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macrophage and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828539/dysfunctional-hdl-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Rai Ajit K Srivastava
Coronary artery disease, the leading cause of death in the developed and developing countries, is prevalent in diabetes mellitus with 68% cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality. Epidemiological studies suggested inverse correlation between HDL and CVD occurrence. Therefore, low HDL concentration observed in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic individuals was thought to be one of the primary causes of increased risks of CVD. Efforts to raise HDL level via CETP inhibitors, Torcetrapib and Dalcetrapib, turned out to be disappointing in outcome studies despite substantial increases in HDL-C, suggesting that factors beyond HDL concentration may be responsible for the increased risks of CVD...
August 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819082/dysregulation-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-underlies-degenerative-vascular-disorders
#2
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Chronic vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, diabetic angiopathy/retinopathy as well as fibrotic and proliferative vascular diseases are generally complicated by the progression of degenerative insults, which are characterized by endothelial dysfunction, apoptotic/necrotic cell death in vascular/immune cells, remodeling of extracellular matrix or breakdown of elastic lamella. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional calpain proteolytic systems and defective calpain protein metabolism in blood vessels contribute to degenerative disorders...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814629/modular-tissue-engineering-for-the-vascularization-of-subcutaneously-transplanted-pancreatic-islets
#3
Alexander E Vlahos, Nicholas Cober, Michael V Sefton
The transplantation of pancreatic islets, following the Edmonton Protocol, is a promising treatment for type I diabetics. However, the need for multiple donors to achieve insulin independence reflects the large loss of islets that occurs when islets are infused into the portal vein. Finding a less hostile transplantation site that is both minimally invasive and able to support a large transplant volume is necessary to advance this approach. Although the s.c. site satisfies both these criteria, the site is poorly vascularized, precluding its utility...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811809/peppered-and-rare-gastric-and-duodenal-pseudomelanosis-a-case-series
#4
Sami Samiullah, Hadi Bhurgri, Arooj Babar, Fatima Samad, Moaz M Choudhary, Michael Demyen
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) pseudomelanosis is an uncommon entity characterized by endoscopic visualization of speckled dark mucosal pigmentation. While described in the rectum and colon, 'melanosis' or more aptly 'pseudomelanosis' is rare in the duodenum and exceedingly rare in the stomach. Five cases of pseudomelanosis were encountered at our department. Four females and one male were diagnosed, with a mean age of 70 years. All patients exhibited duodenal pseudomelanosis, with one demonstrating gastric antral pseudomelanosis as well...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810553/evaluation-of-the-c-domain-of-heparanase-during-age-induced-macrophage-inflammatory-response
#5
Qiaojing Qin, Guang Xu, Weiwei Qi, Mei Guo, Zhaoxia Wang, Wangjie Xu, Zhongdong Qiao, Yong Gu, Jianying Niu
Diabetic vasculopathy is intensified by macrophage inflammation caused by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Heparanase (HPA) is a unique endoglycosidase, which cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan-1 (Syn-1) to further stimulate macrophage cell migration and inflammation. The present study was planned to evaluated the role of C-domain (if any) of HPA in AGE inflammatory response in macrophages. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay, migration assay, ELISA for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, mRNA expression by RT-PCR and heparan degrading enzyme assay for HPA activity...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810264/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-diabetic-corneal-epithelial-wound-healing-through-tsg-6-dependent-stem-cell-activation-and-macrophage-switch
#6
Guohu Di, Xianli Du, Xia Qi, Xiaowen Zhao, Haoyun Duan, Suxia Li, Lixin Xie, Qingjun Zhou
Purpose: To explore the role and mechanism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in corneal epithelial wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetic mice were treated with subconjunctival injections of BM-MSCs or recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6). The corneal epithelial wound healing rate was examined by fluorescein staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TSG-6 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810254/insulin-influences-lps-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-release-through-distinct-pathways-in-mouse-macrophages-from-different-compartments
#7
Fernando H G Tessaro, Thais S Ayala, Eduardo L Nolasco, Leonardo M Bella, Joilson O Martins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic subjects are more susceptible to infections, which is partially due to insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that insulin influences cytokine release by macrophages from diabetic C57BL/6 mice stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS: Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and tissue-specific macrophages from diabetic (alloxan 60 mg/kg, i.v.) male C57BL/6 mice were stimulated by LPS (100 ng/mL) and/or treated by insulin (1 mU/mL)...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804725/meprin-metalloprotease-deficiency-associated-with-higher-mortality-rates-and-more-severe-diabetic-kidney-injury-in-mice-with-stz-induced-type-1-diabetes
