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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073465/mechanical-stability-corrosion-resistance-of-superhydrophobic-steel-and-repairable-durability-of-its-slippery-surface
#1
Xiaoyu Gao, Zhiguang Guo
A simple way of chemical etching with H2SO4 and H2O2 was employed to prepare a superhydrophobic steel surface with a water contact angle of 163.5° and a sliding angle of about 0°, in addition to modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoroalkyltriethoxysilane (FAS-13). On the basis of perfluropolyethers (PFPE) infusion, a slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) was fabricated that had a water contact angle of 115.6° and a sliding angle of 2.27°. The prepared sample can still maintain superhydrophobicity after moving 100 cm on 1000 # sandpaper under 100 g loading via an abrasion test, while its corrosion resistance was exhibited via more positive corrosion potentials (Ecorr) and lower corrosion current densities (Icorr) in electrochemical corrosion tests with various solutions...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056408/effect-of-gravitational-gradients-on-cardiac-filling-and-performance
#2
Kazuaki Negishi, Allen G Borowski, Zoran B Popović, Neil L Greenberg, David S Martin, Michael W Bungo, Benjamin D Levine, James D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Gravity affects every aspect of cardiac performance. When gravitational gradients are at their greatest on Earth (i.e., during upright posture), orthostatic intolerance may ensue and is a common clinical problem that appears to be exacerbated by the adaptation to spaceflight. We sought to elucidate the alterations in cardiac performance during preload reduction with progressive upright tilt that are relevant both for space exploration and the upright posture, particularly the preload dependence of various parameters of cardiovascular performance...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993331/evaluation-of-pk-pd-model-based-optimized-combination-regimens-against-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-murine-thigh-infection-model-using-humanized-dosing-schemes
#3
Rajbharan Yadav, Jürgen B Bulitta, Jiping Wang, Roger L Nation, Cornelia B Landersdorfer
We previously optimized imipenem and tobramycin combination regimens against a double-resistant clinical P. aeruginosa isolate using in vitro infection models, mechanism-based PK/PD modeling (MBM) and Monte Carlo simulations. The current study aimed to evaluate these regimens in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model and to characterize the time-course of bacterial killing and regrowth via MBM. We studied monotherapies and combinations of imipenem with tobramycin in vivo against the double-resistant clinical P...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884429/effects-of-hypergravity-on-gene-levels-in-anti-gravity-muscle-and-bone-through-the-vestibular-system-in-mice
#4
Naoyuki Kawao, Hironobu Morita, Kazuaki Nishida, Koji Obata, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
We recently reported that hypergravity with 3 g for 4 weeks affects muscle and bone through the vestibular system in mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypergravity with 2 g, which had no influence on circulating glucocorticoid level, on the gene levels in muscle and bone, as well as the roles of the vestibular system in those changes using vestibular lesioned (VL) mice. Hypergravity for 2 and 8 weeks or VL exerted little effects on the mRNA levels of muscle differentiation factors and myokines in the soleus muscle...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805973/experimental-and-clinical-evidence-of-differential-effects-of-magnesium-sulfate-on-neuroprotection-and-angiogenesis-in-the-fetal-brain
#5
Matthieu Lecuyer, Marina Rubio, Clément Chollat, Maryline Lecointre, Sylvie Jégou, Philippe Leroux, Carine Cleren, Isabelle Leroux-Nicollet, Loic Marpeau, Denis Vivien, Stéphane Marret, Bruno J Gonzalez
Clinical studies showed beneficial effects of magnesium sulfate regarding the risk of cerebral palsy. However, regimen protocols fluctuate worldwide and risks of adverse effects impacting the vascular system have been reported for human neonates, keeping open the question of the optimal dosing. Using clinically relevant concentrations and doses of magnesium sulfate, experiments consisted of characterizing, respectively, ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the nervous and vascular systems of mouse neonates by targeting neuroprotection, angiogenesis, and hemodynamic factors and in measuring, in human fetuses, the impact of a 4-g neuroprotective loading dose of magnesium sulfate on brain hemodynamic parameters...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748713/qbd-for-pediatric-oral-lyophilisates-development-risk-assessment-followed-by-screening-and-optimization
#6
Tibor Casian, Sonia Iurian, Catalina Bogdan, Lucia Rus, Mirela Moldovan, Ioan Tomuta
OBJECTIVE: This study proposed the development of oral lyophilisates with respect to pediatric medicine development guidelines, by applying risk management strategies and DoE as an integrated QbD approach. METHODS: Product critical quality attributes were overviewed by generating Ishikawa diagrams for risk assessment purposes, considering process, formulation and methodology related parameters. Failure Mode Effect Analysis was applied to highlight critical formulation and process parameters with an increased probability of occurrence and with a high impact on the product performance...
