Kyle Flattery, Niyati Desai, Carlos Sebastian, Mary Anna Yram, Katrin Arnold, Miguel Rivera, Raul Mostoslavsky, Roderick Bronson, Adam J Bass, Ruslan Sadreyev, Ramesh A Shivdasani, Konrad Hochedlinger
Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2(+) cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model...
August 16, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491072/a-knockin-mouse-model-for-human-atp4ar703c-mutation-identified-in-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumors-recapitulates-the-premalignant-condition-of-the-human-disease-and-suggests-new-therapeutic-strategies
#17
Oriol Calvete, Andrea Varro, D Mark Pritchard, Alicia Barroso, Marta Oteo, Miguel Ángel Morcillo, Pierfrancesco Vargiu, Steven Dodd, Miriam Garcia, José Reyes, Sagrario Ortega, Javier Benitez
By whole exome sequencing, we recently identified a missense mutation (p.R703C) in the human ATP4a gene, which encodes the proton pump responsible for gastric acidification. This mutation causes an aggressive familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumor in homozygous individuals. Affected individuals show an early onset of the disease, characterized by gastric hypoacidity, hypergastrinemia, iron-deficiency anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia and, in one case, an associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed as the definitive treatment in all affected individuals...
September 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447751/troy-is-expressed-in-human-stomach-mucosa-and-a-novel-putative-prognostic-marker-of-intestinal-type-gastric-cancer
#18
Franziska Wilhelm, Christine Böger, Sandra Krüger, Hans-Michael Behrens, Christoph Röcken
Epithelial stem cells of gastrointestinal tissues are characterized and controlled by an active Wnt signaling. Recently, the Wnt target gene Troy has been proposed as a neoplastic marker in the murine intestine. In this study, we explored the putative tumor biological significance of Troy in humans by using immunohistochemistry (104 cases), quantitative RT-PCR (50 cases) and cell culture experiments (MKN45, MKN74). In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, Troy was expressed by Muc5AC-positive foveolar epithelium, parietal cells, chief cells and cells of the intestinal metaplasia...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413289/histopathological-and-morphological-studies-on-natural-cysticercus-fasciolaris-infection-in-liver-of-wistar-rats
#19
Aman Dev Moudgil, Lachhman Das Singla, Kuldip Gupta, Prashant S Daundkar, Bhaskar Vemu
Descriptive morphology of multifocal hepatic cysts found in eight of forty five (17.78 %) Wistar rats sacrificed during pharmacological studies related to herbal formulations was studied. The creamish to white cysts were of varying sizes, ranging from 3-8 mm in diameter. Morphological studies of these cysts depicted the presence of metacestodes of Taenia taeniaeformis i.e. Cysticercus fasciolaris inside them. The scolex of metacestode revealed four suckers and rostellum armed with two distinct rows of characteristic pen knife shaped hooks (characteristics of taeniid cestodes)...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317852/risk-of-gastric-cancer-among-patients-with-intestinal-metaplasia-of-the-stomach-in-a-us-integrated-health-care-system
#20
Kavya M Reddy, Jonathan I Chang, Jiaxiao M Shi, Bechien U Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a common finding from routine endoscopies. Although GIM is an early step in gastric carcinogenesis, there is controversy regarding routine surveillance of patients with GIM in regions with a low prevalence of gastric cancer. We aimed to determine the incidence of gastric cancer among patients with GIM and risk factors for gastric cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California region diagnosed with GIM from 2000 through 2011...
October 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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