#8
John E Bylander, Faihaa Ahmed, Sabena M Conley, Jean-Marie Mwiza, Elimelda Moige Ongeri
Meprins are membrane-bound and secreted metalloproteinases consisting of α and/or β subunits that are highly expressed in kidney epithelial cells and are differentially expressed in podocytes and leukocytes (macrophages and monocytes). Several studies have implicated meprins in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and fibrosis-associated kidney disease. However, the mechanisms by which meprins modulate DN are not understood. To delineate the role of meprins in DN, we subjected meprin αβ knockout (αβKO) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts to streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799796/immune-modulation-by-curcumin-the-role-of-interleukin-10
#9
Hamid Mollazadeh, Arrigo F G Cicero, Christopher N Blesso, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by different types of cells with specific effects on cellular signaling and communication via binding to their receptors on the cell surface. IL-10 is known to be a pleiotropic and potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that is produced by both innate and adaptive immunity cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, natural killer cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and TH1, TH2, and TH17 and regulatory T cells...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798347/tonebp-nfat5-haploinsufficiency-attenuates-hippocampal-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#10
Jong Youl Lee, Eun Ae Jeong, Kyung Eun Kim, Chin-Ok Yi, Zhen Jin, Jung Eun Lee, Dong Hoon Lee, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Soo Youn Choi, H Moo Kwon, Gu Seob Roh
Recent studies have shown that overexpression of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is associated with many inflammatory diseases, including diabetes mellitus, which causes neuroinflammation in the hippocampus as well as hepatic steatosis. However, the exact mechanism in diabetic neuroinflammation is unknown. We report that haploinsufficiency of TonEBP inhibits hepatic and hippocampal high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression in diabetic mice. Here, mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and received an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) and followed by continued HFD feeding for an additional 4 weeks to induce hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797566/palmitate-induced-fetuin-a-secretion-from-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-adversely-affects-its-function-and-elicits-inflammation
#11
Alpana Mukhuty, Chandrani Fouzder, Sandip Mukherjee, Chandan Malick, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Samir Bhattacharya, Rakesh Kundu
Islets of type 2 diabetes patients display inflammation, elevated levels of cytokines and macrophages. The master regulator of inflammation in the islets is free fatty acids (FFA). It has already been reported that FFA and TLR4 stimulation induces pro-inflammatory factors in the islets. In this report we demonstrate that excess lipid triggers Fetuin-A (FetA) secretion from the pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate treatment to MIN6 cells showed significantly elevated FetA levels in respect to their controls. Fatty acid induces the FetA gene and protein expression in the pancreatic β-cells via TLR4 and over-expression of NF-κB...
August 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794431/macrophage-jak2-deficiency-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-inflammation
#12
Harsh R Desai, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Xavier S Revelo, Stephanie A Schroer, Cynthia T Luk, Prashanth R Rikkala, Adam H Metherel, David W Dodington, Yoo Jin Park, Min Jeong Kim, Joshua A Rapps, Rickvinder Besla, Clinton S Robbins, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Richard P Bazinet, Daniel A Winer, Minna Woo
During obesity, macrophages can infiltrate metabolic tissues, and contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation, and mediate insulin resistance and diabetes. Recent studies have elucidated the metabolic role of JAK2, a key mediator downstream of various cytokines and growth factors. Our study addresses the essential role of macrophage JAK2 in the pathogenesis to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. During high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, macrophage-specific JAK2 knockout (M-JAK2(-/-)) mice gained less body weight compared to wildtype littermate control (M-JAK2(+/+)) mice and were protected from HFD-induced systemic insulin resistance...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791439/metabolic-crosstalk-between-fatty-pancreas-and-fatty-liver-effects-on-local-inflammation-and-insulin-secretion
#13
Felicia Gerst, Robert Wagner, Gabriele Kaiser, Madhura Panse, Martin Heni, Jürgen Machann, Malte N Bongers, Tina Sartorius, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Christian Thiel, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Susanne Ullrich, Dorothea Siegel-Axel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity-linked ectopic fat accumulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Whether pancreatic and liver steatosis impairs insulin secretion is controversial. We examined the crosstalk of human pancreatic fat cells with islets and the role of diabetogenic factors, i.e. palmitate and fetuin-A, a hepatokine released from fatty liver. METHODS: Human pancreatic resections were immunohistochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and the macrophage/monocyte marker CD68...