December 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746995/desorption-of-radioactive-cesium-by-seawater-from-the-suspended-particles-in-river-water
#7
Masaki Onodera, Akira Kirishima, Seiya Nagao, Kouichi Takamiya, Tsutomu Ohtsuki, Daisuke Akiyama, Nobuaki Sato
In 2011, the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant dispersed radioactive cesium throughout the environment, contaminating the land, rivers, and sea. Suspended particles containing clay minerals are the transportation medium for radioactive cesium from rivers to the ocean because cesium is strongly adsorbed between the layers of clay minerals, forming inner sphere complexes. In this study, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of radioactive cesium from suspended clay particles in river water have been investigated...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642926/the-combined-effect-of-food-simulating-solutions-brushing-and-staining-on-color-stability-of-composite-resins
#8
Tânia Mara Da Silva, Ana Luísa Leme Simões Sales, Cesar Rogerio Pucci, Alessandra Bühler Borges, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres
Objective: This study evaluated the effect of food-simulating media associated with brushing and coffee staining on color stability of different composite resins. Materials and methods: Eighty specimens were prepared for each composite: Grandio SO (Voco), Amaris (Voco), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE), Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE). They were divided into four groups according to food-simulating media for 7 days: artificial saliva (control), heptane, citric acid and ethanol. The composite surface was submitted to 10,950 brushing cycles (200 g load) in an automatic toothbrushing machine...
January 2017: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580400/replacement-of-daily-load-attenuates-but-does-not-prevent-changes-to-the-musculoskeletal-system-during-bed-rest
#9
Peter R Cavanagh, Andrea J Rice, Sara C Novotny, Kerim O Genc, Ricki K Englehaupt, Tammy M Owings, Bryan Comstock, Tamre Cardoso, Hakan Ilaslan, Scott M Smith, Angelo A Licata
The dose-response effects of exercise in reduced gravity on musculoskeletal health have not been well documented. It is not known whether or not individualized exercise prescriptions can be effective in preventing the substantial loss in bone mineral density and muscle function that have been observed in space flight and in bed rest. In this study, typical daily loads to the lower extremities were quantified in free-living subjects who were then randomly assigned to control or exercise groups. Subjects were confined to 6-degree head-down bed rest for 84 days...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574173/interaction-between-toothpaste-abrasivity-and-toothbrush-filament-stiffness-on-the-development-of-erosive-abrasive-lesions-in-vitro
#10
Frank Lippert, Mona A Arrageg, George J Eckert, Anderson T Hara
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the loss of enamel and dentin surface caused by the interaction between abrasives in toothpaste and toothbrush filament stiffness. METHODS: The study followed a 2 (high-level or low-level abrasive; silica) × 3 (filament stiffness; soft, medium or hard) × 2 (cycling time; 3 or 5 days) factorial design. Polished bovine enamel and dentin specimens (n = 8 each per group) were subjected to 5 days of erosion/abrasion cycling: erosion (5 minutes, four times daily, 0...
June 2, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572567/ultrasensitive-multi-functional-flexible-sensors-based-on-organic-field-effect-transistors-with-polymer-dispersed-liquid-crystal-sensing-layers
#11
Myeonghun Song, Jooyeok Seo, Hwajeong Kim, Youngkyoo Kim
Ultrasensitive flexible sensors with multi-sensing functions are required for various applications in flexible electronics era. Here we demonstrate flexible polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC)-integrated-organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) (PDLC-i-OFETs), which sensitively respond to various stimulations including weak gas (air) flow, direct physical touch, light, and heat. The flexible PDLC-i-OFETs were fabricated by spin-coating the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-dispersed 4,4'-pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) layers on the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) channel layers of OFETs with 200 μm-thick poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) substrates...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279430/coupled-disturbance-observer-based-position-tracking-control-for-a-cascade-electro-hydraulic-system
#12
Qing Guo, Jing-Min Yin, Tian Yu, Dan Jiang
The disturbance suppression is one of the most common control problems in electro-hydraulic systems. especially largely an unknown disturbance often obviously degrades the dynamic performance by biasing the desired actuator outputs (e.g., load forces or torques). In order to reject the dynamic disturbances in some multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators driven by electro-hydraulic actuators, this paper proposes a state feedback control of the cascade electro-hydraulic system based on a coupled disturbance observer with backstepping...
