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Qing Guo, Jing-Min Yin, Tian Yu, Dan Jiang
The disturbance suppression is one of the most common control problems in electro-hydraulic systems. especially largely an unknown disturbance often obviously degrades the dynamic performance by biasing the desired actuator outputs (e.g., load forces or torques). In order to reject the dynamic disturbances in some multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators driven by electro-hydraulic actuators, this paper proposes a state feedback control of the cascade electro-hydraulic system based on a coupled disturbance observer with backstepping...
March 6, 2017: ISA Transactions
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Annette Wiegand, Aleksandra Credé, Claudia Tschammler, Thomas Attin, Tobias T Tauböck
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse loss of enamel worn against composite, leucite glass ceramic or enamel antagonists under non-erosive and alternating or simultanuous erosive-attritive conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat human enamel specimens were loaded (1 Hz, 300 g loading weight, each subgroup n = 12) with antagonists made from a hybrid-composite (Z250, 3 M Espe), a nano-composite (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3 M Espe), leucite glass ceramic (IPS Empress CAD LT, Ivoclar Vivadent) or enamel...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Tiago Elias Nascimento, Luis Eduardo Souza-Flamini, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Ricardo Gariba Silva, Paulo Cesar Saquy, Jesus Djalma Pécora, Antonio Miranda Cruz-Filho
The morphology, microhardness and dentin permeability of the furcation region of maxillary premolars were evaluated. Ten premolars were cut lengthwise and the furcation region was delimited. In one group (n=10) microhardness was measured in the buccal, central and palatal regions, in the outer middle and inner layers of the furcation, and in the buccal and palatal regions adjacent to the furcation. Knoop hardness was tested with 10 g load for 15 s. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (a=0...
September 2016: Brazilian Dental Journal
Lauri Puustinen, Sonja Boyd, Harri Mustonen, Perttu Arkkila, Johanna Arola, Martti Färkkilä
OBJECTIVE: In autoimmune hepatitis, data on the prognostic value of baseline liver biopsy and the sequential histology is controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of clinical variables and biopsy at the time of diagnosis and during the disease course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 98 patients in our hospital during 1995-2012 were included. Sequential biopsies were available in 66 patients. Analyses based on clinical and histological variables were performed to find parameters predicting the progression of fibrosis, and development of cirrhosis...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Jan Te NijenhuiS, Adel A Batterjee, Michael Van Den Hoek, Jüri Allik, Vladimir Sukhanovskiy
Spearman's hypothesis tested at the level of items states that differences between ethnic groups on the items of an IQ test are a function of the g loadings of these items, such that there are small differences between ethnic groups on items with low g loadings and large differences between ethnic groups on items with high g loadings; this has been confirmed in a limited number of studies. In this paper, Spearman's hypothesis was tested, comparing a group of Saudi children and adolescents (N=3209) with other groups of children and adolescents from Denmark, Cyprus, Croatia, Bosnia, South Africa, Estonia, Ukraine, Ireland, Russia and Chile (total N=9333)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Hongmei Xu, Wangda Zhou, Diansong Zhou, Jianguo Li, Nidal Al-Huniti
Aztreonam is a monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic often used to treat infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite the long history of clinical use, population pharmacokinetic modeling of aztreonam in renally impaired patients is not yet available. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of renal impairment on aztreonam exposure and to evaluate dosing regimens for patients with renal impairment. A population model describing aztreonam pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration was developed using plasma concentrations from 42 healthy volunteers and renally impaired patients from 2 clinical studies...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Jaime Zacharias
PURPOSE: Ultrasound activation of phacoemulsification (phaco) tips can create considerable thermal energy that may increase the risk of tissue damage during cataract surgery. The purpose of this study was to define the thermal profiles of three phaco tip designs in simulated surgical conditions. METHODS: In this laboratory investigation, sleeved phaco tips (mini-flared Kelman(®) tip with aspiration bypass port and Intrepid(®) Balanced Tip with aspiration bypass port, and MST A1 bent-mini phaco tip (without aspiration bypass) were tested using an ultrasonic phaco device operated in torsional mode at power levels of 50%, 75%, and 100% amplitude...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yasuhiro Nishida, Satoshi Maruyama, Ichiro Shouji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hiroyuki Ohta, Kohsue Hagisawa, Megumi Hiruma, Hidetake Yokoe
The effects of gravitational loading (G load) on humans have been studied ever since the early 20th century. After the dangers of G load in the vertical head-to-leg direction (+Gz load) became evident, many animal experiments were performed between 1920 and 1945 in an effort to identify the origins of high G-force-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which led to development of the anti-G suit. The establishment of norms and training for G-LOC prevention resulted in a gradual decline in reports of animal experiments on G load, a decline that steepened with the establishment of anti-G techniques in humans, such as special breathing methods and skeletal muscle contraction, called an anti-G straining maneuver, which are voluntary physiological functions...
November 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Amr ElShaer, Shelan Mustafa, Mohamad Kasar, Sapana Thapa, Baljit Ghatora, Raid G Alany
Human eye is one of the most accessible organs in the body, nonetheless, its physiology and associated precorneal factors such as nasolacrimal drainage, blinking, tear film, tear turnover, and induced lacrimation has significantly decreased the residence time of any foreign substances including pharmaceutical dosage forms. Soft contact lenses are promising delivery devices that can sustain the drug release and prolong residence time by acting as a geometric barrier to drug diffusion to tear fluid. This study investigates experimental parameters such as composition of polymer mixtures, stabilizer and the amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient on the preparation of a polymeric drug delivery system for the topical ocular administration of Prednisolone...
