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John K Fallon, Nicole Houvig, Catherine L Booth-Genthe, Philip C Smith
Information is needed on the expression of transporters in lung to inform drug development and therapeutic decisions. Much of the information currently available is from semiquantitative gene expression or immunometric densitometry studies reported in the literature. NanoLC-MS/MS (MRM mode) isotope dilution targeted quantitative proteomics was used here to quantify twelve selected transporters in fresh human lung membrane fraction samples and in the membrane fraction of selected immortalized human lung epithelial cell line samples...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dao-Ming Zhu, Lei Wu, Meng Suo, Song Gao, Wei Xie, Ming-Hui Zan, Ao Liu, Bei Chen, Wen-Tao Wu, Li-Wei Ji, Li-Ben Chen, Hui-Ming Huang, Shi-Shang Guo, Wen-Feng Zhang, Xing-Zhong Zhao, Zhi-Jun Sun, Wei Liu
Filtration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is of proven importance for early cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, metastasis diagnosis, and prognostic evaluation. However, currently available strategies for enriching CTCs, such as magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), face serious problems with purity due to nonspecific interactions between beads and leukocytes in the process of capturing. In the present study, the tumor-targeting molecule folic acid (FA) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) by hydrophobic interaction and chemical conjugation, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Takeshi Takamatsu, Marouane Baslam, Takuya Inomata, Kazusato Oikawa, Kimiko Itoh, Takayuki Ohnishi, Tetsu Kinoshita, Toshiaki Mitsui
Chloroplasts, which perform photosynthesis, are one of the most important organelles in green plants and algae. Chloroplasts maintain an independent genome that includes important genes encoding their photosynthetic machinery and various housekeeping functions. Owing to its non-recombinant nature, low mutation rates, and uniparental inheritance, the chloroplast genome (plastome) can give insights into plant evolution and ecology and in the development of biotechnological and breeding applications. However, efficient methods to obtain high-quality chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) are currently not available, impeding powerful sequencing and further functional genomics research...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aynur Abdulla, Wenjia Liu, Azarmidokht Gholamipour-Shirazi, Jiahui Sun, Xianting Ding
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells that detach from primary or metastasis tumor and flow into the blood stream. Intact and viable tumor cells are needed for genetic characterization of CTCs, new drug development, and other research. Although separation of CTCs using spiral channel with two outlets has been reported, few literatures demonstrated simultaneous isolation of different types of CTCs from human blood using cascaded inertial focusing microfluidic channel. Herein, we introduce a cascaded microfluidic device consisting of two spiral channels and one zigzag channel designed with different fluid fields, including lift force, Dean drag force, and centrifugal force...
March 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
M Yasar, I Erdi, B Kaya
AIM: We investigated the effects of atorvastatin and N-acetyl cysteine in decreasing ischemia-reperfusion damage after detorsion of a volvulus of the cecum and ascending colon. METHODS: Wistar albino rats (250-300 g) were divided into four groups. A cecal-ascending colon volvulus was created by the intestinal clockwise 720° rotation. At the end of one hour, the bowel was detorsioned. Group I (n = 7) was the sham (laparotomy) group, Group II (n = 7) the control (no treatment, volvulus or detorsion), Group III (n = 7) (N-acetyl cysteine administered ) , and Group IV (n = 7) (atorvastatin administered ) group...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Luis Palma-Garcia, Victor Velásquez-Rimachi, Armando Pezo-Pezo, Joseph Roig, Julio Perez-Villegas
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal procedure which consists of removing the patient's plasma and replacing it with an appropriate replacement fluid. Plasma and blood cells are separated by a centrifugation process. Our department has used TPE for several years, and in 2013 we introduced an institutional apheresis protocol. The main objective of this report is to describe the TPE procedures performed between 2013 and 2016 in the Peruvian population. METHODS: We analyzed the technical and clinical aspects of 864 centrifugal TPE procedures as well as the associated complications...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Lu Huang, Yin Chen, Wei Huang, Hongkai Wu
Here a convenient and effective strategy of two-step centrifugation-assisted single-cell trapping (CAScT) based on an addressable truncated cone-shaped microwell array (TCMA) chip is developed for cell pairing. We describe the operation principles of the method and demonstrate its compatibility with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion. Compared with other methods, most of which rely on sophisticated devices and bulky subsidiary equipment, our method is more convenient and exhibits better or comparable performance...