March 6, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#13
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
July 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185090/enamel-wear-by-antagonistic-restorative-materials-under-erosive-conditions
#14
Annette Wiegand, Aleksandra Credé, Claudia Tschammler, Thomas Attin, Tobias T Tauböck
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse loss of enamel worn against composite, leucite glass ceramic or enamel antagonists under non-erosive and alternating or simultanuous erosive-attritive conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat human enamel specimens were loaded (1 Hz, 300 g loading weight, each subgroup n = 12) with antagonists made from a hybrid-composite (Z250, 3 M Espe), a nano-composite (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3 M Espe), leucite glass ceramic (IPS Empress CAD LT, Ivoclar Vivadent) or enamel...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982234/morphological-study-and-analysis-of-microhardness-and-permeability-of-the-furcation-of-maxillary-premolars
#15
Tiago Elias Nascimento, Luis Eduardo Souza-Flamini, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Ricardo Gariba Silva, Paulo Cesar Saquy, Jesus Djalma Pécora, Antonio Miranda Cruz-Filho
The morphology, microhardness and dentin permeability of the furcation region of maxillary premolars were evaluated. Ten premolars were cut lengthwise and the furcation region was delimited. In one group (n=10) microhardness was measured in the buccal, central and palatal regions, in the outer middle and inner layers of the furcation, and in the buccal and palatal regions adjacent to the furcation. Knoop hardness was tested with 10 g load for 15 s. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (a=0...
September 2016: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846740/prognostic-value-of-clinical-variables-and-liver-histology-for-development-of-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#16
Lauri Puustinen, Sonja Boyd, Harri Mustonen, Perttu Arkkila, Johanna Arola, Martti Färkkilä
OBJECTIVE: In autoimmune hepatitis, data on the prognostic value of baseline liver biopsy and the sequential histology is controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of clinical variables and biopsy at the time of diagnosis and during the disease course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 98 patients in our hospital during 1995-2012 were included. Sequential biopsies were available in 66 patients. Analyses based on clinical and histological variables were performed to find parameters predicting the progression of fibrosis, and development of cirrhosis...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817753/spearman-s-hypothesis-tested-comparing-saudi-arabian-children-and-adolescents-with-various-other-groups-of-children-and-adolescents-on-the-items-of-the-standard-progressive-matrices
#17
Jan Te NijenhuiS, Adel A Batterjee, Michael Van Den Hoek, Jüri Allik, Vladimir Sukhanovskiy
Spearman's hypothesis tested at the level of items states that differences between ethnic groups on the items of an IQ test are a function of the g loadings of these items, such that there are small differences between ethnic groups on items with low g loadings and large differences between ethnic groups on items with high g loadings; this has been confirmed in a limited number of studies. In this paper, Spearman's hypothesis was tested, comparing a group of Saudi children and adolescents (N=3209) with other groups of children and adolescents from Denmark, Cyprus, Croatia, Bosnia, South Africa, Estonia, Ukraine, Ireland, Russia and Chile (total N=9333)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530649/evaluation-of-aztreonam-dosing-regimens-in-patients-with-normal-and-impaired-renal-function-a-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-monte-carlo-simulation-analysis
#18
Hongmei Xu, Wangda Zhou, Diansong Zhou, Jianguo Li, Nidal Al-Huniti
Aztreonam is a monocyclic β-lactam antibiotic often used to treat infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite the long history of clinical use, population pharmacokinetic modeling of aztreonam in renally impaired patients is not yet available. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of renal impairment on aztreonam exposure and to evaluate dosing regimens for patients with renal impairment. A population model describing aztreonam pharmacokinetics following intravenous administration was developed using plasma concentrations from 42 healthy volunteers and renally impaired patients from 2 clinical studies...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358554/laboratory-assessment-of-thermal-characteristics-of-three-phacoemulsification-tip-designs-operated-using-torsional-ultrasound
#19
Jaime Zacharias
PURPOSE: Ultrasound activation of phacoemulsification (phaco) tips can create considerable thermal energy that may increase the risk of tissue damage during cataract surgery. The purpose of this study was to define the thermal profiles of three phaco tip designs in simulated surgical conditions. METHODS: In this laboratory investigation, sleeved phaco tips (mini-flared Kelman(®) tip with aspiration bypass port and Intrepid(®) Balanced Tip with aspiration bypass port, and MST A1 bent-mini phaco tip (without aspiration bypass) were tested using an ultrasonic phaco device operated in torsional mode at power levels of 50%, 75%, and 100% amplitude...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262847/effects-and-biological-limitations-of-gz-acceleration-on-the-autonomic-functions-related-circulation-in-rats
#20
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Nishida, Satoshi Maruyama, Ichiro Shouji, Takehito Kemuriyama, Akimasa Tashiro, Hiroyuki Ohta, Kohsue Hagisawa, Megumi Hiruma, Hidetake Yokoe
The effects of gravitational loading (G load) on humans have been studied ever since the early 20th century. After the dangers of G load in the vertical head-to-leg direction (+Gz load) became evident, many animal experiments were performed between 1920 and 1945 in an effort to identify the origins of high G-force-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC), which led to development of the anti-G suit. The establishment of norms and training for G-LOC prevention resulted in a gradual decline in reports of animal experiments on G load, a decline that steepened with the establishment of anti-G techniques in humans, such as special breathing methods and skeletal muscle contraction, called an anti-G straining maneuver, which are voluntary physiological functions...
November 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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