2016: Pharmaceutics
Vineeta Nikhil, Shikha Jaiswal, Parul Bansal, Rohit Arora, Shalya Raj, Pulkit Malhotra
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and chitosan solutions on the microhardness of human radicular dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty dentin specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 10 specimens each according to the irrigant used: G1 - 1% phytic acid, G2 - 17% EDTA, and G3 - 0.2% chitosan. A standardized volume of each chelating solution was used for 3 min. Dentin microhardness was measured before and after application at the cervical, middle, and apical levels with a Vickers indenter under a 200-g load and a 10-s dwell time...
March 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Patrik Sundblad, Roger Kölegård, Pierre-Francois Migeotte, Quentin Delière, Ola Eiken
PURPOSE: High G tolerance is based on the capacity to maintain a sufficient level of arterial pressure (AP) during G load; therefore, we hypothesized that subjects with high G tolerance (H group) would have stronger arterial baroreflex responses compared to subjects with low G tolerance (L group). The carotid baroreflex was evaluated using the neck pressure method (NP), which assesses open-loop responses. METHODS: The carotid baroreflex was tested in 16 subjects, n = 8 in the H and L group, respectively, in the supine and upright posture...
June 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Evangelos A Voudrias
UNLABELLED: The overall objective of this paper was to evaluate five different technologies used for infectious medical waste treatment and select the optimum one by means of multicriteria analysis. Steam disinfection was selected as the optimum treatment technology, among others using incineration, microwave disinfection, chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite, and reverse polymerization with microwaves. The evaluation was based on four groups of criteria, specifically, environmental, economic, technical, and social criteria, using the analytic hierarchy process...
2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Furqan A Maulvi, Dhara H Lakdawala, Anjum A Shaikh, Ankita R Desai, Harsh H Choksi, Rutvi J Vaidya, Ketan M Ranch, Akshay R Koli, Bhavin A Vyas, Dinesh O Shah
Glaucoma is commonly treated using eye drops, which is highly inefficient due to rapid clearance (low residence time) from ocular surface. Contact lenses are ideally suited for controlled drug delivery to cornea, but incorporation of any drug loaded particulate system (formulation) affect the optical and physical property of contact lenses. The objective of the present work was to implant timolol maleate (TM) loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticle-laden ring in hydrogel contact lenses that could provide controlled drug delivery at therapeutic rates without compromising critical lens properties...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Youngjune Jang, Jung-joon Ihm, Su-jin Baik, Kyung-jin Yoo, Da-hyun Jang, Byoung-duck Roh, Deog-gyu Seo
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of dentifrices with and without abrasives on the wear and surface topography of human dentin following simulated toothbrushing in vitro. METHODS: 24 dentin specimens were prepared and randomly allocated to a liquid dentifrice (Garglin Gum-Guard), conventional dentifrice (333 Clinic Total Care), and control (distilled water) groups. Specimens were subjected to simulated toothbrushing of 50,000 repeated strokes under a 150 g-load...
December 2015: American Journal of Dentistry
Michael A Schmidt, Thomas J Goodwin, Ralph Pelligra
The next major steps in human spaceflight include flyby, orbital, and landing missions to the Moon, Mars, and near earth asteroids. The first crewed deep space mission is expected to launch in 2022, which affords less than 7 years to address the complex question of whether and how to apply artificial gravity to counter the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Various phenotypic changes are demonstrated during artificial gravity experiments. However, the molecular dynamics (genotype and molecular phenotypes) that underlie these morphological, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes are far more complex than previously understood...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Helen C McNamara, Caroline A Crowther, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Magnesium sulphate has been used to inhibit preterm labour to prevent preterm birth. There is no consensus as to the safety profile of different treatment regimens with respect to dose, duration, route and timing of administration. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of alternative magnesium sulphate regimens when used as single agent tocolytic therapy during pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
December 14, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lamia E Daifalla, Enas H Mobarak
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ultrasound application on the surface microhardness (VHN) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of three high viscous glass-ionomer restorative materials (HVGIRMs). For each test (VHN and DTS), a total of 180 specimens were prepared from three HVGIRMs (Ketac-Molar Aplicap, Fuji IX GP Fast, and ChemFil Rock). Specimens of each material (n = 60) were further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 20) according to the setting modality whether ultrasound (20 or 40 s) was applied during setting or not (control)...
November 2015: Journal of Advanced Research
Shaymaa M Nagi, Lamiaa M Moharam, Mohamed H Zaazou
BACKGROUND: Bulk-fill resin composite has been introduced, their manufacturers claimed that they can be applied in bulks of 4mm, without necessitating a prolonged curing time, or a light curing unit with increased irradiance. Thus this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of resin thickness, and curing time on the micro-hardness of two bulk -fill resin composites; Tetric Evo-Ceram [TE], and X-trafil [XF]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 120 cylindrical specimens were prepared, and divided into 24 groups (n=5/group), representing the two bulk-fill resin composites, three different material thicknesses (2, 3 and 4 mm) and the four curing times used in the study (10, 20, 40, and 60 seconds)...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Eugenia N Yarmanova, Inessa B Kozlovskaya, N N Khimoroda, Elena V Fomina
Countermeasures to prevent or partially offset the negative physiologic changes that are caused by the effects of microgravity play an important role in supporting the performance of crewmembers in flight and their safe return to Earth. Research conducted in Russia on the orbital stations Salyut and Mir, as well as simulation experiments on the ground, have demonstrated that changes that occur during extended spaceflight in various physiologic systems can be prevented or significantly decreased by using countermeasures...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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