August 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789665/evaluating-the-evidence-for-macrophage-presence-in-skeletal-muscle-and-its-relation-to-insulin-resistance-in-obese-mice-and-humans-a-systematic-review-protocol
#14
Meha Bhatt, Srikesh Rudrapatna, Laura Banfield, Rachel Bierbrier, Pei-Wen Wang, Kuan-Wen Wang, Lehana Thabane, M Constantine Samaan
OBJECTIVES: The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780379/proinflammatory-cytokine-mif-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-but-does-not-affect-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#15
Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Tecilli Cabellos-Avelar, Yuriko Sanchez-Zamora, Imelda Juárez-Avelar, Esperanza García-Reyes, Alejandra Lira-León, José Del Carmen Benítez-Flores, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Marcia Hiriart, Emma Berta Gutiérrez-Cirlos
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the effect of high glucose on liver function has been described, the role of MIF in hepatic mitochondrial function during T2DM has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We examine the influence of MIF to hepatic mitochondrial function in T2DM mouse model. METHODS: WT and Mif(-/-) BALB/c mice were treated with a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ)...
August 2, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775125/smad3-stat3-signaling-mediates-%C3%AE-cell-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-pancreatitis-related-diabetes
#16
Xiangwei Xiao, Shane Fischbach, Tina Zhang, Congde Chen, Qingfeng Sheng, Ray Zimmerman, Sneha Patnaik, Joseph Fusco, Yungching Ming, Ping Guo, Chiyo Shiota, Krishna Prasadan, Nupur Gangopadhyay, Sohail Z Husain, Henry Dong, George K Gittes
Many patients with chronic pancreatitis develop diabetes (chronic pancreatitis-related diabetes; CPRD) through an undetermined mechanism. Here, we used long-term partial pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) as a model to study CPRD. We found that long-term PDL induced significant β-cell dedifferentiation, followed by a time-dependent decrease in functional β-cell mass, all specifically in the ligated tail portion of the pancreas (PDL-tail). High levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) were detected in the PDL-tail, mainly produced by M2 macrophages at the early stage, and by activated myofibroblasts at the later stage...
August 3, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774737/the-mechanism-of-diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-unifying-key-lipid-regulators-sirtuin-1-and-liver-x-receptor
#17
Sandra S Hammer, Eleni Beli, Nermin Kady, Qi Wang, Kiana Wood, Todd A Lydic, Goldis Malek, Daniel R Saban, Xiaoxin X Wang, Sugata Hazra, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication secondary to diabetes and is the number one cause of blindness among working age individuals worldwide. Despite recent therapeutic breakthroughs using pharmacotherapy, a cure for DR has yet to be realized. Several clinical trials have highlighted the vital role dyslipidemia plays in the progression of DR. Additionally, it has recently been shown that activation of Liver X receptor (LXRα/LXRβ) prevents DR in diabetic animal models. LXRs are nuclear receptors that play key roles in regulating cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and inflammation...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772216/minocycline-attenuates-the-development-of-diabetic-neuropathy-by-inhibiting-spinal-cord-notch-signaling-in-rat
#18
Cheng Yang, Jie Gao, Banglin Wu, Nuo Yan, Hui Li, Yiqing Ren, Yufei Kan, Jiamin Liang, Yang Jiao, Yonghao Yu
We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord...
July 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761623/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-skq1-improves-dermal-wound-healing-in-genetically-diabetic-mice
#19
Ilya A Demyanenko, Vlada V Zakharova, Olga P Ilyinskaya, Tamara V Vasilieva, Artem V Fedorov, Vasily N Manskikh, Roman A Zinovkin, Olga Yu Pletjushkina, Boris V Chernyak, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ekaterina N Popova
Oxidative stress is widely recognized as an important factor in the delayed wound healing in diabetes. However, the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in this process is unknown. It was assumed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are involved in many wound-healing processes in both diabetic humans and animals. We have applied the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) to explore the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in the wound healing of genetically diabetic mice...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761412/immunomodulators-and-micrornas-as-neurorestorative-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Most of all strokes are ischemic due to occlusion of a vessel, and comprise two main types, thrombotic and embolic. Inflammation and immune response play an important role in the outcome of ischemic stroke. Pharmaceutical and cell-based therapies with immunomodulatory properties could be of benefit in treating ischemic stroke. Possible changes in microRNAs brought about by immunomodulatory treatments may be important. The pharmaceutical studies described in this review have identified several differentially regulated miRNAs associated with disregulation of mRNA targets or the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, thereby highlighting the potential neuroprotective roles of specific miRNAs such as miR-762, -1892, -200a, -145...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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