March 14, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Fotouh R Mansour, Neil D Danielson
Solvent-terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) is a special mode of DLLME in which a demulsifying solvent is injected into the cloudy mixture of sample/extractant to break the emulsion and induce phase separation. The demulsification process starts by flocculation of the dispersed microdroplets by Ostwald ripening or coalescence to form larger droplets. Then, the extractant either floats or sinks depending on its density as compared with that for the aqueous sample. The demulsifier should have high surface activity and low surface tension in order to be capable of inducing phase separation...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
M A Afanasyeva, A S Ustiugova, S A Golyshev, A T Kopylov, A V Bogolyubova, D E Demin, P V Belousov, A M Schwartz
Ultracentrifugation on a density gradient remains the only reliable way to obtain highly pure mitochondria preparations. However, it is not readily available for any laboratory and has a serious disadvantage of providing low mitochondria yield, which can be critical when working with limited starting material. Here we describe a combined method for isolation of mitochondria for proteomic studies that includes cell disruption by sonication, differential centrifugation, and magnetic separation. Our method provides remarkable enrichment of mitochondrial proteins as compared to differential centrifugation, magnetic separation, or their combination, and it enables the strongest depletion of cytoplasmic components, as assessed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and Western blot...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Zhi-Bei Qu, Ling-Fei Lu, Min Zhang, Guoyue Shi
Graphene and its derivatives were found to be efficient modulators of enzymes in various systems. However, the modulating mechanism was not well discussed for long time. Inspired by the artificial enzyme enhancing property of graphene oxide (GO) towards cytochrome c (cyt. c), we have successfully fabricated a protein/GO hybrid structure via a layer-by-layer (LbL) strategy. The obtained LbL assemblies showed great enhancement in peroxidase activity of cyt. c, as well as excellent stability, resistance to extreme environment change, and also possibility for recycling by simple centrifugation without any obvious activity loss...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Mihrin, P W Jakobsen, A Voute, L Manceron, R Wugt Larsen
The high-resolution terahertz absorption spectrum of the large-amplitude intermolecular donor librational band ν of the homodimer (HCN)2 has been recorded by means of long-path static gas-phase Fourier transform spectroscopy at 207 K employing a highly brilliant electron storage ring source. The rovibrational structure of the ν band has the typical appearance of a perpendicular type band of a Σ-Π transition for a linear polyatomic molecule. The generated terahertz spectrum is analyzed employing a standard semi-rigid linear molecule Hamiltonian, yielding a band origin ν0 of 119...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Furqan Almyahi, Thomas R Andersen, Nathan A Cooling, Natalie P Holmes, Matthew J Griffith, Krishna Feron, Xiaojing Zhou, Warwick J Belcher, Paul C Dastoor
In this study we have optimised the preparation conditions for large-volume nanoparticle inks, based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60 multiadducts (ICxA), through two purification processes: centrifugal and crossflow ultrafiltration. The impact of purification is twofold: firstly, removal of excess sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant from the ink and, secondly, concentration of the photoactive components in the ink. The removal of SDS was studied in detail both by a UV-vis spectroscopy-based method and by surface tension measurements of the nanoparticle ink filtrate; revealing that centrifugal ultrafiltration removed SDS at a higher rate than crossflow ultrafiltration even though a similar filter was applied in both cases (10,000 Da M w cut-off)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Michael Hemkemeyer, Anja B Dohrmann, Bent T Christensen, Christoph C Tebbe
Genetic fingerprinting demonstrated in previous studies that differently sized soil particle fractions (PSFs; clay, silt, and sand with particulate organic matter (POM)) harbor microbial communities that differ in structure, functional potentials and sensitivity to environmental conditions. To elucidate whether specific bacterial or archaeal taxa exhibit preference for specific PSFs, we examined the diversity of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes by high-throughput sequencing using total DNA extracted from three long-term fertilization variants (unfertilized, fertilized with minerals, and fertilized with animal manure) of an agricultural loamy sand soil and their PSFs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olivier White, Jean-Louis Thonnard, Philippe Lefèvre, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Humans have a remarkable ability to adjust the way they manipulate tools through a genuine regulation of grip force according to the task. However, rapid changes in the dynamical context may challenge this skill, as shown in many experimental approaches. Most experiments adopt perturbation paradigms that affect only one sensory modality. We hypothesize that very fast adaptation can occur if coherent information from multiple sensory modalities is provided to the central nervous system. Here, we test whether participants can switch between different and never experienced dynamical environments induced by centrifugation of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marek J Noga, Ronald Zielman, Robin M van Dongen, Sabine Bos, Amy Harms, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Thomas Hankemeier, Michel D Ferrari
Introduction: Metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising technique for studying brain diseases. Measurements should reflect the in vivo situation, so ex vivo metabolism should be avoided. Objective: To investigate the effects of temperature (room temperature vs. 4 °C), centrifugation and ethanol, as anti-enzymatic additive during CSF sampling on concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine and other endogenous amines. Methods: CSF samples from 21 individuals were processed using five different protocols...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Mandeep R Mehra, Daniel J Goldstein, Nir Uriel, Joseph C Cleveland, Melana Yuzefpolskaya, Christopher Salerno, Mary N Walsh, Carmelo A Milano, Chetan B Patel, Gregory A Ewald, Akinobu Itoh, David Dean, Arun Krishnamoorthy, William G Cotts, Antone J Tatooles, Ulrich P Jorde, Brian A Bruckner, Jerry D Estep, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Gabriel Sayer, Douglas Horstmanshof, James W Long, Sanjeev Gulati, Eric R Skipper, John B O'Connell, Gerald Heatley, Poornima Sood, Yoshifumi Naka
Background In an early analysis of this trial, use of a magnetically levitated centrifugal continuous-flow circulatory pump was found to improve clinical outcomes, as compared with a mechanical-bearing axial continuous-flow pump, at 6 months in patients with advanced heart failure. Methods In a randomized noninferiority and superiority trial, we compared the centrifugal-flow pump with the axial-flow pump in patients with advanced heart failure, irrespective of the intended goal of support (bridge to transplantation or destination therapy)...
March 11, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Theresa Winter, Anke Hannemann, Juliane Suchsland, Matthias Nauck, Astrid Petersmann
BACKGROUND: Measuring the glucose concentration in whole blood samples is critical due to unsatisfactory glycolysis inhibition. Previous studies showed that Terumo tubes were superior, but they were taken off the European market in 2016 and alternatives were required. This initiated the present evaluation of glucose stability in five available tube types. METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 61 healthy volunteers to test tubes supplied by Terumo (two sets), Greiner FC-Mix, BD FX-Mixture and BD serum...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Yuchi Zhang, Yan He, Chengyu Liu, Chunming Liu, Sainan Li
Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ultrafiltration LC/MS) is introduced as an efficient method that can be applied to rapidly screen and identify ligands from the leaves of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Using this method, we identified 13 compounds, including organic acids, flavonoids, and glycosides, as potent neuraminidase inhibitors. A continuous online method, employing pressurized liquid extraction followed by parallel centrifugal partition chromatography and preparative liquid chromatography PLE-(parallel-CPC/PLC), was developed for the efficient, scaled-up production of 12 compounds with high purities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Clara Malo, Elizabeth G Crichton, Jane M Morrell, Budhan S Pukazhenthi, Anders Johannisson, Rebecca Splan, Julian A Skidmore
Colloids have been successfully used in a number of species to improve sperm populations for IVF and for cryopreservation The usefulness of Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) for freezing dromedary camel spermatozoa in two different extenders was evaluated by examining the motility, viability, acrosome status, DNA integrity, and ability of cryopreserved sperm to penetrate oocytes in vitro in a heterologus IVF system. Two ejaculates from each of five males were divided into four aliquots: two were processed by SLC (selected) while two were centrifuged without colloid (control)...
February 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
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